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  • 1.Organizational Psychology.Focus of organizational working.

2. Organizational Psychology Use of broad psychological theories todiagnose and correct organizational problems Study of relationship between organizationsas well as Relationship of organizations to larger socialstructures such as society. Relationship of organizations to larger socialstructures such as society. Explains how 2 social concepts org andwork teams influence and shape the behaviorof their members . 3. Contd. Organizational psychology department is alsoresponsible for handling the hiring practices, trainingprogrammes and feedback systems. They help guidethe HR department to understand the behavior andattitudes of its employees. The psychologists try to gauge the problems that theemployees face and find ways to improve theirperformance. The organizational psychologists applythe principals of psychology to Human Resource. Theblend of the two can be beneficial for the company andits employees. 4. Contd. The psychologist deals with the human aspects of theworkplace and aim at improving peoples efficiency,and hence organizational effectiveness, through theirknowledge about human functioning. The major difference between organizationalpsychologist and HR consultant is that all the work ofthe Industrial-Organizational psychologist has to bebacked up by scientific evidence and statistics. Incontrast, HRM is essentially a business study whichemphasizes more on the practical side, with less focuson the scientific side. 5. 3 THEORIES OF ORGANISATIONS CLASSICAL THEORY begins with a statement of the basic ingredients of any org and then addresses how the org should best be structured to accomplish its objectives. Based on few components: system of differentiated activities People Cooperation towards goal Authority Functional Line/Staff and Span of Control principle. 6. Contd.. NEOCLASSICAL recognizes the behavioral/psychological issues that question the rigidnessof classical theory. SYSTEMS THEORY asserts that an org systemis composed of 5 parts Individuals Formal Organization Small groups Status & Role Physical setting. 7. Organization Structure. How job task are formallydivide,grouped,and coordinated. Key elements that define an organizationsstructure. Work specialization. Departmentalization. Chain of command. Span of control. Centralization and decentralization. Formalization. 8. ORGZTNAL STRUCTURE 5 coordinating mechanisms Mutual adjustment Direct Supervision Standardizations of work processes Standardizations of work output Standardization of skills and knowledge 5 basic parts of org Strategic Apex Middle line Techno structure Support staff 9. ContdSTRATEGIC APEX SUPPORT STAFF MIDDLE LINETECHNOSTRUCTUREOPERATING CORE 10. Components of Social System Roles- expectations of others about appropriate behaviorin a specific position: ROLE PERCEPTION-Role Identity,Role Overload, Role Overlap, Role Expectancy, RoleAmbiguity Norms-shared group expectations about appropriatebehavior wherein ought ness and should ness areprescriptions of behavior . 3 step process (i) define &communicate (ii) group monitor & judge whether normfollowed & (iii) reward conformity and punish nonconformity Culture-A groups developed method to cope withproblems of external adaptation & internalintegration-collective understanding 11. Role. ROLE IDENTITY-attitudes consistent with a role ROLE PERCEPTION-individuals view ROLE EXPECTATION-others view ROLE DYNAMICS IN ORGANISATION ROLE AMBIGUITY ROLE CONFLICT 12. Norms. CLASSIFICATION: -- PERFORMANCE, APPEARANCE,SOCIALARRANGEMENT CONFORMITY IN ACCORDANCE WITH REFERENCE GROUPS STATUS EQUITY & CULTUREConcept of Norms. NORMS AT INDIVIDUAL LEVEL-Rules of behavior NORMS AT GROUP LEVEL- Organized, sharedideas, regulations, sanctions. 13. Culture.. The way we do things here Dominant & coherent set of shared values,beliefs, systems ,symbols shared byemployees A groups developed method to cope withproblems of external adaptation & internalintegration-collective understanding. 14. What Is Organizational Culture?Cultures Functions:1. Defines the boundary between one organization and others.2. Conveys a sense of identity for its members.3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest.4. Enhances the stability of the social system. 15. BENEFITS /IMPACT ON BEHAVIOR REDUCED EMPLOYEE TURNOVER SENSE OF IDENTITY FACILITATES GENERATING ORG COMMITMENT >INDIVIDUAL SELF INTEREST ENHANCES SOCIAL SYSTEMSTABILITYSENSTIZATION & CONTROL MECHANISMTO SHAPE ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOR OFEMPLOYEES 16. Stages in the Socialization Process 17. How Employees Learn Culture StoriesStories RitualsRituals Material SymbolsMaterial Symbols LanguageLanguage 18. Organizational Psychology Group Behaviour. 