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Đề thi thử và đáp án chi tiết môn Hóa học số 3 - Megabook.vn

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  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 1

    MEGABOOK S 3 Mn: HA HC

    Thi gian lm bi: 90 pht( 50 cu trc nghim)

    Cho nguyn t khi : H = 1; C = 12; N = 14; O = 16; Na = 23; Mg = 24; Al = 27; P = 31; S = 32; Cl = 35,5;

    Br = 80; K = 39; Ca = 40; Cr = 52; Mn = 55; Fe = 56; Ni = 58; Cu = 64; Zn = 65; Rb = 85; Ag = 108; Sn =

    119; I = 127; Cs = 133; Ba = 137; Pb = 207.

    Cu 1: X l mt hp cht c cng thc phn t C6H10O5 tha mn cc phng trnh phn ng sau:

    X + 2NaOH t0

    2Y + H2O; Y + HCl(long) Z + NaCl

    Hy cho bit khi cho 0,15 mol Z tc dng vi Na d thu c bao nhiu mol H2?

    A. 0,15 mol. B. 0,075 mol. C. 0,1 mol. D. 0,2 mol.

    Cu 2: Tm mnh sai trong cc mnh v nguyn t sau y?

    A. Trong nguyn t, nu bit in tch ht nhn c th suy ra s proton, ntron, electron trong nguyn t

    y.

    B. Mt nguyn t ha hc c th c nhng nguyn t vi khi lng khc nhau.

    C. Nguyn t l mt h trung ha in.

    D. Nguyn t l phn t nh b nht ca cht, khng b phn chia trong phn ng ha hc.

    Cu 3: Hn hp X gm anken A v ankin B :

    - Bit 50 ml X phn ng ti a vi 80 ml H2 (cc th tch o cng iu kin).

    - t chy m gam hn hp X ri hp th sn phm chy bng dung dch nc vi trong thy c 25g

    kt ta v khi lng dung dch gim 7,48 g so vi ban u, khi thm tip lng d KOH vo thu c

    thm 5 g kt ta. CTPT ca A v B ln lt l

    A. C2H4 v C2H2 B. C3H6 v C3H4

    C. C4H8 v C4H6 D. C3H6 v C4H6.

    Cu 4: Cho cc dung dch (dung mi H2O) sau: H2N-CH2-COOH; HOOC-CH2-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH;

    H2N-CH2-COOK; HCOOH; ClH3N-CH2-COOH. S dung dch lm qu tm i mu l:

    A. 4 B. 3 C. 6 D. 5

    Cu 5: S to thch nh trong cc hang ng vi l qu trnh ha hc din ra trong hang ng hng triu

    nm. Phn ng ha hc din t qu trnh l

    A. MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O Mg(HCO3)2

    B. Ca(HCO3) CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O

    C. CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ca(HCO3)2

    D. CaO + CO2 CaCO3

    Cu 6: Khi iu ch kim loi kim Na ngi ta thng dng

    A. in phn nng chy NaOH.

    B. in phn nng chy NaOH hoc NaCl.

    C. Cho hn hp rn gm NaCl v K nung nng.

    D. in phn nng chy NaCl.

    Cu 7: X c cng thc phn t C3H12N2O3. X tc dng vi dung dch NaOH ( un nng nh ) hoc HCl c

    kh thot ra. Ly 18,6 gam X tc dng hon ton vi 400 ml dung dch NaOH 1M. Sau phn ng c cn

    dung dch ri nung nng cht rn n khi lng khng i th c m gam. Xc nh gi tr ca m

    A. 22,75 B. 19,9 C. 20,35 D. 21,2

    Cu 8: Gang v thp l nhng hp kim ca st c rt nhiu ng dng trong cng nghip v i sng. Gang

    v thp c nhng im khc bit no sau y l khng ng ?

    A. Thp do v bn hn gang.

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 2

    B. iu ch gang thng t qung hematit, cn iu ch thp t qung pirit st.

    C. Hm lng cacbon trong gang cao hn trong thp.

    D. Gang gin v cng hn thp.

    Cu 9: bo v vt bng st, ngi ta m Ni b ngoi vt bng cch in phn dung dch mui Ni2+

    vi

    in cc catot l vt cn m, anot l mt in cc lm bng Ni. in phn vi cng dng in 1,93

    ampe trong thi gian 20.000s. Tnh b dy lp m nu din tch ngoi ca vt l 2 dm2; t trng ca Ni l 8,9

    g/cm3.

    A. 0,066cm. B. 0,033cm. C. 0,066mm. D. 0,033mm.

    Cu 10: C hn hp bt X gm Al, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 (c cng s mol). em nung 41,9 gam hn hp X trong

    iu kin khng c khng kh thu c hn hp Y. Ha tan Y trong dung dch H2SO4 c, nng, d thu

    c V lt kh SO2 (l sn phm kh duy nht ktc). Gi tr V l

    A. 5,60 lt. B. 4,48 lt. C. 8,96 lt. D. 11,20 lt.

    Cu 11: Hn hp X gm: Fe(OH)2, Cu(OH)2, Ni(OH)2, Zn(OH)2, Al(OH)3, AgCl. Cho hn hp X vo dung

    dch NH3 d th c ti a bao nhiu cht tan ?

    A. 3. B. 5. C. 4. D. 2.

    Cu 12: Cho cc polime sau: PE, PVC, cao su buna, PS, amiloz, amilopectin, xenluloz, nha novolac,

    cao su lu ha, t nilon-7. S cht c cu to mch thng l

    A. 6 B. 7 C. 8 D. 9

    Cu 13: Cho cc nhn xt sau:

    A. Nitro benzen phn ng vi HNO3 c (xc tc H2SO4 c) to thnh m-initrobenzen.

    B. T nilon - 6,6; t nitron; t enang u c iu ch bng phn ng trng ngng.

    C. Vinyl axetat khng iu ch c trc tip t axit v ancol tng ng.

    D. Anilin phn ng vi nc brom d to thnh p-bromanilin.

    S nhn xt ng l

    A. 2. B. 3. C. 5. D. 4.

    Cu 14: C 2 cc A, B u cha 100 ml dung dch H2SO4 1M v mt cy inh st. Nh thm vo

    cc B vi git dung dch CuSO4. Tm pht biu khng ng trong s cc pht biu sau ?

    A. Bt kh thot ra trong cc A nhiu hn trong cc

    B. B. Qu trnh ha tan ca Fe trong cc B nhanh hn trong cc A.

    C. Trong cc B c bt kh H2 thot ra trn b mt ca Cu.

    D. Trong cc B c 1 dng electron di chuyn t Fe sang Cu lm pht sinh dng in.

    Cu 15: Thy phn hon ton 1 mol pentapeptit X mch h, thu c 1 mol valin (Val), 1 mol glyxin

    (Gly), 2 mol alanin (Ala) v 1 mol leuxin (Leu: axit 2-amino-4-metylpentanoic). Mt khc, nu thy phn

    khng hon ton X th thu c sn phm c cha Ala-Val-Ala. S cng thc cu to ph hp ca X l

    A. 7 B. 9 C. 6 D. 8

    Cu 16: Este X no, n chc, mch h, khng c phn ng trng bc. t chy 0,1 mol X ri

    cho sn phm chy hp th hon ton vo dung dch nc vi trong c cha 0,22 mol Ca(OH)2 th vn

    thu c kt ta. Thu phn X bng dung dch NaOH thu c 2 cht hu c c s nguyn t cacbon

    trong phn t bng nhau. Phn trm khi lng ca oxi trong X l

    A. 37,21%. B. 53,33%. C. 43,24%. D. 36,36%.

    Cu 17: Tinh ch NaCl t hn hp rn c ln cc tp cht CaCl2, MgCl2, Na2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4. Ngoi

    bc c cn dung dch, th t s dng thm cc ha cht l

    A. dd CaCl2; dd (NH4)2CO3. B. dd (NH4)2CO3; dd BaCl2.

    C. dd BaCl2; dd Na2CO3. D. dd BaCl2; dd (NH4)2CO3.

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 3

    Cu 18: Cho 400 gam dung dch NaOH 16% vo 500 gam dung dch FeCl3 16,25% n phn ng hon ton

    thu c dung dch X. Khi lng ring ca dung dch X bng 1,10 gam/cm3. Nng mol ca NaOH trong

    dung dch thu c c gi tr l

    A. 0,27M. B. 1,2M. C. 0,7M. D. 0,13M.

    Cu 19: Trong mt bnh nc cha 0,3 mol Na+; 0,5 mol Ca

    2+; 0,3 mol Mg

    2+; 1,5 mol HCO3

    -; 0,4 mol Cl

    -

    .C th dng ho cht no sau y lm mm nc trong bnh trn?

    A. Na2CO3. B. HCl. C. Ca(OH)2. D. Na2SO4.

    Cu 20: Cho hp cht hu c X c cng thc:

    H2N-CH(CH3)-CO-NH-CH2-CO-NH-CH2-CH2-CO-NH-CH(C6H5)-CO-NH-CH(CH3)-COOH.

    Nhn xt ng l

    A. Trong X c 2 lin kt peptit.

    B. Trong X c 4 lin kt peptit.

    C. X l mt pentapeptit.

    D. Khi thy phn X thu c 4 loi -amino axit khc nhau.

    Cu 21: X l hn hp hai anehit n chc mch h. 0,04 mol X c khi lng 1,98 gam tham gia phn

    ng ht vi dung dch AgNO3/NH3 d thu c 10,8 gam Ag. m gam X kt hp va vi 0,35 gam H2.

    Gi tr ca m l .

    A. 8,66 gam. B. 4,95 gam. C. 6,93 gam. D. 5,94 gam.

    Cu 22: Ha tan ht mt hn hp X (0,3 mol Fe3O4; 0,25 mol Fe; 0,2 mol CuO) vo mt dung dch hn

    hp HCl 3M; HNO3 4M. Sau phn ng hon ton thu c dung dch Y (trong ch cha mui st (III) v

    mui ng (II)) v kh NO (l sn phm gim s oxi ha duy nht ca N). Tng khi lng mui trong dung

    dch Y nhn gi tr l

    A. 268,2gam. B. 368,1gam. C. 423,2gam. D. 266,9gam.

    Cu 23: t chy hon ton x gam hn hp gm hai axit cacboxylic n chc, mch h v u c

    mt lin kt i C = C trong phn t, thu c V lt kh CO2 (ktc) v y mol H2O. Biu thc lin h

    gia cc gi tr x, y v V l :

    A. 28/55(x-30y) B. V=28/95(x-62y)

    C. V=28/55(x+30y) D. V=28/95(x+62y)

    Cu 24: Mt hp cht ion Y c cu to t ion M+ v ion X

    -. Tng s ht electron trong Y bng 36. S ht

    proton trong M+ nhiu hn trong X- l 2. V tr ca nguyn t M v X trong bng HTTH cc nguyn t ha

    hc l :

    A. M: chu k 3, nhm IA; X: chu k 3, nhm VIIA.

    B. M: chu k 3, nhm IB; X: chu k 3, nhm VIIA.

    C. M: chu k 4, nhm IA; X: chu k 4, nhm VIIA.

    D. M: chu k 4, nhm IA; X: chu k 3, nhm VIIA.

    Cu 25: Cho hn hp X gm hai axit cacboxylic n chc l ng ng k tip, mt ancol n chc v hai

    este c to bi t 2 axit v ancol trn. t chy 1,55 gam X thu c 1,736 lt khi CO2 v 1,26 gam nc.

