Organizational Commitment - I/O Psychology

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OC can be defined as the relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization.

Text of Organizational Commitment - I/O Psychology

  • 1. CP 6515 Industrial and Organization PsychologyOrganization CommitmentByMs. xxxxxxxx. Id. 481 - xxxx

2. Organization Commitment (OC) is the second most frequently studied attitude in the workplace, but it has captured much less attention than job satisfaction. can be defined as the relative strength of an individuals identification with and involvement in a particular organization.John Meyer and Natalie Allen conceptualize commitment as having three components of OC as1. Affective commitment - a strong belief in and acceptance of the organizations goals and values - a willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization - a strong desire to remain a part of the organization. This component can be thought of as the employees emotional attachment to the organization I Iwould be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization 3. Right now, staying with my organization is aa matter of necessity as much as desire.Right now, staying with my organization is matter of necessity as much as desire. 2. Continuance Commitment- has to do with the costs that associated with leaving theorganizationThis component is- sometime referred to as sunk-costs commitment,because it concerns attachment to an organization as a function of what the employee has sunk into it.- might have continuance commitment because to leave theorganization would cost her a great deal in retirement earningsand other benefits that come with seniority. 3. Normative Commitment - reflects ones obligation to continue employment with the organization to continue employment with the organization.This component is- sometimes called moral commitment - individuals tend to believe that they ought to stay with thecompany regardless of what it offers them. I I do not feel any obligation to remain with my current employer. do not feel any obligation to remain with my current employer. 4. Affective Commitment arises from favorable experiences on the job. Affective Commitment arises from favorable experiences on the job.Continuance is produced by the investments in the job and the difficulty in finding Continuance is produced by the investments in the job and the difficulty in findinganother job. another job.Normative commitment derives from aasense of obligation either Normative commitment derives from sense of obligation either Job Condition Job ConditionAffective Affective Met ExpectationsCommitment Commitment Met Expectations Benefits Accrued Benefits AccruedContinuance Continuance Commitment CommitmentJob AvailableJob AvailablePersonal ValuesPersonal Values NormativeNormative Commitment CommitmentFelt ObligationsFelt Obligations 5. AntecedentsOrganizational Mechanisms The little things that organizations seem to be doingthese days to get employees committed to the company, such as - company stores: sell product with the company logoemblazoned all over them.- the use of logos and insignias on merchandise for employees and their children may serve various purposes, but one is clearly to increases the commitment of employees.- news letters can also increase the strength ofemployees identification with or involvement in the organization. 6. - hearing about the charity work that the company has done, the new employees who have been hired The employees who are retiring after 30 years ofdistinguished service to the company, The companys goals and objectives over the next fiveyears, How the CEO is a great champion for the company inthe local communitycan all help to increase employees commitment to theorganization. 7. Framework for OC Antecedents ConsequencesOrganization Mechanisms1. Socialization + Performance2. Logos, insignias, 1. Taskprograms for family2. Contextualmembers3. Newsletters Withdrawal4. Reward systemsBehaviorsIndividual/PersonalOC OC1. AbsenteeismCharacteristics2. Lateness1. Age 3. Turnover2. Job level Counterproductive3. StressSocial Factors Behaviors1. Coworker relationships1. Theft2. Participation and social2. Sabotageinteraction3. Aggression3. Role variables4. Supervisory relationships 8. Antecedents Individual/personal Characteristics Individual differences- qualities- attitudes- beliefs- skills- These differences are often related to job attitudes such asorganizational commitment.- There is some indirect evidence demonstrating thatemployees are more likely to be normatively committed totheir organization than employees who do not report such abelief.- The implication is that this individual difference may havebeen developed by employees parents during child rearingand early socialization experiences. 9. AntecedentsSocial Factors revolve around social interactions and relationships, consistent antecedent of organizational commitment, are the nature and quality of the employee-supervisorrelationship.Role variables are similarly important antecedents, given consistent negative correlations between conceptslike role ambiguity and role conflict with organizational commitment. 10. Consequences The potential consequences of organizational commitment are divided into three categories.1. Performance any work related attitude will be more favorablyviewed by organizational practitioners if that attitude isdirectly related to job performance job satisfaction and performance outcome variables is not reasonable given the complexity of performance Hence, employees feelings about their organization may manifest themselves in terms of contextualbehaviors that are important to organizational functioning. 11. Consequences 2. Withdrawal Behaviors is affective commitment and absence appear to be correlated to a small but significant degree. In sum, individuals who are committed to the organization through an emotional attachment or amoral obligation tend not to search for jobs, intend tostay in their current jobs, and actually do remain withthe organization, whereas those who are committed due to sunk costs may have similar inclinations but therelationships are clearly not as consistent. 12. Consequences3. Counterproductive Behaviors emphasizes the role of frustration in the processsuggests a likely relationship between frustration and alack of commitment to the organization. indicate that the values and goals communicated by anorganization have a significant effect on the frequencyof counterproductive behaviors. Indeed, companies that espouse such organizationalvalues as treating employees with fairness,empowering employees, and demonstrating interpersonal cooperation report higher levels of trust than do companies that do not emphasize these values. 13. Additional Job Attitudes Job involvement the extent to which employees are cognitively engaged in their job.Work Centrality the degree of importance that work holds in oneslife. usually develops as a result of socialization, reflecting the nature of our individual role models as we grow and mature.One distinction between job involvement and work centrality is that the former focuses on ones particular job whereas the latterconcerns work in general. In particular, job insecurity had stronger effects on these outcomesfor individuals who were highly involved in their job. On the other hand, if you are not all that invested in your job tobegin with, job insecurity is not likely to be very relevant for youand, therefore, wont lead to negative outcomes 14. Future Issues and ChallengesSatisfaction seems to be caused by the interplay of job and person. Hence, personality will require looking at both the individual and the job conditions. The role ofjob satisfaction in health and well-being is an important question that needs attention. The possibility exists thatenhancing satisfaction might lead to healthier andbetter-adjusted people. It will become even more important to determine how job satisfaction can be improved. Finally, it has been recognized that demandson employees to display certain emotions can have bothpositive and negative effects. There is work to be done to better understand the effects of emotional labor onemployees and how such emotional displays affect customers, co-workers, and organizations.