19. Behavior. A word with different definition ..probably nosuch thing as absolute definition. -Manner of Acting and Behaving. -Psychology , Animal behavior. -Observable activity in a human or animal. -The aggregate of responses to internal and external stimuli. In short the ideas that lies in the core ofexplanation is of Stimulus and response. 20. Contd. Different people have different responsesto particular stimuli. In a given situation different people mayreact in a different way. Behavior = The some of all the personsvarying response style to varying stimuli. 21. Wait.N..Think.. Its not your aptitude but your attitudewhich decides your altitude.--Zig-Zaggler. It is possible to achieve almost anythingas long as you are not worried about whogets the credit.-- Harry S Truman. 22. Why to Join a GROUP..? It refers to the idea that two heads are betterthan one. Group are often capable of producing highquality work and better decision than can anindividual wok alone. Group is ready to take on large works than anindividual. With increased ability to perform work,Group canprovide ENCOURAGMENT and SUPPORT to itsmembers while working on a big project. 23. Types of Groups. Social Group.-Example of these groups wouldbe families and Social Groups. -These provide for our safety and Soliditaryneeds and they help us to developself-Esteem. Work Groups Work groups faction to achieve aparticular tasks.Task dimension is emphasizedand group members pool their expertise toaccomplish the task. Eg- work place ,campus ,organizations juries. 24. FIVE TYPES OF GROUP INTERACTIONSAVOIDANCE-INCOMPATIBLE GOALS & INTERACTION RELATIVELY UNIMPORTANT TO THE ATTAINMENT OF GROUP GOALS.ACCOMODATION-GROUP GOALS ARE COMPATIBLE BUT INTERACTION IS COMPARATIVELY UNIMPORTANT TO THEIR ATTAINMWENT.COMPETITION-GOALS OF INTERACTING GROUPS INCOMPATIBLE & INTERACTIONS ARE IMPORTANT TO ATTAINMENT OF EACH GROUP S GOALS.COLLABORATION-INTERACTION IS VERY IMPORTANT TO THE GROUPS GOAL ATTAINMENT & THE GOALS OF THE GROUP ARE COMPATIBLECOMPROMISE-INTERACTION IS MODERATELY IMPORTANT TO THE ATTAINMENT OF EACH GROUPS GOALS AND THE GOALS ARE NEITHER COMPLETELY COMPATIBLE NOR COMPLETELY INCOMPATIBLE 25. WHAT IS A TEAM Special kind of group-Problemsolving,sports or event management, R &D or Self-managed EFFECTIVENESS OF TEAM DEPENDS ON:1. TRAINING2. WILLINGNESS TO SHARE INFORMATION3. AUTHORITY GIVEN4. REWARD ALLOCATION 26. Team/Work Group. Goals/Objectives.--The commonGoal/objectives is always more than theindividual role. Working Together Team T- TogetherE- EveryoneA- AchievesM- More. 27. Tuckmans Group DevelopmentTheory. The Forming Storming Norming Performing It is a model of group development, firstproposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, whomaintained that these phases are all necessaryand inevitable in order for the team -- --to grow --to face up to challenges --to tackle problems, to find solutions --to plan work --to deliver results. This model has become the basis for subsequentmodels. 28. StagesTGDT Forming Group members learn about eachother and task at hand. Storming As group members become morecomfortable with each other they will engageeach other in arguments.These activity marksthe storming phase. Norming Group members establish implicit orexplicit the rules about how they will receive theirgoals. Performing group reach a conclusion andthen implement a conclusion. 29. WORK GROUPS & TEAM whats the difference? WG STRONG TEAM SHARED LEADERSHIPFOCUSED LEADER TEAM HAS INDIVIDUAL WG-INDIVIDUAL& MUTUALACCOUNTABILITY ACCOUNTABILITY TEAM HAS SPECIFIC WG-ORG GOALS PUROPOSE WG-INIVIDUAL TEAM COLLECTIVEWORK PRODUCTSWORK PRODUCTS 30. Characteristics of Group MEMBER TOLD WHAT TO DO RATHER THAN ASKED WHATTHE BEST APPROACH WOULD BE. MEMBERS DISTRUST MOTIVES OF COLLEAGUES AS THEYSO NOT UNDERSTAND ROLE OF OTHER MEMBERS.EXPRESSING OPINIONS/DISAGREEMENTS ARECONSIDERED DIVISIVE OR UNSUPPORTIVE. MEMBERS CAUTIOUS. MEMBERS MAY RECEIVE GOOD TRAINING BUT ARELIMITED IN APPLYING IT TO THE JOB BY SUPERVISOR OROTHER GROUP MEMBERS. MEMBERS FIND THEMSELVES IN CONFLICT SITUATIONSTHAT THEY DO NOT KNOW HOW TO RESOLVE.SUPERVISOR MAY PUT OFF INTERVENTION UNTILSERIOUS DAMAGE IS DONE. MEMBERS MAY OR MAY NOT PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONSAFFECTING THE TEAM. CONFORMITY OFTEN APPEARSMORE IMPORTANT THAN POSITIVE RESULTS. 31. Charc-of Group Centered Managers. OVERRIDING CONCERN TO MEET CURRENT GOALS INHIBITSALTERNATE METHODS OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS THROUGHREORGANISING. REACTIVE TO TOP MANGT INVOLVE MEMBERS IN PLANNING TO A LIMITED EXTENT. RESENT OR DISTRUST EMPLOYEES WHO KNOW THEIR JOBSBETTER THAN THE MANAGER. SEES GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING AS A WASTE OF TIME,ORAN ABDICATION OF MANAGERIAL RESPONSIBILITY. CONTROLS INFO & COMMUNICATES ONLY WHAT THEY NEEDTO KNOW. IGNORES CONFLICT BET STAFF MEMBERS /OTHERS SOMETIMES SLOW TO RECOGNISE INDIVIDUAL OR GROUPACHIEVEMENTS SOMETIMES MODIFIES GROUP AGREEMENTS TO SUITPERSONAL CONVENIENCE. 