    Mt khc, nu cho 1,55 gam X tc dng va vi 125 ml dung dch NaOH 0,1 M s thu c m gam

    mui, 0,74 gam ancol ( tng ng vi ancol l 0,01). Hy xc nh gi tr ca m?

    A.1,175 gam B. 1,205 gam

    C.1,275 gam D. 1,305 gam

    Cu 26: Cho 0,2 lt hn hp kh Z gm 2 hidro cacbon (mch h , c cng s nguyn t H v c s nguyn

    t C hn km nhau 1 nguyn t ) v propan -1,2,3-triamin c t chy hon ton, thu c 1,73 lt hn

    hp X gm kh v hi nc. Cho hn hp X i qua bnh ng dung dch H2SO4 c ngui d, thy c 0,83

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 4

    lt kh thot ra ngoi. Nu cho 1 lt hn hp kh ban u tc dng vi dung dch brom trong CCl4 th s mol

    Br2 phn ng s gp my ln s mol ca hn hp Z.

    A. 0,65 B. 0,6 C. 0,7 D. 0,75

    Cu 27: Cho cc cht sau: CH3COOH, CH2=CHCOOH, CH2=CHOOCCH3, CH2OH-CH2OH, C2H5OH,

    HOOC(CH2)4COOH, HCHO. S cht c th trc tip to thnh polime bng phn ng trng ngng hoc

    trng hp l

    A. 3 cht B. 4 cht C. 5 cht D. 6 cht

    Cu 28: Thy phn hon ton m gam peptit X ( gm cc amino axit no, cha 1 nhm COOH v 1 nhm

    NH2, s lin kt peptit l 11) bng dung dch NaOH va , c cn cn thn thu c cht rn A. t A

    trong O2 va thu c hn hp kh v hi B, a B v ktc thy c th tch l 82,432 lt. Bit rng nu

    t chy m gam X cn 107,52 lt O2 ktc. Gi tr ca m l:

    A. 80,8 gam B. 117,76 gam C. 96,64 gam D. 79,36 gam

    Cu 29: Trong hn hp phn ng gm Na2S2O3 v H2SO4 long c th tch dung dch l 100 ml, nng

    ban u ca Na2S2O3 l 0,5 M. Sau thi gian 40 giy, th tch kh SO2 thot ra l 0,896 lt (ktc). Gi s kh

    to ra u thot ra ht khi dung dch v sau phn ng c mui sunfat, vn mu vng,... Tc trung bnh

    ca phn ng tnh theo Na2S2O3 l

    A. 10-2

    mol/ (lt.s). B. 10-1

    mol/(lt.s).

    C. 2,5.10-3

    mol/(lt.s). D. 2,5.10-2

    mol/(lt.s).

    Cu 30: Cho s th nghim nh hnh v

    Hin tng xy ra trong ng nghim l:

    A. Qu tm chuyn sang mu ri mt mu.

    B. Qu tm mt mu ri chuyn sang mu .

    C. Qu tm chuyn sang mu xanh ri mt mu.

    D. Qu tm mt mu ri chuyn sang mu xanh.

    Cu 31: t chy hon ton m gam hn hp X gm 4 axit bo axit stearic, axit panmitic, axit oleic v axit

    linoleic cn s dng 549,92 lt kh oxi (ktc) v sau phn ng thu c 300,6 gam nc. Nu cho m gam

    hn hp trn tc dng vi lng d dung dch Br2 thy c 0,5 mol Br2 phn ng. Gi tr ca m l:

    271,8 gam B. 281,78 gam C.280,7 gam D. 278,26 gam

    Cu 32: ng vi cng thc phn t CnH2n-2O2 khng th c loi hp cht hu c:

    A. Axit no, n chc mch vng.

    B. Anehit no, hai chc, mch h.

    C. Axit n chc c hai ni i trong mch cacbon.

    D. Este n chc, mch h, c mt ni i trong mch cacbon.

    Cu 33: Chn nhn xt ng ?

    A. Khi un nng hn hp gm: C2H5Br, KOH, C2H5OH th khng c kh thot ra.

    B. Khi un hn hp: C2H5OH v axit HBr n khi kt thc phn ng ta thu c dung dch ng nht

    C. Cc ancol C2H5OH, CH3CH2CH2OH, CH3CH2CH2CH2OH tan v hn trong nc.

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 5

    D. Cho HNO3 c d vo dung dch phenol thy c kt ta mu vng ca axit picric.

    Cu 34: Hn hp kh v hi X gm C3H6 , CH3CH2CHO , CH3CH2COOH. Trn X vi V lt H2 (ktc) ri

    cho qua Ni nung nng , thu c hn hp Y ( gm kh v hi ). t chy hon ton Y thu c 0,15 mol

    CO2 v 0,2 mol H2O. gi tr ca V l

    A. 4,48 B. 2,24 C. 0,672 D. 1,12

    Cu 35: Cho cc cht sau: axetilen, axit oxalic, axit acrylic, fomanehit, phenyl fomat, vinyl

    axetilen, glucoz, anehit axetic, metyl axetat, saccaroz, natri fomat, xilen. S cht c th tham gia phn

    ng trng gng l

    A. 6 B. 7 C. 8 D. 5

    Cu 36: Hn hp X gm anehit Y, axit cacboxylic Z v este T (Z v T l ng phn). t chy hon ton

    0,2 mol X cn 0,625 mol O2, thu c 0,525 mol CO2 v 0,525 mol nc. Cho mt lng Y bng lng Y

    c trong 0,2 mol X tc dng vi mt lng d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3, un nng, sau phn ng c

    m gam Ag (hiu sut phn ng 100%). Gi tr ca m l

    A. 64,8g B. 16,2g C. 32,4. D. 21,6g

    Cu 37: Hp th ht V lt CO2 ( ktc) vo 100 ml dung dch gm NaOH 2,0 M v Na2CO3 1,0 M thu c

    dung dch A. Chia A thnh 2 phn bng nhau. Phn 1 cho tc dng vi CaCl2 d thu c b mol kt ta.

    Phn 2 cho tc dng vi nc vi trong d thu c c mol kt ta. Bit 3b = c. Gi tr ca V l

    A. 4,480 lt. B. 2,688 lt. C. 1,120 lt. D. 3,360 lt.

    Cu 38: M l hn hp ca ancol no X v axit n chc Y, u mch h. t chy ht 0,4 mol M cn 30,24

    lt O2 ktc thu c 52,8 gam CO2 v 19,8 gam nc. Bit s nguyn t cacbon trong X v Y bng nhau.

    S mol Y ln hn s mol ca X. CTPT ca X, Y l

    A. C3H8O2 v C3H6O2 B. C3H8O v C3H6O2

    C. C3H8O v C3H2O2 D. C3H8O2 v C3H4O2

    Cu 39: Cho m gam Fe vo 1 lt dung dch hn hp gm H2SO4 0,1M; Cu(NO3)2 0,1M, Fe(NO3)3 0,1M.

    Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c 0,69m gam hn hp kim loi, dung dch X v kh NO (l

    sn phm kh duy nht ). Gi tr m v khi lng cht rn khan thu c khi c cn dung dch X ln lt

    l

    A. 20 gam v78,5 gam. B. 20 gam v 55,7 gam.

    C. 25,8 gam v 78,5 gam. D. 25,8 gam v 55,7 gam.

    Cu 40: Hai hp cht X v Y l 2 ancol, trong khi lng mol ca X nh hn Y. Khi t chy hon ton

    mi cht X, Y u to ra s mol CO2 t hn s mol H2O. t chy hon ton hn hp Z gm nhng lng

    bng nhau v s mol ca X v Y thu c t l s mol CO2 v H2O tng ng l 2:3. S hp cht tha mn

    cc tnh cht ca Y l

    A. 6 cht B. 4 cht C. 2 cht D. 5 cht

    Cu 41: Hn hp M gm axit cacboxylic X, ancol Y (u n chc, s mol X gp hai ln s mol Y) v

    este Z c to ra t X v Y. Cho mt lng M tc dng va vi dung dch cha 0,2 mol

    NaOH, to ra 16,4 gam mui v 8,05 gam ancol. Cng thc ca X v Y l

    A. HCOOH v C3H7OH. B. HCOOH v CH3OH.

    C. CH3COOH v C2H5OH. D. CH3COOH v CH3OH.

    Cu 42: Hn hp kh gm 1 hidrocacbon no X v 1 hidrocacbon khng no vo bnh nc brom cha 40

    gam brom. Sau khi brom phn ng ht th khi lng bnh tng ln 10,5 g v thu c dung dch B,

    ng thi kh bay ra khi bnh c khi lng 3,7 gam. t chy hon ton lng kh bay ra khi bnh thu

    c 11 g CO2. Hidrocacbon X l

    A. 2 cht. B. 1 cht. C. 3 cht. D. 4 cht.

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 6

    Cu 43: Sc t t kh 0,06 mol CO2 vo V lt dung dch cha Ba(OH)2 0,5M thu c 2b mol kt ta. Mt

    khc khi sc 0,08 mol CO2 cng vo V lt dung dch cha Ba(OH)2 0,5M th thu c b mol kt ta. Gi tr

    ca V l

    A. 0,2 B. 0,1 C. 0,05 D. 0,8.

    Cu 44: Cho cc th nghim sau:

    (1) Dn kh H2S vo dung dch Pb(NO3)2

    (2) Cho dung dch Pb(NO3)2 vo dung dch CuCl2

    (3) Dn kh H2S vo dung dch CuSO4

    (4) Sc kh SO2 vo dung dch H2S

    (5) Dn kh NH3 vo dung dch AlCl3

    (6) Cho dung dch AlCl3 vo dung dch NaAlO2

    (7) Cho FeS vo dung dch HCl

    (8) Cho Na2SiO3 vo dung dch HCl

    (9) Cho dung dch NaHCO3 vo dung dch Ba(OH)2(d)

    (10) Cho Na2CO3 vo dung dch FeCl3

    S th nghim to ra kt ta l

    A. 10 B. 8 C. 7 D. 9

    Cu 45: Cho dy cc cht: isopentan, lysin, fructoz, mantoz, toluen, glucoz, isobutilen, propanal,

    isopren, axit metacrylic, phenylamin, m-crezol, cumen, stiren, xiclopropan. S cht trong dy phn ng

    c vi nc brom l:

    A. 9. B. 10. C. 8. D. 7.

    Cu 46: Hp cht hu c X c cng thc phn t C3H6O3. Khi un nng X vi dung dch NaOH d thu

    c 2 sn phm hu c Y v Z; trong Y ha tan c Cu(OH)2. Kt lun khng ng l

    A. X l hp cht hu c a chc. B. X c tham gia phn ng trng bc.

    C. X tc dng c vi Na. D. X tc dng c vi dung dch HCl.

    Cu 47: X l hn hp hai ancol n chc ng ng c t l khi lng 1:1. Chia m gam X thnh hai phn

    khng bng nhau :

    + t chy phn 1 c 21,45 gam CO2 v 13,95 H2O

    + un nng phn 2 vi H2SO4 c 1400

    C c 15 gam hn hp 3 ete. Bit c 80% ancol c phn t

    khi nh v 50% ancol c phn t khi ln tham gia cc phn ng ete ha. Gi tr ca m l

    A. 30,00 B. 36,30 C. 36,00 D. 42,00

    Cu 48: T 10 tn v bo (cha 80% xenluloz) c th iu ch c bao nhiu tn cn thc phm 450 (bit

    hiu sut ca ton b qu trnh iu ch l 64,8%, khi lng ring ca cn nguyn cht l d = 0,8 g/ml) ?

