Schiff Cb Ce 12

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Chapter 12 Reference Groups and Family

Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/DasCopyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

What is a Group? Two

or more people who interact to accomplish either individual or mutual goals

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Reference Group

A person or group that serves as a point of comparison (or reference) for an individual in the formation of either general or specific values, attitudes, or behaviour.

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Types of Reference Groups Classified by: Membership Symbolic

Extent of interaction Direct versus indirect

Nature of attraction Aspirational versus dissociative

Degree of formality Formal versus informalCopyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Types of Reference Group Influence

Informational Influence When a member of reference group provides information used to make purchase decisions

Normative Influence When we conform to group norms in order to belong to that group

Identification Influence When we identify with, and internalize, a groups values and behavioursCopyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Factors Encouraging Conformity: A Reference Group Must ...

Inform or make the individual aware of a specific product or brand Provide the individual with the opportunity to compare his or her own thinking with the attitudes and behaviour of the group Influence the individual to adopt attitudes and behaviour that are consistent with the norms of the group Legitimize the decision to use the same products as the groupCopyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Selected Consumer-Related Reference Groups

Friendship groups Shopping groups Work groups Virtual groups or communities Brand communities Consumer-action groups celebritiesCopyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Reference Groups and Marketing Strategy

Recognize the extent of reference group influence in a situation Identify the most effective type of reference group influence Identify possible reference group members to use in promotions Attempt to increase reference group influenceCopyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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HouseholdsFamily Households: Married couple, Nuclear family, Extended family Households Non-Family Households: Unmarried couples, Friends/ Roommates, BoardersCopyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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The Typical Household?

Canada: Nuclear family Thailand: Extended family USA: Not married, no children

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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The Family Life Cycle

Traditional Family Life Cycle Stage I: Bachelorhood Stage II: Honeymooners Stage III: Parenthood Stage IV: Post-parenthood Stage V: Dissolution

Modifications - the Nontraditional FLCCopyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Figure 12-6 Noteworthy Nontraditional FLC StagesAlternative FLC Stages Family Households Childless couples It is increasingly acceptable for married couples to elect not to have children. Contributing forces are more career-oriented married women and delayed marriages. Definition/Commentary

Couples who marry later in More career-oriented men and women and greater life (in their late 30s or later) occurrence of couples living together. Likely to have fewer or even no children. Couples who have first child Likely to have fewer children. Stress quality lifestyle: later in life (in their late 30s Only the best is good enough or later)Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Figure 12-6 (continued)Alternative FLC Stages Family Households Single parents I Definition/Commentary High divorce rates (about 50%) contribute to a portion of single-parent households

Single parents IISingle parents III

Young man or woman who has one or more children out of wedlock.A single person who adopts one or more children.

Extended family

Young single-adult children who return home to avoid the expenses of living alone while establishing their careers. Divorced daughter or son and grandchild(ren) return home to parents. Frail elderly parents who move in with children. Newlyweds living with in-laws.

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Figure 12-6 (continued)Alternative FLC Stages Nonfamily Households Unmarried couples Divorced persons (no children) Single persons (most are young) Widowed persons (most are elderly) Increased acceptance of heterosexual and homosexual couples. High divorce rate contributes to dissolution of households before children are born. Primarily a result of delaying first marriage; also, men and women who never marry. Longer life expectancy, especially for women; means more over-75 single-person households. Definition/Commentary

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Dynamics of Husband-Wife Decision Making

Husband-Dominated

Wife-Dominated

Joint

Equal Syncratic

Autonomic Solitary Unilateral

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Consumer Socialization

The process by which children acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers.

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Other Functions of the Family

Economic well-being Emotional support Suitable family lifestyles

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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Family and Marketing Strategy

Use the FLC for segmentation and positioning Recognize the diverse consumption roles within the family Understand and use the dynamics of husband-wife decision making Understand and use the consumer socialization role played by the family Recognize the changing nature of Canadian families.Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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