32. Features of Team Work. Role. Leadership Shared Values Dependability Communication 33. Features. Role - All team members play a vital rolewhere they add value with their contribution. Leadership Strong leadership is vital toteam success give the team direction andconfidence. Shared Values Shared values & belief holda team together. Vision/Mission/Values/Culture. 34. Contd..They define and give Identity to the team. Dependability Members must be able tocount on each other when it reallymatters. Communication Interaction fuelsaction.Members must be able tocommunicate with each otherfreely.Communication must beconstructive. 35. Chalres Plumbs Parachutes Charles Plumb was a navy jet pilot. On his seventy-sixth combat mission, he was shot down and parachuted into enemy territory. He was captured and spent six years in prison. He survived and now lectures on the lessons he learned from his experiences. One day, a man in approached Plumb and his wife in a restaurant, and said, "Are you Plumb the navy pilot?" "Yes, how did you know?" asked Plumb. "I packed your parachute," the man replied. Plumb was amazed - and grateful: "If the chute you packed hadnt worked I wouldnt be here today..." Plumb refers to this in his lectures: his realization that the anonymous sailors who packed the parachutes held the pilots lives in their hands, and yet the pilots never gave these sailors a second thought; never even said hello, let alone said thanks. Now Plumb asks his audiences, "Who packs your parachutes?..... Who helps you through your life?.... Physically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually?....... Think about who helps you; recognize them and say thanks." ~author unknown 36. The link in the Chain The strength of the Group is implicated byits weakest link.. THE BAD APPLE Bad attitude ruins a GROUP. 37. Organizational Processes 38. Organizational Processes. Organizational processes are the systematic way acompany defines, organizes and implements itsoperations through the stages of the product life cycle. "Organization Processes" are those flows of activitythat must link together for you to be successful. This can include strategic measures to improve businessperformance, proprietary models and intellectualproperty that contribute to an organizations goals andobjectives. Process improvement is closely related to life cyclemanagement. 39. Contd. A company continually works towards organizationalprocess improvement to enhance its bottom line. At anystage of a companies operations, the analysis of inputsand outputs can be audited, assessed and gradedaccording to a set of performance requirements. Improving productivity, minimizing costs, reducing socialcosts and environmental emissions form part of theprocess of improvement Organizational processes adapt according to thechanging goals and objectives of the company andmarket conditions. 40. Stages of Orgztnl.Process Embryonic Stage Developmental stage Implemental Phase. 41. Embryonic Stage The embryonic stage of a companiesorganizational process is the group ofactivities related to defining and analyzingthe initial requirements of the product orservice. Process improvement at this level seeksto make best use of the companiesresources to establish the initial foundationthat will constitute the mandate thecompany operates from. 42. Developmental stage The development stage of the product lifecycle is where the organization ofresources in preparation for theimplementation of the companiesbusiness objectives take place. 43. Implemental Phase. The implementation phase oforganizations processes is the integrationof the companies core business activities.Streamlining operational efficiency canhelp accelerate the manufacture ordistribution of the product. Strategicinitiatives to capitalize on the growth stageof the product life cycle allow a companyto build a greater market share. 44. Types of Orgztnl Procss. Organizational Change. Organizational Development. 45. Organizational Change .. Organizational change is the term used to describe thetransformation process that a company goes through inresponse to a strategic reorientation, restructure, change inmanagement, merger or acquisition or the development ofnew goals and objectives for the company. The realignment of resources and the redeployment of capitalcan bring many challenges during the transformation processand organizational change An alteration of an organizations environment, structure,culture, technology, or people A constant force An organizational reality An opportunity or a threat 46. Process / Forms Process of changes in the organization to achieve certain goal Effectiveness Efficiency etc Forms of change. Radical change. -- Change that results in a major overhaul (To examine or go over carefully for needed repairs or dismantle in order to make repairs) of the organization or its component systems. Incremental change. Also known as frame-bending change. Change that is part of the organizations natural evolution. 