    A. 0,294. B. 7,440. C. 0,930 . D. 0,744.

    Cu 49: Dung dch A c cha: 0,05 mol SO42-

    ; 0,1 mol NO3-; 0,08 mol Na

    +; 0,05 mol H

    + v K

    +. C cn

    dung dch A thu c cht rn B. Nung cht rn B n khi lng khng i thu c cht rn C c khi

    lng l :

    A. 15,62 gam. B. 11,67 gam. C. 12,47 gam. D. 13,17 gam.

    Cu 50: Sc CO2 vo dung dch Ba(OH)2 ta quan st hin tng theo th hnh bn(s liu tnh theo n

    v mol).Gi tr ca x l :

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 7

    A. 0,55(mol) B. 0,65(mol) C. 0,75(mol) D. 0,85(mol)

    ...............HT..................

    GII CHI TIT V N TP, T LUYN

    Cu 1: Bi gii :

    Ta tnh c bt bo ha ca phn t :

    .k

    2 6 2 102

    2

    X tc dng c vi NaOH theo t l 1 : 2 ; X c 5 nguyn t O. iu chng t X phi l hp

    cht tp chc trong c nhm chc tc dng vi NaOH: ch c th nhm chc axit (-COOH) v

    nhm chc este (-COO-) ; mt nhm chc na l nhm OH.

    X tc dng vi NaOH to ra 2 phn t Y, Y tc dng vi HCl to hp cht Z, Z c kh nng tc dng

    vi Na CTPT Ca X l H O C H C H C O O C H C H C O O H 2 2 2 2

    PTP : X : H O C H C H C O O C H C H C O O H 2 2 2 2

    H O C H C H C O O C H C H C O O H N aO H H O C H C H C O O N a H O 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

    2 2

    CTPT ca Z l : Z : H O C H C H C O O H 2 2

    Vy khi cho 0,15 mol Z tc dng vi Na d.

    H O C H C H C O O H N a N aO C H C H C O O N a H 2 2 2 2 2

    2

    H Zn n , ( m o l)

    2

    0 1 5

    p n A

    Nhn xt: y l mt cu hi cng kh hay ca thi. Cc bn s rt lng tng khi xc nh nhm

    nh chc trong Y, Z nu kin thc ca cc bn khng chc. Qua cc cu hi nh th ny s gip cc

    bn c kin thc su hn v tnh cht c trng ca cc hp cht hu c.

    - Nhng cht c kh nng phn ng vi Na l nhng cht c nhm chc cha nguyn t H linh

    ng thuc cc nhm chc nh O H ; C O O H .

    - Nhng cht c kh nng phn ng vi NaOH l nhng cht c nhm chc : - OH (phenol) ; -

    COOH ; -COO- (este) ; -CO-NH-

    Cu 2: Bi gii :

    A. Sai. V khi bit in tch ht nhn, ta tnh c s n v in tch ht nhn Z, t tnh c s

    electron, s proton v ( Z = s p = s e) khng suy ra c s notoron

    B. ng. V c hin tng ng v, nguyn t ha hc l tp hp nhng nguyn t c cng in tch ht

    nhn

    C. ng. Trong nguyn t s ht proton lun bng s ht electron.

    D. ng. Nguyn t l phn t nh b nht ca cht, khng b phn chia trong phn ng ha hc.

    p n A

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 8

    Nhn xt: y l cu hi khng kh nhng i hi chng ta phi nh mt s khi nim v kin thc

    c bn v nguyn t, phn t, nguyn t ha hc, ng v:

    - Nguyn t: L ht v cng nh, trung ha v in v c cu to bi cc ht p, n, e. Trong , ht

    mang in l ht p (1+); ht e (1-); ht n (0). Nguyn t trung ha v in nn s p = s e.

    - Phn t: L ht i din cho cht gm 1 s nguyn t lin kt vi nhau v th hin y tnh cht

    ha hc ca cht.

    - Nguyn t ha hc: L tp hp cc nguyn t c cng s ht proton trong ht nhn.

    - ng v ca mt nguyn t ha hc: Gm cc nguyn t c cng s proton nhng khc nhau s

    notron S khi khc nhau.

    Cu 3: Bi gii :

    Th nghim 1 :

    Do t l th tch cng l t l s mol ( trong cng 1 iu kin ).

    Nn ta c anken ank in anken

    anken A nk in ank in

    n n n

    n .n n

    50 20

    2 80 30

    Do ta c t l an k en

    an k in

    n

    n2

    3

    th nghim 2 :Khi t chy hn hp anken v ankin sn phm chy gm CO2 v H2O khi

    hp th vo dung dch Ca(OH)2 c hai u b hp th .

    - Theo bi ra ta nhn thy CO2 hp th vo dung dch Ca(OH)2 to kt ta, sau cho dung dch

    KOH vo dung dch sau phn ng thu c kt ta na iu chng t to Ca(HCO3)2. Ta c

    s nh sau :

    C a ( O H )

    K O H ( d u )

    C aC O , n , (m o l)

    C OC a (H C O ) C aC O , n , (m o l)

    23 1

    2

    3 2 3 2

    0 25

    0 05

    Bo ton C ta tnh c C O

    n , , , (m o l) 2

    0 2 5 0 0 5 0 3

    ( Do KOH d nn ton b lng H C O 3

    chuyn v CaCO3)

    - Theo bi ra khi lng dung dch gim 7,48 gam.

    Ta c phng trnh sau :

    C O H O

    , m m m

    2 21

    7 4 8 H O

    , , . m 2

    7 4 8 2 5 0 3 4 4

    H O H O

    ,m , (g am ) n , (m o l)

    2 2

    4 324 32 0 24

    18

    - Khi ta tnh c

    an k in C O H On n n , , , (m o l)

    2 2

    0 3 0 2 4 0 0 6

    Theo nh lut thnh phn khng i ta lun c t l an k en

    an k in

    n

    n2

    3

    anken ank inn n . , , (m o l)

    2 20 06 0 04

    3 3

    h h h h

    ,n , (m o l) C

    ,

    0 30 1 3

    0 1

    Thnh phn hn hp ch gm C ; H nn

    C Hm m , . , . , 0 13 12 0 24 2 2 04

    anken v ankin l C H : ,

    C H : ,

    3 6

    3 4

    0 0 4

    0 0 6

    p n B

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 9

    Nhn xt: y l dng ton kh c trng v t chy hirocacbon, lm tt dng ny cc bn phi

    c bit nh v cch lm dng bi tp hp th CO2 vo dung dch kim v nh mt s kin thc sau:

    Anken l hidrocacbon mch h trong phn t cha 1 lin kt nm trong lin kt i C=C,

    C cng thc phn t dng CnH2n ( n 2 )

    Ankin l hidrocacbon mch h trong phn t cha 2 lin kt nm trong lin kt ba C C ,

    c cng thc phn t dng CnH2n-2 ( n 2 )

    Lin kt trong anken; ankin rt d b ph v bi H2 ( Phn ng hidro ha ). Trong phn ng

    hidro ha th H

    n

    n

    2

    1

    1

    Sn phm chy khi t hp cht hu c dng CxHyOz ( z 0 ) c mi quan h nh sau :

    C O H O Xn n (k ).n

    2 2

    1 . Trong k gi l bt bo ha ca phn t. Gi tr ca k = s lin kt

    + s vng.

    Sn phm chy gm CO2 v H2O khi hp th vo bnh ng dung dch Ca(OH)2 th cn nh :

    * mdung dch tng = C O H Om m2 2 - m v ngc li

    * mbnh tng = C O H Om m2 2

    Cu 4: Bi gii :

    Cht lm i mu qu l axit hoc baz. l nhng cht sau:

    HOOC-CH2-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH;

    H2N-CH2-COOK; HCOOH;

    ClH3N-CH2-COOH.

    p n B

    Cu 5: Bi gii : Thch nh l qu trnh to ra kt ta : Ca(HCO3) CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O

    p n B.

    Nhn xt :

    - Phn ng : C aC O H O C O C a (H C O ) 3 2 2 3 2

    . c dng gii thch qu trnh xm thc ca

    nc ma ( c cha CO2 ) i vi vi. y l l do ti sao ta thy cc ni vi hay c 1 vi

    chic hang rt rng, chnh l do qu trnh ha tan CaCO3 ( thnh phn chnh ca ni vi)

    to thnh Ca(HCO3)2.

    - Phn ng tC a ( H C O ) C aC O C O H O 0

    3 2 3 2 2. c dng gii thch vic to thnh thch

    nh trong hang ng vi. Nc ma c ha tan Ca(HCO3)2 s lun lch qua cc khe h , nh

    git xung di, chu tc ng ca nhit v tri qua 1 thi gian di, Ca(HCO3)2 s chuyn

    thnh CaCO3 (khng tan), lng CaCO3 ny s tch t li to thnh cc khi thch nh cng.

    Ch : Ging nh CaCl2 khan, H2SO4 c, CaO cng c dng nh mt cht lm kh.

