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  • 1. Chapter 5 Consumer Perception Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

2. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-2 Opening Vignette Good Carbs, Bad Carbs Pasta, white bread, beer are bad carbs Beer is perceived as high in bad carbs Only 11 to 17 gms per bottle Consumers overestimate carbs in beer Perceptions have to change Labatts campaign 3. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-3 Perception The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world How we see the world around us 4. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-4 Elements of Perception Elements of Perception Absolute threshold Differential threshold Differential threshold 5. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-5 Sensation The immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli. A perfectly unchanging environment provides little to no sensation at all! 6. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-6 Differential Threshold or j.n.d The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli 7. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-7 Webers Law the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different 8. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-8 Marketing Applications of the JND Need to determine the relevant j.n.d. for their products so that negative changes are not readily discernible to the public so that product improvements are very apparent to consumers 9. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-9 Subliminal Perception Perception of very weak or rapid stimuli received below the level of conscious awareness 10. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-10 Subliminal Perception 1957: Drive-In Movie Theater 1974: Publication of Subliminal Seduction 1990s: Allegations against Disney den/popcorn.htm 11. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-11 Is Subliminal Persuasion Effective? Extensive research has shown no evidence that subliminal advertising can cause behaviour changes Some evidence that subliminal stimuli may influence affective reactions 12. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-12 Aspects of Perception Selection Organization Interpretation 13. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-13 Perceptual Selection Conscious and unconscious screening of stimuli 14. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-14 Perceptual Selection Depends on three major factors Consumers previous experience Consumers motives Nature of the stimulus 15. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-15 Concepts Concerning Selective Perception GestaltGestalt PsychologyPsychology Selective Exposure Selective Attention Perceptual Defense Perceptual Blocking 16. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-16 Perceptual Selection Contd Selective exposure Consumers actively choose stimuli that they want to see Selective attention Consumers decide how much attention they will pay to a stimulus 17. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-17 Perceptual Selection Contd Perceptual defence Consumers screen out psychologically threatening stimuli Perceptual blocking tuning out of stimuli 18. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-18 19. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-19 Principles of Perceptual Organization Figure and ground Definition of figure depends on the background Grouping Information is organized into chunks Closure Incomplete stimuli create tension 20. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-20 Influences of Perceptual Distortion Physical Appearances Stereotypes First Impressions Jumping to Conclusions Halo Effect 21. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-21 Issues In Consumer Imagery Product Positioning and Repositioning Perceived Price Perceived Quality Price-Quality Relationship Perceived Risk 22. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-22 Positioning Establishing a specific image for a brand in relation to competing brands 23. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-23 Positioning Techniques Umbrella Positioning Positioning Against Competition Positioning Based on a Specific Benefit Conveying a Product Benefit Taking an Un-owned Position Positioning for Several Positions Repositioning 24. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-24 25. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-25 Perceptual Mapping A research technique that enables marketers to plot graphically consumers perceptions concerning product attributes of specific brands. 26. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-26 Research Insight Attribute-based approach Identify attributes that consumers use Rate brands on these attributes Identify ideal level of these attributes 27. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-27 Research Insight 28. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-28 Internet Insight Non-attribute-based approach List all brands; identify all pairs Arrange pairs in order of similarity Identify underlying dimensions 29. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-29 Research Insight 30. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-30 Pricing Strategies Focused on Perceived Value Satisfaction-based Pricing Relationship Pricing Efficiency Pricing 31. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-31 Issues in Perceived Price Reference prices Internal External Tensile and objective price claims 32. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-32 Tensile and Objective Price Claims Evaluations least favorable for ads stating the minimum discount level Ads stating maximum discount levels are better than stating a range 33. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-33 Perceived Quality Perceived Quality of Products Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Cues Perceived Quality of Services Price/Quality Relationship 34. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-34 Price/Quality RelationshipPrice/Quality Relationship The perception of price as an indicator of product quality (e.g., the higher the price, the higher the perceived quality of the product). 35. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-35 (continued) 36. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-36 Figure 5-9 (continued) 37. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-37 Perceived Risk The degree of uncertainty perceived by the consumer as to the consequences (outcomes) of a specific purchase decision High-risk perceivers are narrow categorizers Limit their choices to safe alternatives Low-risk perceivers are broad categorizers Wide range of alternatives preferred 38. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-38 Types of Risk Functional Risk Physical Risk Financial Risk Psychological Risk Time Risk 39. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-39 How Consumers Handle Risk Seek Information Stay Brand Loyal Select by Brand Image Rely on Store Image Buy the Most Expensive Model Seek Reassurance 40. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-40 Perception and Marketing Strategy Make perceptual selection work in your favour Increase accidental exposure Use the j.n.d Draw attention to your ad using contrast and other principles Find creative ways to reduce blocking continued 41. Copyright 2006 Pearson 5-41 Perception and Marketing Strategy Ensure that consumers organize and interpret messages correctly Develop suitable consumer imagery Find ways to reduce perceived risk