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VITAMIN LARUT AIR. www.themegallery.com. Vitamin : zat-zat organik kompleks yang berfungsi sebagai pengatur metabolime tubuh . Klasifikasi : Vit larut air dan vit larut lemak Dibutuhkan dalam jumlah yang sedikit - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



VITAMIN LARUT AIRwww.themegallery.comL/O/G/OVitamin : zat-zat organik kompleks yang berfungsi sebagai pengatur metabolime tubuh. Klasifikasi : Vit larut air dan vit larut lemak

Dibutuhkan dalam jumlah yang sedikitVitamin tdk dapat dibentuk oleh tubuh dan harus diperoleh dari makanan atau suplemenAretinolphototransductionDcholecalciferolbone remodelingEtocopherolsantioxidantKphytylmenaquinonemultiprenylmenaquinonecoagulationbone remodelingB1thiaminecarbohydrate metabolismB2riboflavinredox, respirationB3niacinredoxB6pyridoxinepyridoxaminepyridoxalaa metabolismglycogenolysisB5 Pantothenic acid tca, fa and cholesterolB7 Biotin gluconeogenesis, tca, fa, aaB12cobalamin1C&H metabolismB9 Folic acid 1C metabolismCascorbic acidhydroxylationCholine ac, plVitaminsL/O/G/O3aa: amino acidtca: tricarboxylic acid cyclefa: fatty acidac: acetylcholinepl: phospholipid1C & H: one-carbon and hydrogen transferVitamin dalam MakananVitamin larut air banyak yang hilang saat proses pemasakan.

Kehilangan vitamin dalam pemasakan dapat dicegah dengan cara :Suhu tdk terlalu tinggiWaktu masak tdk terlalu lamaMenggunakan air pemasak sesedikit mungkinPotongan bahan makanan tdk terlalu halusPanci ditutupSisa air rebusan utk masakan lain

Vitamin Larut AirLarut dalam airTerdiri dari Vitamin C, vitamin BBiasanya tdk disimpan dalam tubuh dan dikeluarkan melalui urin dalam jumlah kecilBanyak hilang dalam proses pemasakanMembantu dlm metabolisme energiWater-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. Because water-soluble vitamins are not stored by the body to any extent, foods reach in these vitamins must be eaten more often than foods with fat-soluble vitamins.Fruits and vegetables are good source of water soluble vitamins.

VITAMIN CCommon Food Sources :Citrus fruits, berries, tomatoes, broccoli, melon, potatoes, green peppers, green and yellow vegetablesMajor Body Functions :Aids in the formation of collagenAids in the absorption of iron into the bodyPrevents oxidationWound healingMaintaining blood vessels, bones, teethProduction of brain hormonesImmune factors

Deficiency Symptoms :Bleeding gums, wound dont heal, dry and rough skin, scurvy, increased infections, BruisesExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms :Nontoxic under normal conditions, rebound scurvy when high doses discontinued, diarrhea, bloating, cramps, increase incidence of kidney stones.

Stability in Food :Most unstable underheat, drying, storage

Bleeding Gums


Scorbutic RosaryFollicular HemorrhagesRDA for Vitamin C90 mg/day for male adults75 mg/day for female adults+35 mg/day for smokersAverage intake ~72 mg/dayBody is saturated at intake of 200 mg/dayUpper Level is 2 g/day

Vitamin BVitamin B complex - needed for chemical reactions in the body and help improve appetite, growth and reproductionBcomplex : a group of vitamins involved in energy reactionsVitamin B complex sources- green pastures, cereal grains, milk, fish solubles, and animal proteins

THIAMINEThiamine (vitamin B1) is a water soluble vitamin. It is essential for the utilization of carbohydrates. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the coenzyme of cocarboxylase plays a part in activating transketolase, an enzyme involved in the direct oxidative pathway for glucose.14

THIAMINE (Vit. B1)Common Food Sources :Liver, whole grains, enriched grain products, meat, legumes, peanuts, sunflower seeds, Green beans, milk, orange juice, dried beans and seedsMajor Body Functions :Aids in energy metabolismImportant in function of nervous systemPromotes normal appetite

Deficiency Symptoms :Beri-beri damaged to the nervous and cardiovascular system, muscle weakness, wastingWernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome mental confusion, amnesia, muscular incoordination.Edema, impaired growthExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms : None known easily cleared by kidneyStability In Food :Losses depend on length & cooking methodDissolve in cooking waterNot too rubbed and repeatedly on cleaning riceRDA For Thiamin1.1 mg/day for women1.2 mg/day for menLow income people and older people may barely meet needs (highly processed and unenriched foods)Surplus is rapidly lost in urine; non toxic