    H2SO4 c c dng nh cht lm kh nc cho cc cht c tnh axit nh : Cl2, HCl. Cn

    CaO c dng lm kh cc cht kh c tnh bazo nh : NH3, cc amin

    Cu 6: Bi gii :

    iu ch kim loi c tnh kh mnh nh Na, ngi ta thng in phn nng chy mui halogenua

    hoc hidroxit.

    p n B

    Nhn xt: Cc phng php ch yu iu ch kim loi l:

    - Phng php thy luyn (phng php t): Dng cc kim loi mnh kh ion kim loi (trong

    dung dch) v kim loi:

    Ch : Phng php ny thng dng iu ch cc kim loi c tnh kh yu: Cu, Ag, Hg,Au

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 10

    - Phng php nhit luyn: Kh cc oxit kim loi trong cc hp cht nhit cao bng cc cht

    kh mnh nh: C, CO, H2, Al, KL kim, KL kim th

    V d: Fe2O3 + H2 Fe + H2O

    Cr2O3 + 2Al 2Cr + Al2O3

    Ch : Phng php ny c ng dng rng ri trong cng nghip iu ch cc kim loi c

    hot ng trung bnh (hoc yu): Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu). Vi cc kim loi km hot ng nh

    Hg, Ag th ch cn t chy qung cng thu c kim loi:

    V d: HgS + O2 o

    t Hg + SO2

    Ag2S + O2 o

    t 2Ag + SO2

    - Phng php in phn: Dng dng in mt chiu kh cc ion kim loi. Phng php

    in phn c th iu ch c hu ht cc kim loi

    in phn dung dch: Thng dng iu ch cc kim loi c tnh kh trung bnh v yu

    in phn nng chy: iu ch c tt c cc kim loi nhng ngi ta thng dng

    iu ch cc kim loi c tnh kh mnh:

    Kim loi kim, kim loi kim th, Al

    Cu 7: Bi gii:

    Da vo cc c im bi cho nn X c cng thc : (CH3NH2)2CO3

    Ta c : N aO H (b / d ) N a C O

    N a C O N aO H ( d u )

    N a C O ( C H N H ) C O

    N aO H (d u )

    n n

    C R

    m m

    n n , (m o l)

    n , . , , (m o l)

    m , . , . , ( g )

    2 3 3 2 2 3

    2 3

    2 3

    0 1 5

    0 4 2 0 1 5 0 1

    0 1 5 1 0 6 0 1 4 0 1 9 9

    p n B

    Nhn xt: Mt s iu cn lu v phn ng ca mui amoni vi axit dung dch kim :

    * Du hiu xc nh mt hp cht l mui amoni l : Khi hp cht phn ng

    vi dung dch kim thy gii phng kh hoc gii phng kh lm xanh giy qu tm.

    * Cc loi mui amoni gm :

    Mui amoni ca amin hoc NH3 vi axit v c nh HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, H2CO3,

    - Mui amoni ca amin no vi HNO3 c cng thc phn t l CnH2n+4O3N2.

    V d : CTPT C2H8O3N2 C2H5NH3NO3.

    - Mui amoni ca amin no vi H2SO4 c hai dng :

    + Mui axit l CnH2n+5O4NS. V d : CTPT CH7O4NS CH3NH3HSO4.

    + Mui trung ha l CnH2n+8O4N2S. V d : CTPT C2H12O4N2S (CH3NH3)2SO4.

    - Mui amoni ca amin no vi H2CO3 c hai dng :

    + Mui axit l CnH2n+3O3N. V d : CTPT C2H7O3N CH3NH3HCO3.

    + Mui trung ha l CnH2n+6O3N2. V d : CTPT C3H12O3N2 (CH3NH3)2CO3.

    Mui amoni ca amin hoc NH3 vi axit hu c nh HCOOH, CH3COOH, CH2=CHCOOH,

    - Mui amoni ca amin no vi axit no, n chc c cng thc phn t l CnH2n+3O2N.

    V d : CTPT C3H9O2N CH3COONH3CH3.

    - Mui amoni ca amin no vi axit khng no, n chc, phn t c mt lin kt i C=C c cng

    thc phn t l CnH2n+1O2N.

    V d : CTPT C4H9O2N CH2=CHCOONH3CH3.

    lm tt bi tp dng ny cn :

    - B1: Xc nh c CTCT ca mui amoni.

    - B2: Vit phng trnh phn ng tnh ton lng cht m bi yu cu.

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 11

    Lu :

    * Nu bi yu cu tnh khi lng cht rn sau khi c cn dung dch th :

    mCR = mmui (+ mkim d).

    * Nu gp bi tp hn hp mui amoni th nn s dng phng php trung bnh kt hp vi

    nh lut bo ton khi lng tnh ton.

    Cu 8: Bi gii :

    A. ng. Thp do v bn hn gang

    B. Sai. V iu ch thp nguyn liu thng dng l gang trng hoc gang xm, st thp ph liu

    C. ng. Hm lng cacbon trong gang cao hn trong thp

    D. ng. V hm lng C trong gang ln hn trong thp nn gang gin v cng hn thp

    p n B

    Nhn xt:

    - Gang khc vi thp hm lng Cacbon (C trong gang ln hn). C th:

    * Gang: L hp kim st cabon v mt s nguyn t khc: Hm lng Cacbon t 2%

    5%.

    * Thp l hp kim Fe C ( Hm lng C : 0,1 2%).

    y l cu hi d ca thi. Hy vng cc bn khng b mt im nhng cu nh th ny.

    Cu 9. Bi gii :

    p dng nh lut Faraday:

    e N i N i

    It , .n , n , m , . , g

    F

    1 93 200000 4 0 2 0 2 59 11 8

    96500

    Ta xem lp m l khi HCN:

    N iH C N

    m ,V .h h , (cm )

    d , .

    11 8200 0 0066

    8 9 200

    p n A

    Nhn xt: y l dng bi tp kh d ca phn in phn. Cc bn ch cn nh cng thc nh lng

    (Faraay) trong in phn:

    A It

    mn (e ) F

    hoc n (s mol)= It

    n ( e ) Fhoc ne (s mol e trao i)=

    It

    F

    Cu 10: Do cc cht c cng s mol nn

    A l : x (m o l)

    F e O : x (m o l)

    F e O : x (m o l)

    2 3

    3 4

    Theo bi ra ta c : .x .x .x , x , (m o l) 27 160 232 41 9 0 1

    Khi ha tan Y vo dung dch H2SO4 c nng

    p dng LBT electoron :

    S O A l F e O

    .n .n n 2 3 4

    2 3S O

    . , ,n , (m o l)

    2

    3 0 1 0 10 2

    2

    S OV , (m o l)

    2

    4 4 8

    p n B.

    Ch : S nhng; nhn electron nh sau :

    Nhng electron Nhn electron

    S e S

    6 4

    2

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 12

    A l A l e

    F e O F e O e

    0 3

    0

    3 2

    3 4

    3

    3 4 1

    Cu 11: Bi gii :

    NH3 c kh nng to phc vi cc ion Cu2+

    ; Ni2+

    ; Zn2+

    ; Ag+

    Nhng cht tan l Cu(OH)2, Ni(OH)2, Zn(OH)2, AgCl.

    p n C

    Nhn xt: y l cu hi khng kh nhng i hi cc bn phi nh v hin tng to phc ca NH3

    vi mt s cht: Cu(OH)2, Ni(OH)2, Zn(OH)2, AgCl

    Cu 12: Bi gii :

    S cht c cu to mch thng l : Gm cc polime sau: PE, PVC, cao su buna, PS, amiloz,

    xenluloz, nha novolac, t nilon-7.

    p n C

    Nhn xt:

    Tinh bt c cu to bi 2 thnh phn: Amiloz (mch khng phn nhnh) v aminlopectin (mch

    phn nhnh).

    Cao su lu ha c mng li khng gian.

    Cu 13. Bi gii :

    A. ng .Theo quy tc th vo vng benzen nhm NO2 nh hng th meta

    B. Sai. T nitron iu ch bng trng hp

    C. .ng. Khng tn ti ru Vinylic v nhm OH nh trc tip vo nguyn t C khng no

    D. Sai. Do nhm NH2 l nhm y in t lm tng mt electron ti cc v tr ortho v para nn

    khi phn ng vi Br2 d to ra 2,4,6,-tribrom anilin

    p n A

    Cu 14: Bi gii :

    PTP :

    Cc A: F e H S O F eS O H 2 4 4 2

    Cc B: F e H S O F eS O H

    F e C u S O F eS O C u

    2 4 4 2

    4 4

    Cc B xy ra n mn in ha (Tc nhanh hn)

    A. Sai. V lng axit hai cc l nh nhau nn lng bt kh thot ra s l nh nhau

    B. ng .v tc n mn in ha nhanh hn tc n mn ha hc

    C. ng. bt kh H2 thot ra nhiu trn b mt Cu

    D. ng v lc ny hnh thnh 2 in cc m ( Fe ) ; cc dng l (Cu).

    p n A

    Nhn xt: y l dng cu hi l thuyt v s n mn kim loi. Chng ta cn nh 1 s kin thc sau:

    - n mn ha hc: L qu trnh oxi ha - kh, trong cc electron ca kim loi c chuyn

    trc tip n cc cht trong mi trng.n mn ha hc thng xy ra nhng b phn ca thit

    b l t hoc nhng thit b thng xuyn phi tip xc vi hi nc, kh oxi, dung dch axit

    - n mn in ha: L qu trnh oxi ha - kh, trong kim loi b n mn do tc dng vi dung

    dch cht in li v to nn dng electron chuyn t cc m sang cc dng (pht sinh dng

    in).iu kin xy ra n mn in ha:

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 13

    * Phi c 2 in cc (c bn cht khc nhau): C th l cp KL - KL; KL - PK; Cp KL - hp

    cht ha hc (v d nh xementit Fe3C)v in cc no c tnh kh mnh hn ng vai tr

    cc m, in cc no c tnh kh yu hn ng vai tr cc dng.

    * Cc in cc phi tip xc vi nhau (trc tip hoc gin tip).

    * Cc in cc phi cng tip xc vi dung dch cht in li.

    Ch : Trong thc t, cc qu trnh n mn kim loi din ra phc tp, c th bao

    gm c s n mn ha hc v n mn in ha nhng n mn in ha thng ng vai tr

    ch yu.

    Cu 15: Bi lm :

    Thy phn hon ton pentapeptit X thu c 1 mol valin (Val), 1 mol glyxin (Gly), 2 mol alanin (Ala)

    v 1 mol leuxin trong thnh phn ca X c to bi 1 Val ; 1 Gly ; 2 Ala v 1 Leu

    Xem Ala Val Ala l X vy ta c cc cht l :

    G X L X L G L G X

    G L X X G L L X G

    p n C

    Cu 16: Bi gii:

    t CTTQ ca X l CnH2nO2

    Bo ton CC O

    n , n 2

    0 1

    TH1 : Ca(OH)2 d

    CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O (1)

    Theo (1) C O C a ( O H )

    n n , n , n , n 2 2

    0 1 0 2 2 2 2 2

    CTCT ca X l HCOOCH3 (loi v c phn ng trng bc)

    TH2: C 2 phn ng

    CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O

    2CO2 + Ca(OH)2 Ca(HCO3)2

    O H

    C O

    n , n ,, n ,

    , n ,n

    2

    0 1 0 441 2 2 2 4 4

    0 1 0 22n = 3 hoc n = 4

    X + NaOH 2 cht hu c c s C bng nhau X l C4H8O2

    O

    % m . , % 32

    100 36 3688

    p n D

    Nhn xt: y l dng ton quen thuc v t chy este, cng khng qu kh cc bn tm c ra

    p n. Tuy nhin, v mt kin thc chng ta cn phi nm vng 1 s vn sau:

    - Este no n chc mch h c cng thc chung l CnH2nO2. Khi t chy lun thu c

    C O H On n

    2 2

    - Este khng c phn ng trng gng, c ngha l khng phi l este ca axit focmic dng: '

    H C O O R

    - Sn phm chy gm CO2 v H2O khi hp th qua dung dch Ca(OH)2 th c hai u b hp th.

