1. Organizational Commitment an identification with the goals and values of the organisation, a desire to belong to the organisation and a willingness to display effort on behalf of the organisation. It is recognised as the key factor in employee- employer relationship
2. Discussion Question What creates a desire to remain a member of an organization?
3. Feelings ..
4. Job satisfaction What one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Factors which affects Job Satisfaction : degree of autonomy, working conditions, equitable rewards, opportunities to grow etc.. Outcomes : more productivity, less absenteeism, less turn over, and more org effectiveness
5. Motivation Motivation is a process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. Motivated employees help organizations to survive and it becomes more productive
6. Types of Commitment (Mayer & Allen Theory) Affective commitment Continuance commitment Normative commitment
7. Three Types ofOrganizational Commitment
8. Drivers of Overall Organization Commitment
9. Affective Commitment Employees who feel a sense of affective commitment identify with the organization, accept that organizations goals and values, and are more willing to exert extra effort on behalf of the organization.
10. Continuance Commitment Continuance commitment exists when there is a profit associated with staying and a cost associated with leaving. Tends to create a more passive form of loyalty.
11. Normative Commitment The sense that people should stay with their current employers may result from personal work philosophies or more general codes of right and wrong developed over the course of their lives. Build a sense of obligation-based commitment among employees.
12. Discussion Questions Which type of organizational commitment (affective, continuance, or normative) do you think is most important to the majority of employees? Which do you think is most important to you?
13. Employees who are not committed to their organizations engage in withdrawal behavior
14. Psychological and Physical Withdrawal
15. Withdrawal Behaviors Exit : Exit is a form of physical withdrawal in which the employee either ends or restricts organizational membership. Voice : Voice is an active and constructive response by which employees attempt to improve the situation. Loyalty : Loyalty is passive and constructive; employees remain supportive while hoping the situation improves on its own. Neglect : Neglect is a form of psychological withdrawal in which interest and effort in the job decreases
16. Conclusion Downsizing makes it more challenging to retain valued employees. The turnover cost would be so high for the organization. The turnover and recruitment cost for a mid-level manager according to national averages is estimated as $ 64000
17. Potential Effects: Turnover Activity CostNewspaper ads $8,000Search firm fees $10,000Interview costs $4,000Managerial time $4,000Work put on hold $2,000Overload on team $4,000Training for new $6,000employee
18. Potential Effects: Turnover Activity CostLost contracts, $8,000customers, and oraccountsLowered office morale $2,000Loss of other $3,000employeesSigning bonus & other $6,000perksRelocation expense $7,000The Final Tab $64,000
19. From an affective commitment perspective, employer strategies could center on increasing the bonds that link employees together. From a continuance commitment perspective, the priority should be to create a salary and benefits package that creates a financial need to stay. From a normative commitment perspective, the employer can provide various training and development opportunities for employees. If withdrawal behaviors occur, stop the progression in its early stages.
20. Employee commitment in IT sector The overall Job satisfaction was measured using the 15-item questionnaire Job security, interest, opportunity for advancement, appreciation, company policy and management practises... intrinsic aspects of job, salary, supervision, social aspects of job, Working conditions, communication, hours, ease, bene fits ,and fair treatment
21. organizational commitment was measured using the revised Organizational Commitment Scales (Meyer, Allen and Smith 1993) that is, The Affective Commitment Scale (ACS), the Continuance Commitment Scale (CCS) and the Normative Commitment Scale (NCS)
22. Findings of the survey The level of organizational commitment was moderate, with relatively higher variability in affective commitment. The employees are staying back with the organization because of the cost of leaving the organisation IT employees were showing only a moderate level of job satisfaction.
23. highest satisfaction levels were related to the social aspects of the job, working conditions (excluding working hours), interest (from intrinsic aspects of the job), job security, communication, and ease of the job (as an intrinsic aspect of the job) lowest satisfaction levels for working hours, supervision, appreciation from management, and salary i.e. employees are dissatisfied with the working hours, supervision, appreciation from management and the salary they are getting.
24. The most important motivational factors for IT employees were good wages, promotion/growth, job security, interesting work, and appreciation of work. Correlation : job satisfaction vs affective commitment and normative Positive This indicates that higher the level of job satisfaction greater the level of affective commitment and normative commitment
25. Organizational commitment was highest for IT professionals in the 40 - 50 yr. age group. In particular, commitment was lowest for IT professionals in the 30 - 40 yr age group no significant difference in organizational commitment between men and women IT professionals But significant difference in commitment between married and single IT professionals.
26. If an IT organization can give importance to salary, benefits, fair treatment, opportunities and supervision it can reduce employee turnover and can increase affective commitment of its employees. The most important challenge of an organization is to retain the talented work force. It should motivate the employees which results in better job satisfaction and thereby improve the organizational commitment