Wet and Dry BeriBeriRIBOFLAVIN (Vit. B2)Common Food Sources :Liver, milk, yoghurt, cheese, meat, poultry, dark green vegetables, whole and enriched grain products, eggs.Major Body Functions :Aids in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism Essential for growthhealthy skin and normal functioning of the eyesDeficiency Symptoms :Cracks at corner of mouth, dermatitis around nose and lips, eyes sensitive to light, emotional changes (depression)


Excessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms :None known Stability In Food :Sensitive to lightWater soluble

RDA for Riboflavin1.1 mg/day for women1.3 mg/day for menAverage intake is above RDAToxicity not documented

NIACIN (Vit. B3)Common Food Sources :Liver, fish, poultry, meat, peanuts, whole and enriched grain products, milk, eggs.Major Body Functions :Aids in energy metabolismMaintains normal functioning of the nervous and digestive tractPromotes normal appetite and healthy skinDeficiency Symptoms :Pellagra dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia (3 Ds)Skin disorders, weakness and dizziness, mental confusion, irritability, loss of appetiteExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms :Abnormal liver function, cramps, nausea, ulcersDeficiency of Niacin: Pellagra

RDA for Niacin14 (mg) NE/day for women16 (mg) NE/day for menDaily Value on labels is 20 mgUpper Level is 35 mgToxicity : headache, liver and GI damage

PYRIDOXINE (Vit. B6)Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) exists in three forms pyridoxine, piridoxal and pyridoxamine.Common Food Sources :Meats, whole grains and cereals, green leafy vegetables, poultry, fish, potatoes, banana.

Major Body Functions :Aids in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism and absorptionAids in red blood cell formationHelps body use fats

Deficiency Symptoms :Anemia, skin disorders, dermatitis, cracks at corners of mouth, irritability, kidney stone, nausea, smooth tongue.Excessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms :Numbness and damaged to the nervous system (hands or feet)Stability In Food :- Considerable losses during cookingRDA for Vitamin B61.3 mg/day for adults1.7 mg/day for men over 501.5 mg/day for women over 50Daily Value set at 2 mgAverage intake is more than the RDAAthletes may need moreAlcohol destroys vitamin B6BIOTIN (Vit. B7)Common Food Sources :Liver, kidney, egg, milk, fresh vegetables, nuts, whole grains.Major Body Functions :Aids in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism

Deficiency Symptoms :Anorexia, nausea, glossitis, dermatitis, depression, fatigue, muscle pain, anemiaExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms :None known

COBALAMINE (Vit. B12)Unlike other water soluble vitamin, vit.B12 is stored in the liver. Vit.B12 is sensitive to ultraviolet light.Common Food Sources :Found only in animal foods : meats, liver, kidney, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, oysters, shellfish.

Major Body Functions :Aids in energy metabolismAids in red blood cell formationHelps maintain the central nervous systemNecessary for folate activityDeficiency Symptoms :Pernicious anemia (large cell type) :Looks like folate deficiencyNerve degeneration, weakness

Sore tongue and weakness, neurological disordersExcessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms :None known

RDA for Vitamin B122.4 ug/ day for adults and elderly adultsAverage intake exceeds RDAB-12 stored in the liverNon-toxic (no Upper Level)FOLIC ACIDFolate requirements are increased during pregnancy. Folate is sensitive to heat, oxygen and ultraviolet light.Common Food Sources :Liver, kidney, dark green leafy vegetables, meats, fish, whole grains, citrus fruits, poultry, seafood.

Major Body Functions :Aids in protein metabolismPromotes red blood cell formation (Act with Vit. B12)Prevents birth defects of spine, brainImportant in synthesis DNADeficiency Symptoms :Pernicious anemia, depression, smooth tongue, diarrhea

Excessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms :May mask symptoms of Vit. B12 deficiencyStability In Foods :Easily destroyed by storing, cooking, and other processing

PANTOTHENIC ACIDCommon Food Sources :Liver, kidney, meats, egg yolk, whole grain.Major Body Functions :Aids in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolismAids in formation of hormones

Deficiency Symptoms :Fatigue, nausea, abdominal cramps, difficulty sleeping, irritability, retards growth.Excessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms :Doses of 10 to 20 grams may result in diarrhea Stability In Foods :About half of pantothenic acid is lost in the milling of grains and heavily refined foods

RDA for Pantothenic AcidAdequate Intake = 5 mg/day


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