    CO2 xy ra phn ng.

    C O C a (O H ) C a C O H O ( )

    C O C a (O H ) C a ( H C O ) ( )

    2 2 3 2

    2 2 3 2

    1

    2 2

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 14

    * Nu Ca(OH)2 d phn ng (1) xy ra, tc sau phn ng to kt ta

    * Nu CO2 d th xy ra phn ng (2), tc sau phn ng thu c dung dch trong sut

    * Ta lp t l O H

    C O

    n

    n

    2

    xc nh sn phm to thnh sau phn ng.

    Cu 17. Bi gii :

    - Dng dd dd BaCl2 s loi c mui sunfat

    B a S O B aS O

    2 2

    4 4

    - Dng dd Na2CO3.s loi c cc mui khc v thu c NaCl tinh khit

    M g C O M gC O

    C a C O C aC O

    2 2

    3 3

    2 2

    3 3

    p n B

    Cu 18: Bi gii :

    Theo bi ra ta tnh c : N aO H

    F eC l

    n ,

    n ,

    3

    1 6

    0 5

    PTP : F e O H F e (O H ) 33

    3 O H d sau phn ng .

    F e ( O H )

    d u

    N aO H

    m ,

    n ,

    3

    53 5

    0 1

    d d

    d d

    m ,V , m l

    d ,

    400 500 53 5769 5

    1 1

    ,

    N aO H , M,

    0 1

    0 130 7695

    p n D.

    Nhn xt: Cu hi ny qu d cc bn d dng ly im. Bi ton ch khai thc v phn ng trao

    i ion trong dung dch cht in li. ng thi, khai thc li cc cng thc tnh ton trong ha hc.

    Cc bn ch cn nh, p dng ng cng thc v tnh ton cn thn.

    Cu 19: Bi gii :

    lm mm nc cng ta phi loi b cc ion Mg2+ ; Ca2+ c trong nc cng trn, do ta dng

    Na2CO3

    p n A

    Nhn xt: Cc bn cn hiu khi nim v nc cng v 1 s cch lm mm nc cng:

    - Nc cng l nc cha nhiu ion Ca2+; Mg2+ ( Nc mm l nc cha rt t (hoc

    khng cha) ion Ca2+;

    Mg2+

    ).

    - Phn loi: C 3 loi nc cng

    * Nc cng tm thi: L loi nc ngoi ion Ca2+; Mg2+ cn cha thm ion HCO3-

    * Nc cng vnh cu: L loi nc ngoi ion Ca2+; Mg2+ cn cha thm ion Cl-, SO42-

    * Nc cng ton phn: Cha c tnh cng tm thi v tnh cng vnh cu.

    - Phng php lm mm nc cng

    * Nguyn tc: Chuyn cc ion Ca2+; Mg2+ vo hp cht khng tan

    * Cc phng php lm mm nc cng

    Phng php kt ta.

    Phng php trao i ion.

    Cu 20: Bi gii :

    Lin kt peptit l lin kt CO-NH- ca cc n v - amino axit

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 15

    H2N-CH(CH3)-CO-NH-CH2-CO-NH-CH2-CH2-CO-NH-CH(C6H5)-CO-NH-CH(CH3)-COOH.

    p n A

    Ch :

    Ch c cc - aminoaxit mi c kh nng to lin kt peptit.

    Peptit c n mt xch - aminoaxit th s c (n-1) lin kt peptit

    Cu 21: Bi gii:

    Andehit l hp cht hu c cha nhm CHO ; khi phn ng vi AgNO3/NH3 to c kt ta Ag.

    Vi t l nh sau :

    A g N O / N H

    C H O A g

    3 3 2

    Trng hp c bit A g N O / N H

    H C H O A g

    3 3 4

    Theo bi ra ta tnh cX

    A g

    n ,c H C H O

    n ,

    0 04

    0 1

    t cng thc ca andehit cn li l RCHO

    Gi s mol hn hp ca andehit l : HCHO (a mol) ; RCHO ( b mol)

    Theo bi ra ta tnh c a b , a , ( m o l)

    a b , b , ( m o l)

    0 0 4 0 0 1

    4 2 0 1 0 0 3

    H C H O : ,, R C H C H C H O

    R C H O : ,

    2

    0 0 11 9 8 2 7

    0 0 3

    Nhn thy t l mol 2 andehit l 1:3

    Theo nh lut thnh phn khng i th trong m gam hn hp andehit cng c t l mol khng i

    H C H O : am

    C H C H C H O : a

    2 3

    Lin kt trong andehit b ph v bi H2. Theo bi ra ta c

    a a . , a , (m o l) 3 2 0 175 0 025

    H C H O : ,m ,

    C H C H C H O : ,

    2

    0 0 2 54 9 5

    0 0 7 5

    p n B

    Nhn xt:

    - y l mt cu hi kh hay ca thi, tuy khng qu kh nhng nhiu bn d nhm hoc ch quan

    tm n phn ng cng ca nhm chc -CHO vi H2 m khng n phn ng cng ca H2 vi

    lin kt gc hirocacbon.Hay ni cch khc lin kt trong cc lin kt bi ca cc:

    hidrocacbon khng no, andehit, xeton km bn. D b hidro ha vi t l s mol nh sau: H

    n

    n

    2

    1

    1

    - Cho hn hp X gm 2 anehit tham gia phn ng trng gng, nu th

    c 2 trng hp sau:

    * TH1: X gm: HCHO v RCHO

    * TH2: X gm RCHO v R(CHO)2

    Cu 22: Bi gii:

    Nhn thy im mu cht ca bi tp ny l dung dch Y thu c trong ch cha mui st (III) v

    mui ng (II)

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 16

    Do thnh phn trong dung dch Y gm

    F e : , ( m o l)

    C u : , ( m o l)

    C l

    N O

    3

    2

    3

    1 1 5

    0 2

    Nhn thy sau phn ng thu c kh NO, y xy ra phn ng oxi ha kh. Ta tnh c tng

    electron do cht kh nhng, t tnh c mol NO ( theo nh lut bo ton electron)

    Nhng electron

    F e O F e O e

    , ,

    F e F e e

    , ,

    0

    3 2

    3 4

    0 3

    3 4 1

    0 3 0 3

    3

    0 2 5 0 7 5

    Nhn electron

    N e N

    5 2

    3

    N O

    n , 0 35

    Dung dch hn hp HCl 3M; HNO3 4M, nhn thy t l nng l t l s mol

    H C l : a ( m o l)

    H N O : a ( m o l)

    3

    3

    4

    B T D T

    ( C l N O )

    a : C ln , . . , . , . ,

    a , : N O

    3

    3

    30 3 3 3 0 25 3 0 2 2 3 85

    4 0 35

    , : C la ,

    , : N O

    3

    1 80 6

    2 05

    m uo i K L an ion

    m m m , . , . , . , , . , 1 15 56 0 2 64 1 8 35 5 2 05 62 268 2

    p n A

    Cu 23: Bi gii :

    Vi dng bi ton tng qut th ta s lm trng hp c th, sau chn c p n ng.

    Do hn hp gm hai axit cacboxylic n chc, mch h v u c mt lin kt i C = C,

    nn ta c th gi s 1 axit c cng thc l C H O3 4 2

    Khi theo d kin bi ton cho ta c :

    C O

    H O

    n V ,ax it : C H O ( x .y ) ( . )V ,

    n yx (g am )

    2

    2

    3 4 23 67 2 28 30 28 72 30 2

    67 2272 55 55

    p n C

    Nhn xt: Bi ton cho cc s liu di dng tng qut khin nhiu bn lng tng hoc b khng

    lm.

    - Cch lm th nht l ta s xt mt trng hp c th ri chn p n.

    - Cch lm th 2 l ta lm trc tip vi s liu tng qut:

    * V cho axit khng no n chc cha 1 lin kt C=C

    naxit = ( C O H On n2 2 ) nO = 2naxit

    * BTKL ta c: m = mC + mH + mO x = V V

    y . ( y ), ,

    12

    2 16 222 4 22 4

    V=28

    55 (x+30y)

    Cu 24: Bi gii :

    Nhn thy hp cht Y c cng thc l MX

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 17

    Trong nguyn t th tng s ht electron bng tng s ht proton = s hiu nguyn t Z.

    S ht proton nm trong ht nhn ca nguyn t nn s ht proton trong nguyn t v trong ion

    nguyn t l khng i

    Kt hp vi d kin bi ra ta c : M X M

    M X X

    Z Z Z ( K )

    Z Z Z (C l)

    2 1 9

    3 6 1 7

    Cu hnh ca M l : 1s22s22p63s23p64s1

    Cu hnh ca X l : 1s22s

    22p

    63s

    23p

    5

    A. M: chu k 3, nhm IA; X: chu k 3, nhm VIIA. ( ng)

    B. M: chu k 3, nhm IB; X: chu k 3, nhm VIIA.(Sai)

    C. M: chu k 4, nhm IA; X: chu k 4, nhm VIIA.(Sai)

    D. M: chu k 4, nhm IA; X: chu k 3, nhm VIIA.(Sai)

    p n A

    Nhn xt:

    S th t ca chu k = S lp electron

    S th t ca nhm = S electron ha tr

    + Electron ha tr = electron lp ngoi cng (Nu l cc nguyn t nhm A).

    + Electron ha tr = electron lp ngoi cng + electron ca lp st ngoi cng (nu cha bo ha)

    (Nu l cc nguyn t nhm B).

