Schiff chb ce_13

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)




<ul><li> 1. Chapter 13Consumer Influence and theDiffusion of InnovationsConsumer BehaviourCanadian EditionSchiffman/Kanuk/DasCopyright 2006Pearson Education Canada Inc.</li></ul> <p> 2. Opinion Leadership The process by which one person (theopinion leader) informally influences theconsumption actions or attitudes of otherswho may be opinion seekers or opinionrecipientsCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-2 3. What is Opinion Leadership?Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-3OpinionLeaderOpinionReceiverOpinionSeeker 4. Special Issues Opinion leaders are four times more likely tobe asked about political issues, three timesmore likely to be asked about computers orinvestments, and twice as likely to be askedabout restaurants Information seekers seek a strong-tiesource when they know little about a topic,and weak-tie sources when they have someknowledgeCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-4 5. Purchase Pals and SurrogateCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-5Buyers Purchase Pals Information sources who accompany aconsumer on a shopping trip Surrogate Buyers Professional buyers who help consumers withtheir purchases 6. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.(continued)13-6 7. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-7Figure 13-1 (continued) 8. MMaarrkkeett MMaavveenn Individuals whose influence stems from ageneral knowledge or market expertise thatleads to an early awareness of new productsand services.Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-8 9. Motivations Behind OpinionCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-9Leadership The Needs of Opinion Leaders To reduce their own post-purchase dissonance For tangential personal benefits Because of high levels of product involvement Because of message involvement continued 10. Motivations Behind OpinionCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-10Leadership Motivations of Opinion Seekers To obtain new product or new usageinformation To reduce their risk by getting knowledge To reduce search time To receive the approval of the opinion leader 11. Reasons for the Effectiveness ofOpinion Leadership Credibility Positive and Negative Product Information Information and Advice Opinion Leadership Is Category-Specific Opinion Leadership Is a Two-way StreetCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-11 12. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-12 13. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-13 14. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-14 15. The Interpersonal Flow ofCommunication Two-Step Flow A communication model that portrays opinionleaders as direct receivers of information frommass media sources who, in turn, interpret andtransmit this information. Multi-step Flow A revision of the traditional two-step theorythat shows multiple communication flowsCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-15 16. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-16 17. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-17 18. Measuring Opinion LeadershipCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-18SELF-DESIGNATINGMETHODDo you influenceother people in theirselection ofproducts?Each respondent is asked aseries of questions todetermine the degree to whichhe or she perceives himself orherself to be an opinion leader.OOPPIINNIIOONN LLEEAADDEERRSSHHIIPPMMEEAASSUURREEMMEENNTTMMEETTHHOODDSSAAMMPPLLEEDDEESSCCRRIIPPTTIIOONN OOFF MMEETTHHOODD QQUUEESSTTIIOONNSS AASSKKEEDDSOCIOMETRICMETHODMembers of a social system areasked to identify to whom theygive advice and to whom theygo for advice.Whom do youask?Who asks youfor info about thatproduct category? 19. Measuring Opinion LeadershipCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-19-continuedOOPPIINNIIOONNLLEEAADDEERRSSHHIIPPMMEEAASSUURREEMMEENNTTMMEETTHHOODDSSAAMMPPLLEEQQUUEESSTTIIOONNSSAASSKKEEDDDDEESSCCRRIIPPTTIIOONN OOFF MMEETTHHOODDKEY INFORMANTMETHODWho are the mostinfluential people inthe group?Carefully selected key informants ina social system are asked todesignate opinion leaders.Artificially places individuals in aposition to act as opinion leadersand measures results of their efforts.Have you tried theproduct?OBJECTIVEMETHOD 20. Opinion Leadership andMarketing Strategy Identify and provide samples to opinionleaders Design programs to stimulate opinionleadership Develop ads simulating opinion leadership Create opinion leaders Control negative word-of-mouthcommunicationCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-20 21. DDiiffffuussiioonn PPrroocceessss The process by which the acceptance of aninnovation is spread by communication tomembers of social system over a period oftime.Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-21 22. AAddooppttiioonn PPrroocceessss The stages through which an individualconsumer passes in arriving at a decision totry (or not to try), to continue using (ordiscontinue using) a new product.Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-22 23. Defining InnovationsCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-23 Firm-oriented definitions Product-oriented definitions Market-oriented definitions Consumer-oriented definitions 24. Product-Oriented DefinitionsCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-24ContinuousInnovationDynamicallyContinuousInnovationDiscontinuousInnovation 25. Factors That Affect the DiffusionCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-25of Innovations The Innovation The Channels of Communication The Social System Time 26. Product Characteristics ThatInfluence DiffusionCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-26 Relative Advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Observability Felt Need Risk 27. Social System and Diffusion Does the target market have: A positive attitude towards change? Technological skill? A general respect for education and science? A focus on rational and ordered socialrelationship? An outreach perspective? The ability to accept different roles?Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-27 28. Time and DiffusionCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-28 Purchase Time Adopter Categories Rate of Adoption 29. AAddoopptteerr CCaatteeggoorriieess A sequence of categories that describes howearly (or late) a consumer adopts a newproduct in relation to other adopters.Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-29 30. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-30 31. Innovators: Description 2.5% of population Venturesome Very eager to try new ideas Acceptable if risk is daring More cosmopolite social relationships Communicates with other innovatorsCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-31 32. Early Adopters: Description 13.5% of population Respected More integrated into the local social system The persons to check with before adopting a newidea Category contains greatest number of opinionleaders Are role modelsCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-32 33. Early Majority: Description 34% of population Deliberate Adopt new ideas just prior to the average time Seldom hold leadership positions Deliberate for some time before adoptingCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-33 34. Late Majority: Description 34% of population Skeptical Adopt new ideas just after the average time Adopting may be both an economic necessity anda reaction to peer pressures Innovations approached cautiouslyCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-34 35. Laggards: Description 16% of population Traditional The last people to adopt an innovation Most localite in outlook Oriented to the past Suspicious of the newCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-35 36. Rate of Adoption Insert Figure 13-16 A, B and C as smallgraphs; if that is not possible, then have oneor two of them.Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-36 37. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-37 38. Copyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-38 39. The Profile of a ConsumerCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-39Innovator Interest in the Product Category The Innovator Is an Opinion Leader Personality Traits Purchase and consumption characteristics Media Habits Social Characteristics Demographic Characteristics Are There Generalized Consumer Innovators? 40. Diffusion Process and MarketingCopyright 2006 PearsonEducation Canada Inc.13-40Strategy Identify diffusion inhibitors and find waysto compensate for these Identify innovators and early adopters andcater to them Move consumers from awareness toadoption Make effective use of word-of-mouthcommunications </p>