47. Forces for Change Internal Forces. External Forces. Strategy modifications New equipment Competition Laws and New processesregulations Workforce composition New technologies Job restructuring Labor market shifts Compensation and Business cyclesbenefits Social change Labor surpluses and shortages Employee attitude 48. A Nine-step Process For Leading Organizational Change1. Create a Sense of Urgency2. Decide What to Change3. Create a Guiding Coalition and Mobilize Commitment4. Develop and Communicate a Shared Vision5. Empower Employees to Make the Change6. Generate Short-Term Wins7. Consolidate Gains and Produce More Change8. Anchor the New Ways of Doing Things in the Company Culture9. Monitor Progress and Adjust the Vision as Required 49. Resistance to Change General uncertainty about changes Resistance to change. Any attitude or behavior that indicatesunwillingness to make or support a desired change. Power and politics in the organization Mechanistic structure 50. Why people resist change? Fear of the unknown. Lack of good information. Fear for loss of security. No reason to change. Fear for loss of power. Lack of resources. 51. What can be done? Education and communication. Participation and involvement. Provide support. Negotiation and agreement. Manipulation and cooptation. 52. Remedies.Education. Communicate to people about change prior toimplementation to help them understand thelogic of change. Use when people lack information or haveinaccurate information. - Advantage creates willingness to help with thechange. Disadvantage can be very time consuming. 53. Contd..Participation Allows people to help design and implementthe changes. Use when other people have importantinformation and/or power to resist. Advantages adds information to changeplanning; builds commitment to change. Disadvantage can be very time consuming. 54. Contd..Support Use when resistance traces to resource oradjustment problems. Provides emotional and material assistance forpeople experiencing the hardships of change. Advantage directly satisfies specific resourceoradjustment needs. Disadvantages can be time consuming; canbeexpensive. 55. ContdNegotiation Give incentives to actual or potential changeresistors. Use when a person or group will losesomething because of the change. Advantage helps avoid major resistance. Disadvantages can be expensive; can causeothers to seek similar deals. 56. Contd.Manipulation Use covert attempts to influence others byselectively providing information andconsciously structuring events. Use when other methods dont work or are tooexpensive. Advantages can be quick and inexpensive. Disadvantage can create future problems ifpeople sense manipulation. 57. Finally .OC..Involves.. Organizational change can impact thepsychological, emotional and physical states ofcompanies employees. Many people experiencecomfort zones and develop barriers during theirdaily lives. A change in company operations can challenge andstress peoples values and central core beliefs.Dealing with behavioral and cultural changes is partof the organizational change process and animportant consideration for change managementprofessionals. Adopting new company procedures and practicescan require the development of new educationprograms to assist with aligning people to new 58. Organizational Development. Organizational Development (OD) An approach to organizational change in which theemployees themselves formulate the change thatsrequired and implement it, usually with the aid of atrained consultant. Aimed at enabling employees to develop a betterunderstanding of their own and others behaviors forthe purpose of improving that behavior such that theorganization benefits Purpose is to increase participants insight into theirown behavior and that of others by encouraging anopen expression of feelings in a trainer-guided group. 59. Why OD.? Most Citied reason for beginning changeprogramme.- Level of competion Survial Improved performance. 60. Features of OD. Planned Change - also called as changeintervention. Comprehensive change- Generally involve the totalsystem or entire organization. Emphasis upon work groups.-Although OD areaimed at individuals. Long Range change- It takes months or years toimplement. Emphasis on intervention-Active intervention ofchange agents in the ongoing activities of anorganization. 61. Contd.. Collaborative Management.-Collaboration at all levels. Organizational Culture-Every orgnztn isfrom one another,hence culture of eachorgnztn should be understood. Action Research- Identifyingorganizations specific problems gatheringand analyzing orgnaztn data takingactions to reduce the problem.