    Cu 25: Bi gii:

    Theo bi ta tnh c

    2 2C O H O N aO H

    1, 7 3 6 1, 2 6n 0 , 0 0 7 5 (m o l); n 0 , 0 7 (m o l) ; n 0 , 0 1 2 5 (m o l)

    2 2 , 4 1 8

    t s mol ca axit RCOOH, ancol ROH; v este RCOOR ln lt l a, b, c (mol)

    Theo bi ra: 1,55 gam X + O2

    0,0775 mol CO2 + 0,07 mol H2O

    Bo ton khi lng: 2 2 2

    X O C O H Om m m m

    2O

    m (0 , 0 7 7 5 .4 4 0 , 0 7 .1 8 ) 1, 5 5 3,1 2 (g am )

    2

    O

    3,1 2n 0 , 0 9 7 5 (m o l)

    3 2

    Bo ton O:

    2 2 2O ( X ) C O H O O

    n 2 .n n 2 .n 2 .0 , 0 7 7 5 0 , 0 7 2 .0 , 0 9 7 5 0 , 0 3 ( m o l)

    O ( X )n 2 .a b 2 c = 0,03 (1) (do lng O trong cc cht gp vo)

    Khi cho X tc dng vi dung dch NaOH th ch c axit v este phn ng. Do chng u n chc nn

    s phn ng vi NaOH theo t l mol 1:1

    2

    ' '

    R C O O H N aO H R C O O N a H O

    R C O O R N aO H R C O O N a R O H

    N aO H ax it e s te

    n n n a c 0 , 0 1 2 5 m o l (2)

    Theo bi ra lng ancol thu c sau khi phn ng vi NaOH gm lng ancol ban u v lng

    ancol c to ra t phn ng thy phn este

    'R O H

    n 0 , 0 1 b c (3)

    Gii h (1)(2)(3) ta tnh c

    a 0 , 0 0 7 5 (m o l)

    b 0 , 0 0 5 (m o l)

    c 0 , 0 0 5 (m o l)

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 18

    Mt khc, ta tnh c Mancol = 0 , 7 4

    7 40 , 0 1

    ancol l C4H9OH

    Theo nh lut bo ton khi lng p dng cho qu trnh phn ng vi NaOH ta c

    p n A.

    Nhn xt :

    - Bi ton trn ch khai thc phn ng chy ca hp cht hu c , phn ng ca axit , este tc dng

    vi dung dch NaOH.

    - Ta cn s dng linh hot cc nh lut nh : bo ton nguyn t, bo ton khi lng tnh

    ton.

    2O

    2 2X (C ; H ; O ) C O H O

    2 2 2

    2 2 2

    O ( X ) C O H O O

    X O C O H O

    n 2 .n n 2 .n

    m m m m

    - Trong bi ton trn ta khng cn tm c th axit no m vn tm c da vo cc phn ng tng

    qut v nh lut bo ton khi lng

    - Tuy nhin, Vi bi ton trn ta hon ton c th tm c tng cht c th.

    Ta c X

    m 0, 0 0 7 5 .(R 4 5 ) 0 , 0 0 5 .7 4 0 , 0 0 5 .(R 4 4 5 7 )

    R 27 . Theo phng trnh chy th 2 2

    C O H On n nn trong gc axit phi c t nht 1 lin kt

    . Theo bi ra, hai axit ng ng k tip nn 1 2 1

    R 2 7 R ( R 1 4 )

    Do

    1

    2

    2

    3

    R : C H C

    C H C C HR :

    C H C C

    Cu 26: Bi gii

    Do trong cng 1 iu kin t l v th tch cng chnh l t l s mol, do vy ta chuyn ton b th

    tch sang s mol

    t 0,2 mol hn hp kh Z thu c 1,73 mol hn hp X bao gm CO2 ; N2; H2O. Dn hn hp X

    i qua bnh ng dung dch H2SO4 c s hp th ht nc. Kh thot ra ngoi c s mol l 0,83 mol

    bao gm CO2 v N2.

    H O

    n , , , (m o l) 2

    1 7 3 0 8 3 0 9

    t chy hon ton 1 mol Z thu c C O N

    H O

    ,n n , ( m o l)

    ,

    ,n , ( m o l)

    ,

    2 2

    2

    0 8 34 1 5

    0 2

    0 94 5

    0 2

    Gi s Z c cng thc chung l CxHyNz

    x y Z

    y zC H N xC O H O N

    2 2 22 2

    Nh vy: C O N H O

    z yn n x , (m o l) ; n , (m o l)

    2 2 2

    4 15 4 52 2

    Z c s lin kt trung bnh l

    .x ( y z ) z yk ( x ) , , , (m o l)

    2 21 4 15 4 5 1 0 65

    2 2 2

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 19

    Do vy 1 mol Z c kh nng phn ng c vi 0,65 mol Br2

    p n A

    Nhn xt:

    - Bi ton trn khng cn tm chnh xc hai hidrocacbon l g.

    - Hidro cacbon mch h lm mt mu dung dch Br2 trong dung mi CCl4 chnh l phn ng

    cng Br2 vo lin kt , ta lun c t l B r

    n

    n

    2

    1

    1

    - Bi ton trn tr nn n gin khi chng ta dng phng php tnh s lin kt trung bnh ca

    hn hp.

    - Chng ta cn nh cng thc tnh bt bo ha k trong phn t hp cht hu c.

    i ix .(n )

    k

    2 2

    2trong xi: l s nguyn t I; ni : l ha tr ca nguyn t i.k= s lin kt + s

    vng.

    - Nu chng ta i tm hidro cacbon sau lm th cng c tuy nhin, s mt nhiu thi gian.

    Cu 27: Bi gii :

    Nhng cht tha mn yu cu bi ton l :

    CH2=CHCOOH,CH2=CHOOCCH3, CH2OH-CH2OH,

    HOOC(CH2)4COOH, HCHO.

    p n C

    Nhn xt:

    - Phn ng trng ngng:

    * L phn ng to thnh phn t polime t cc monome, ng thi to ra nhiu phn t nh

    n gin nh H2O, HCl, ...

    * iu kin cc monome tham gia phn ng trng ngng l phn t phi c t nht 2 nhm

    chc hoc 2 nguyn t linh ng c th tch khi phn t.

    - Phn ng trng hp:

    * L phn ng cng hp lin tip nhiu phn t nh (monome) to thnh phn t ln

    (polime). Phn ng trng hp khng gii phng cc sn phm ph phn t nh, cc mt xch c s

    l c cng thnh phn vi monome ban u.

    * iu kin c lin kt bi hoc vng khng bn.

    Cu 28: Bi gii:

    Cn nh rng peptit c to bi cc amino axit no,h, cha 1 nhm COOH v 1 nhm NH2. Khi t

    chy A th lng O2 cn dng chnh bng lng O2 t chy X.

    Gi cng thc tng qut ca A l: n 2 n 2

    C H O N aN . Phng trnh chy

    n 2 n 2 2 2 2 3 2 2

    3.(2n 1)2C H O N N a O (2n 1)CO N a CO N 2n H O

    2

    Ta c: 2

    O

    107, 52n 4,8 ( m ol )

    22, 4

    Theo phng trnh chy th: 2 2 2

    CO O CO

    2n n n 3, 2 (m ol )

    3

    Hn hp kh cn li sau khi a B v iu kin tiu chun gm 2 2

    CO ; N

    Vy 2 2 3

    N N a CO

    82, 432n 3, 2 0, 48 (m ol ) n

    22, 4

    Theo phng trnh: 2 2 2

    H O CO Nn n n 3,68 (mol )

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 20

    p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng:

    A

    m 3, 2.44 0, 48.28 3, 68.18 0, 48.106 4,8.32 117, 76 (gam )

    X c 11 lin kt peptit nn ta c phng trnh:

    2X 12 N aO H A H O

    0, 48.2m 117, 76 18. 0, 48.2.40 80,8 (gam )

    12

    p n A

    Cu 29: Bi gii :

    PT P : N a S O H S O N a S O S S O H O 2 2 3 2 4 2 4 2 2

    Theo bi ra ta tnh c : N a S O S O

    n , (m o l) ; n , (m o l) 2 2 3 2

    0 0 5 0 0 4

    Nhn thy lng SO2 sinh ra ta s tnh c lng Na2S2O3 tham gia phn ng :

    N a S O ( p h an u n g ) S On n , ( m o l)

    2 2 3 2

    0 0 4

    Lng Na2S2O3 phn ng chnh l lng Na2S2O3 mt i

    b an .d au

    N a S O

    sau

    N a S O

    , ,

    n ,,

    v ,

    n ,

    2 2 3

    2 2 3

    0 05 0 01

    0 05 0 10 01

    400 01

    p n A

    Cu 30. Bi gii :

    Kh Cl2 c tnh oxi ha mnh c kh nng ty mu v st trng.

    Khi cho kh Cl2 vo qu m th

    2C l H O H H C l H C lO

    Axit sinh ra lm qu tm ha . Tuy nhin HClO l axit c tnh oxi ha mnh c kh nng ty mu

    nn mu ca qu dn mt mu.

    p n A

    Cu 31: Bi gii:

    - Cng thc ca cc axit bo l:

    Axit stearic: C17H35COOH ( no,n chc mch h, M= 284)

    Axit panmitic: C15H31COOH( no,n chc mch h, M= 256)

    Axit oleic: C17H33COOH ( khng no, 1 lin kt , n chc mch h; M= 282)

    Axit linoleic: C17H31COOH ( khng no, 2 lin kt , n chc mch h, M = 280).

    - Khi t chy hp cht hu c (C; H; O) th mi quan h gia s mol CO2 v H2O nh sau:

    2 2

    CO H O Xn n (k 1).n

    - Theo bi ra ta c: 2

    O

    549, 92n 24, 55 (m ol )

    22, 4 ;

    - 2

    H O

    300, 6n 16, 7 (m ol )

    18

    - Gi s mol cc axit bo axit stearic, axit panmitic, axit oleic v axit linoleic ln lt l: a ; b ; c ; d.

    * Khi t chy cc axit bo th sn phm chy l CO2 v H2O

    2 2

    CO H On n (1 1).a (1 1).b (2 1).c (3 1).d c 2d (1)

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 21

    * Mt khc khi cho hn hp cc axit bo qua dung dch nc brom th ch c cc axit khng no cha

    lin kt mi tham gia phn ng vi t l

    2Br

    n 1

    n 1

    Vy ta c

    2Br

    n c 2.d n 0, 5 (mol ) (2)

    Vy (1) ;(2)

    2 2

    CO H On n 0, 5 (mol )

    2CO

    n 0, 5 16, 7 17, 2 (mol )

    * Phng trnh chy tng qut ca hn hp X l :

    2 2 2

    X O CO H O

    Bo ton nguyn t O ta c :

    2 2 2

    O ( X ) CO H O On 2.n n 2.n 2.17, 2 16, 7 2.24, 55 2 (mol )

    * Khi lng hn hp X l :

    X C H O

    m m m m 17, 2.12 16, 7.2.1 2.16 271,8 (gam )

    Nhn xt: Bi ton trn khai thc v phn ng chy ca cc hp cht hu c, v phn ng cng dung

    dch Br2 vo cc lin kt gc hidrocacbon.

    - Khi t chy hp cht hu c CzHyOz thu c lng CO2 v H2O vi mi quan h

    C O H O Xn n ( k ).n

    2 2

    1 . Trong k = s lin kt + s vng ( trong phn t).

    - Cn ch lin kt trong cc nhm chc nh este, axit khng b ph v bi dung dch nc Br2.

    Tuy nhin cn phi lu rng, andehit lm mt mu dung dch nc Br2 y khng phi l phn ng

    cng Br2 ph v lin kt ( C=C hay C C) m y l phn ng oxi ha kh. Do , nu chng ta xt

    hn hp cc axit, este, xeton n chc, mch h th mol Br2 phn ng = (k-1).nhn hp.( ta phi b i 1 lin

    kt trong chc axit, este, xeton)

    Cu 32: Bi gii :

    Phn t CnH2n-2O2 c 2 lin kt trong phn t nn khng th l axit n chc c hai ni i trong

    mch cacbon, v phn t axit trong nhm chc COOH c 1 lin kt .

    p n C.

    Nhn xt :

    Hp cht hu c cha ( C ; H ) hoc cha (C ; H ; O ) c cng thc tng qut dng

    n n k z

    C H O 2 2 2

    trong k l s lin kt v vng trong phn t. Cn z s nguyn t O

    Axit cacboxylic n chc c hai ni i trong mch cacbon th k = 3; z = 2

    Vy cng thc ca axit l n n

    C H O2 4 2

    Cu 33: Bi gii :

    A. Sai v c kh C2H4 thot ra, trong mi trng cn kim xy ra phn ng tch HX ca dn xut

    halogen. K O H / C H O H

    C H B r C H H B r 2 5

    2 5 2 4

    B. Sai v C2H5Br to ra khng tan trong dung dch, nn dung dch khng ng nht.

    C. Sai v an col CH3CH2CH2CH2OH khng tan v hn trong nc ch c cc ancol t C1 ti C3 l tan v

    hn trong nc.

    D. ng v trong phn t phenol nhm OH nh trc tip vo vng benzen, l nhm y in t nn lm

    mt electron ti cc v tr ortho v para tng nn d th hn so vi benzen khi tc dng vi HNO3

    c d to kt ta mu vng ca axit picric.

    p n D

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 22

    Nhn xt: Cu hi ny i hi HS phi nh tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ha hc ca 1 s hp cht hu

    c.

    Cu 34: Bi gii:

    S phn ng sau :

    , ( m o l )O , tN i , t

    , ( m o l )

    C OC H C H C H C H C H C H (k )

    ( X ) C H C H C H O ( Y ) C H C H C H O H (k )H O

    C H C H C O O H C H C H C O O H (k )

    002

    23 2 3 2 3

    0 1 5

    3 2 3 2 2

    2

    3 2 3 2 0 2

    0

    0

    1

    Trong t chy Y ta c : ( C H , C H O H ) H O C O

    n n n , , (m o l)( ) 3 8 3 7 2 2

    0 2 0 1 5 1

    Trong phn ng ca X vi H2 , ta c

    H (p / u ) ( C H , C H C H C H O ) ( C H , C H O H

    n n n ) 2 3 6 3 2 3 8 3 7

    (2)

    T (1) v (2) suy ra :

    H ( p / u ) ( C H , C H O H ) H

    n n , (m o l) V , . , , ( l) 2 3 8 3 7 2

    0 0 5 0 0 5 2 2 4 1 1 2

    .

    Cu 35. Bi gii :

    Nhng cht c kh nng tham gia phn ng trng gng l : fomanehit, phenyl fomat, glucoz,

    anehit axetic, natri fomat

    p n D

    Nhn xt:

    - Phn ng trng gng (tc dng vi AgNO3/NH3 )xy ra vi nhng cht c nhm chc CHO. Kt

    ta to ra l Ag. y l phn ng oxi ha kh. Cn ch AgNO3 y ng vai tr l cht oxi ha

    cc cht cha nhm chc CHO l cht kh ( b oxi ha)

    - Ankin c ni ba u mch phn ng vi AgNO3/NH3 to kt ta vng nht khng c gi l phn

    ng trng gng. y l phn ng th ion kim loi.

    Cu 36. Bi gii :

    Hn hp X khi t chy thu c mol CO2 v mol H2O bng nhau X l cc cht hu c no n

    chc.

    Nhn thy X gm andehit th c 1 nguyn t O ; axit cacboxylic Z v este T (Z v T l ng phn) th

    trong phn t c 2 nguyn t O. Do ta s dng nh lut bo ton nguyn t O.Ta tnh c

    - Gi mol Andehit: x (mol); Axit cacboxylic Z v este T: y (mol)

    x + y = 0,2 ( mol) (1)

    - Theo phng trnh phn ng chy ta c :

    x + 2y + 0,625.2 = 0,525.2 + 0,525 (2)

    - Gii h (1) (2) x = 0,075 (mol) ; y = 0,125 (mol)

    - p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng ta tnh c khi lng hn hp X.

    X

    m , . , . , . , (g am ) 0 525 44 0 525 18 0 625 32 12 55

    an d eh it

    an d eh it T , Z

    T , Z

    MM . , M . , ,

    M

    440 075 0 125 12 55

    74

    Vy cng thc phn t ca Y l: CH3CHO. Khi cho Y i trng gng ta c

    A g N O / N H

    C H C H O A g

    , ( m o l) , ( m o l)

    3 3

    32

    0 0 7 5 0 1 5

    A g

    m m , . , (g am ) 0 1 5 1 0 8 1 6 2

    p n B.

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 23

    Nhn xt: y l cu hi kh hay ca thi v kin thc kh tng hp: Kin thc v t chy 1 s

    hp cht c v kin thc v phn ng trng gng ca anehit. Bi ny gip HS gi nh v ti hin

    cc kin thc c ng thi rn t duy lp lun logic cho HS.

    Cu 37. Bi gii

    Theo bi cho ta tnh c N aO H N a C O

    n , (m o l) ; n , (m o l) 2 3

    0 2 0 1

    im quan trng chng ta nhn thy khi hp th CO2 vo dung dch th thu c dung dch A. Khi

    chia A thnh 2 phn bng nhau sau thc hin 2 th nghim thu c kt ta CaCO3 th lng

    kt ta 2 th nghim li khc nhau. C th 3b = c, chng t rng trong dung dch A thu c bao

    gm C O

    H C O

    2

    3

    3

    N a H C ON a O H : ,

    C ON a C O : , N a C O

    3

    2

    2 3 2 3

    0 2

    0 1

    Th nghim 1, khi cho tc dng vi dung dch CaCl2 d C aC l

    N a C O C aC O

    22 3 3 N a C O C aC O

    n n b ( m o l) 2 3 3

    Th nghim 2 : Khi cho tc dng vi dung dch Ca(OH)2 d :

    C a ( O H )N aH C O

    C aC ON a C O

    23

    3

    2 3

    N a C O : b ( m o l)

    N aH C O : c b ( m o l)

    2 3

    3

    Trong dung dch A bao gm

    B T D T

    N a : , ( m o l)

    C O : b ( m o l) , b c b ( )

    H C O : c b ( m o l)

    2

    3

    3

    0 4

    2 0 4 4 2 2 1

    2 2

    Theo bi ra 3b = c (2)

    Gii h (1) v (2) ta tnh c b ,

    c ,

    0 0 5

    0 1 5

    Bo ton lng C ban u v sau phn ng ta c :

    V

    , . , . , . , V , ( lit ),

    0 1 2 0 05 2 0 15 2 0 05 4 4822 4

    p n A

    Nhn xt: y l dng ton kh c trng ca CO2: Hp th CO2 vo dung dch cha kim v mui

    cacbonnat ca kim loi kim. gii quyt tt dng ny cc bn cn s dng "trit " 2 nh lut

    quan trng l: nh lut bo ton nguyn t ( y l nguyn t C) v nh lut bo ton in tch

    (trong dung dch th lun trung ha v in Tng s mol in tch dng = Tng s mol in tch

    m).

    Cu 38: Bi gii :

    Theo bi ra ta tnh c

    O C O H O

    , , ,n , (m o l) ; n , (m o l) ; n , (m o l)

    ,

    2 2 2

    30 24 52 8 19 81 35 1 2 1 1

    22 4 44 18

    Theo nh lut bo ton khi lng ta tnh c

    Mm , , , . , (g am ) 52 8 19 8 1 35 32 29 4

    Nhn thy mol CO2 ln hn mol H2O. iu chng t axit n chc Y mch h c nhiu hn 1 lin

    kt . Ti y ta loi c p n A v B.

    Do tnh cht bi ton trc nghim ti y ch cn 2 phng n l C v D.

    TH1 : Gi s C ng

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 24

    Theo bi ra ta c s sau

    :

    xC H O : x (m o l) x y ,

    C H O : y (m o l) x y ,y

    3 8

    3 2 2

    7

    0 4 3 0

    4 1 1 1

    6

    Th li : M

    m . . , (g am ) 7 1

    60 70 25 6730 6

    V l v m = 29,4 (gam)

    Vy C sai

    p n D

    Cu 39: Bi gii :

    Theo bi ra ta tnh c :

    H

    C u

    S O

    F e

    N O

    n , ( m o l)

    n , ( m o l)

    n , ( m o l)

    n , ( m o l)

    n , ( m o l)

    2

    2

    4

    3

    3

    0 2

    0 1

    0 1

    0 1

    0 5

    V bn cht y chnh l h mi trng ion N O 3

    trong mi trng cha ion H

    Nhn thy khi cho kim loi Fe vo dung dch sau phn ng thu c 0,69 m gam hn hp kim loi

    iu chng t Fe cn d sau phn ng. Nh vy thnh phn dung dch sau phn ng ch l mui

    ca ion Fe2+

    .

    Do H+ ht nn ta s dng bn phn ng tnh mol NO

    H N O e N O H O

    3 2

    4 3 2

    H

    N O

    n ,n , (m o l)

    0 2

    0 054 4

    Bo ton lng N ta tnh c mol N O 3cn li trong dung dch,

    N On , (m ol)

    3

    0 45

    Thnh phn dung dch sau phn ng nh sau :

    S O : ,

    N O : ,

    , . ,F e : , ( B T D T )

    2

    4

    3

    2

    0 1

    0 4 5

    0 1 2 0 4 50 3 2 5

    2

    m u o i

    m , 55 7

    Bo ton kim loi trc v sau phn ng ta c phng trnh sau :

    m , , , m , . m 6 4 5 6 0 69 0 325 56 20

    p n B

    Nhn xt: y l cu hi cng kh ri nu chng ta khng phn tch gi thit ca cho. Cha kha

    m ca bi ton chnh l gi thit "0,69m gam hn hp kim loi". iu ny c ngha l Fe cn d sau

    phn ng. Nh vy thnh phn dung dch sau phn ng ch l mui ca ion Fe2+

    . n y th vic

    gii quyt bi ton tr ln n gin.

    Cu 40: Bi gii :

    Khi t chy hon ton mi cht X, Y u to ra s mol CO2 t hn s mol H2O X v Y l 2 ancol

    no mch h .

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 25

    t chy hon ton hn hp Z gm nhng lng bng nhau v s mol ca X v Y thu c t l s

    mol CO2 v H2O tng ng l 2:3.C O

    X , Y

    h h

    nn ( m o l) C

    n

    23 2 1 2 ; .

    H 2 3

    61

    . Mt khc trong

    hn hp Z gm X v Y li c s mol bng nhau .

    TH1 : C X v Y c s nguyn t C bng nhau. X : C H O

    Y : C H O

    2 6

    2 6 2

    TH2 : X c 1 nguyn t C Da vo C 2 nn ta c :

    YY

    . .CC

    1 1 12 3

    2

    Cc cht tha mn l C H O C H O C H O

    ( cap ) ( c ap )C H O C H O C H O

    4 4 4

    3 8 3 8 2 3 8 3

    2 2

    ( v s nhm chc lun nh hn hoc bng s nguyn t C trong phn t )

    Vy c 6 cht

    p n A

    Nhn xt: Bi ton i hi HS phi c kin thc c s suy lun tt.

    Cu 41: Bi gii :

    t cng thc ca cc cht

    X

    Y

    Z

    v s mol mi cht ln lt l : '

    '

    R C O O H : a

    R O H : a

    R C O O R : b

    2

    Khi cho M tc dng vi NaOH

    ' '

    R C O O H N aO H R C O O N a H O

    R C O O R N aO H R C O O N a R O H

    2

    Theo bi ta c :

    ax it

    A n co l

    an co l

    ax it

    a c , M

    (a c ).M , , ,M ,

    ( a c )(M ) , a c a c

    2 0 2 60

    8 05 8 05 8 0540 25

    2 1 23 16 4 2

    p n C

    Cu 42. Bi gii :

    Nhn thy khi hp th 1 hidrocacbon no X v 1 hidrocacbon khng no vo bnh nc brom cha 40

    gam brom. Sau khi brom phn ng ht th khi lng bnh tng ln 10,5 g

    iu chng t hidrocacbon khng no b hp th hon ton

    Khi khi lng bnh tng chnh l khi lng ca hidrocacbon khng no

    B r

    R H

    R H k h o n g n o

    n ,

    M C Hm ,

    2

    3 6

    0 2542

    10 5

    ( nhn thy ch c th hidrocacbon c 1 lin kt mi tha mn)

    Kh thot ra bao gm c hidro cacbon no v c th c hidrocacbon khng no v dung dch Br2 y

    khng d.

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 26

    Khi kh bay ra gm n n

    C H

    C H

    2 2

    3 6

    c khi lng 3,7 gam

    Theo bi ra khi t chy hn hp kh bay ra thu c

    C O

    n , (m o l) 2

    110 25

    44

    Nhn thy thnh phn ca hn hp ch gm C v H

    Do ta tnh c H H O

    , , .n , n , (m o l)

    2

    3 7 0 25 120 7 0 35

    1

    T ta s tnh c mol ca hidrocacbon no ( V C3H6 khi t chy thu c mol CO2 bng mol

    H2O)

    n n n nH O C O C H C H

    n n n n , , , (m o l)

    2 2 2 2 2 2

    0 3 5 0 2 5 0 1

    Theo bi ra ta c s sau :

    n n O

    C H : , ( m o l)C O : , ( m o l)

    C H : x ( m o l)

    22 2

    2

    3 6

    0 10 2 5

    Do vy ta c h sau : , .n x , 0 1 3 0 25

    Nhn thy C3H6 c th d, do x 0 n , 2 5

    Do n l s nguyn dng nn n c th nhn cc gi tr: n =1 ; n=2

    Do cht tha mn l CH4 v C2H6

    p n A

    Nhn xt: y khng phi l bi tp kh nhng lm tt th HS cn c k nng tnh ton v suy

    lun tt tm ra hng gii quyt nhanh nht.

    Cu 43: Bi gii :

    Nhn thy cng lng Ba(OH)2 nhng khi tng mol CO2 ln th lng kt ta gim.

    Trng hp cn quan tm y l vi 0,06 mol CO2 cng c th to c lng kt ta ln nht sau

    b ha tan mt phn. Hoc cng c th mi ch to c kt ta ch kt ta cha b ha tan.

    Ta gi s lng CO2 tng ln l ha tan kt ta .

    Phng trnh ha tan nh sau :

    C O B aC O H O B a (H C O ) 2 3 2 3 2

    S mol CO2 tng 0,02 (mol)

    S mol kt ta gim : b (mol)

    Vy b = 0,02 (mol)

    Nh vy trng hp ny c 2 th nghim u to c lng kt ta ln nht sau b ha

    tan.

    Nh vy TN1:

    B aC O : , ( m o l)

    C O B a (O H ) , ,B a ( H C O ) : , ( m o l)

    3

    2 2

    3 2

    0 0 4

    0 0 6 0 0 40 0 1

    2

    Bo ton nguyn t Ba ta tnh c

    B a ( O H )

    ,n , (m o l) V , ( l)

    ,

    2

    0 0 50 0 5 0 1

    0 5

    Nh vy TN2:

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 27

    B aC O : , ( m o l)

    C O B a (O H ) , ,B a ( H C O ) : , ( m o l)

    3

    2 2

    3 2

    0 0 2

    0 0 8 0 0 20 0 3

    2

    Bo ton nguyn t Ba ta tnh c

    B a ( O H )

    ,n , (m o l) V , ( l)

    ,

    2

    0 0 50 0 5 0 1

    0 5

    Nh vy TH ny c 2 th nghim u ng ( ta khng cn xt TH cn li na )

    p n B

    Cu 44: Bi gii:

    2 3 2 3

    3 2 2 2 3 2

    2 4 2 4

    2 2 2

    3 2 3 3 4

    3 2 2 3

    2 2

    2

    H S P b ( N O ) P b S 2 H N O (1)

    P b ( N O ) C u C l P b C l C u ( N O ) ( 2 )

    H S C u S O C u S H S O (3)

    S O 2 H S 3S 2 H O ( 4 )

    3 N H 3 H O A lC l A l(O H ) 3 N H C l(5 )

    A lC l 3 N aA lO 6 H O 4 A l(O H ) 3 N aC l(6 )

    F eS 2 H C l F eC l H S (7 )

    N a S i

    3 2 3

    3 2 3 2 3 2

    2 3 3 2 3 2

    O 2 H C l 2 N aC l H S iO (8 )

    2 N aH C O B a (O H ) B aC O N a C O 2 H O (9 )

    3 N a C O 2 F eC l 3 H O 2 F e (O H ) 3C O 6 N aC l(1 0 )

    Cc th nghim to kt ta: 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10

    p n D

    Cu 45. Bi gii :

    Vy cc cht tha mn l : mantoz, glucoz, isobutilen, propanal, isopren, axit metacrylic, phenylamin,

    m-crezol, stiren, xiclopropan.

    p n B

    Nhn xt:

    - lm tt dng ton ny HS cn nh kin thc v 1 s phn ng c trng ca 1 s hp cht.

    - Cht c kh nng phn ng c vi nc Br2 : cht c lin kt bi (C=C); xiclo ankan vng 3 cnh ;

    phenol ; anilin ; cht c nhm CHO.

    Cu 46: Bi gii :

    Ta nhn thy X chnh l X : H O C H C H O O C H 2 2

    A. X l hp cht hu c a chc.(tp chc)

    B. X c tham gia phn ng trng bc. ( ng v c nhm CHO)

    C. X tc dng c vi Na.( v c nhm OH )

    D. X tc dng c vi dung dch HCl ( c chc este)

    p n A

    Cu 47: Bi gii:

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 28

    S mol CO2 = 0,4875 < s mol H2O nn X l hn hp 2 ancol n chc no, c cng thc trung bnh l

    n nC H O H

    2 1

    S C trung bnh = C O

    X

    n ,,

    n , ,

    20 4 8 7 5

    1 6 90 7 7 5 0 4 8 7 5

    nn c mt ancol l CH3OH

    Khi lng phn 1: = 0,2875 ( 14n + 18 ) =0,2875(14.1,69+18)=12

    suy ra phn 1 c C H O H

    R O H

    C H O H : (g ) n , (m o l)

    R O H : (g ) n , , , (m o l)

    336 0 1875

    6 0 2875 0 1875 0 1

    Rt ra R O H

    M R O H C H O H,

    3 7

    660

    0 1

    Nh vy phn 2 c 0,1875k mol CH3OH v 0,1k mol C3H7OH. Theo c

    01875k.0,8=0,15k mol CH3OH v 0,1k.0,5=0,05k mol C3H7OH tham gia cc phn ng ete ha

    Vy ( ete )( , k , k )

    m . , k . , k k ,

    m m m . ,

    3

    1 2

    18 0 15 0 0532 0 15 60 0 05 15 2 5

    2

    12 12 2 5 42

    p n D

    Cu 48: Bi gii :

    T d kin bi cho ta tnh c

    x en lu lo g lu an co l

    a n co l H O

    co n

    n n n

    , . ,V . , . . . . , , V ,

    , ,

    m , . , , ,

    2

    2

    1 0 1 3 6 8 0 5 50 8 2 4 6 0 6 4 8 3 6 8 4 4 9 8

    1 6 2 0 8 0 4 5

    3 6 8 0 8 4 4 9 8 7 4 4

    p n B

    Nhn xt: C th ni y l cu "g im" ca 1 thi. Vic chn p n ng/sai ch ph thuc vo

    thao tc bm my tnh ca mi bn.

    Cu 49: Bi gii : B T D T

    K K, . , , , n n , 0 0 5 2 0 1 0 0 8 0 0 5 0 0 7

    Nh vy khi nung B th ion tN O N O 0

    3 2 ( y l mui ca kim loi kim )

    C C

    S O : ,

    N O : , X N Om m ,

    K : ,

    N a : ,

    2

    4

    3 2

    0 0 5

    0 0 51 1 6 7

    0 0 7

    0 0 8

    p n B

    Nhn xt: gii quyt dng bi tp ny cc bn ch cn ch n inh lut bo ton in tch v

    nh cc dng nhit phn ca mui nitrat.

    Cu 50: Bi gii :

    Theo hnh v : 2

    M ax

    Ba ( O H )n 0, 5 n 0, 5

    Khi phn ng kt thc :3 3 2

    B T N T .B a

    B aC O B a ( H C O )n 0, 35 n 0, 5 0, 35 0,15

  • Megabook Chuyn Gia Sch Luyn Thi Trang 29

    2

    3 3 2

    B T N T .C

    C O

    B aC O B a ( H C O )

    n 0 , 3 5 0 ,1 5 .2 0 , 6 5 (m o l)

    Chn p n B

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