Text of The Colonies Explain the development of the American colonies and their role in shaping the future...
The Colonies Explain the development of the American colonies and their role in shaping the future of the North and South
The First Attempt Roanoke Island- Lost Colony founded in 1585 by Sir Walter Raleigh Re-supply group arrives in 1590 and find nobody there and only the words Croatoan
An English Settlement at Jamestown The first permanent English settlement in North America is founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. The Business of Colonization Joint-stock companiesinvestors fund colony, get profits In 1607, Virginia Company sends 150 people to found Jamestown
Wrong way to do the job A Disastrous Start Colonists seek gold, suffer from disease and hunger. Most of the colonist were from wealthy families not used to working for themselves.Colonists seek gold, suffer from disease and hunger. Most of the colonist were from wealthy families not used to working for themselves. John Smith- takes over leadership after the colony begins to collapse. Forced colonists to farm; gets help from Powhatan Native Americans.John Smith- takes over leadership after the colony begins to collapse. Forced colonists to farm; gets help from Powhatan Native Americans.John Smith- John Smith- Time of Starvation-(1609) 600 colonists arrive; Powhatan destroy farms; starving timeTime of Starvation-(1609) 600 colonists arrive; Powhatan destroy farms; starving time
Were Saved Brown Gold - Tobacco becomes profitable; export 1.5 million pounds by late 1620s. Brown Gold Brown Gold Headright system- purchaser of passage gets 50 acreslures settlers by the thousands to Virginia. Indentured servants- work 47 years for free passage to the new world
1619 a Year of 1 st The House of Burgess- established in Virginia it is the 1 st representative assembly in the Americas Women- begin to arrive in Virginia to establish families Africans- the first indentured Africans arrive, over the next 100 years plantation farming makes this into slavery.
Fun while it lasted Bankruptcy- 1624 the Virginia company is broke and King James of England seizes the colony and turns it into a ROYAL COLONY. Settlers vs. Native Americans- with the increasing amount of settlers the Powhatans begin to wage war on them to reclaim land. English views on intermarriage- seen as disgusting and frowned upon last one was between Pocahontas and John Rolfe.
Rich versus Poor Hostilities Develop 1. Former indentured people settle frontier, cannot vote, pay high taxes 2. Frontier settlers battle natives; tension between frontier settlers wealthy landowners 3. Governor refuses to give money to help frontier fight local natives
Bacons Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon raises army to fight natives on frontier (1676) Governor calls Bacons army illegal; Bacon sets fire to Jamestown
New England Colonies Map
Puritan New England Puritans-Puritans- religious group, want to purify Church of England. King James feels threatened and begins arresting and killing Puritans. Puritans- Separatists- they feel the Church of England is corrupt and need to start over in a new land. Mayflower-Mayflower- In 1620, Pilgrims flee to escape persecution. Not everyone is a Puritan half of them are there for the chance to get land and strike it rich. Mayflower- Mayflower Compact- Mayflower Compact- this is an agreement between the men on the ship that they will follow the will of the majority. Mayflower Compact-
Plymouth Colony Founder- William Bradford in 1620 This is a Pilgrim colony with Puritans. First Winter- Almost of the Pilgrims died during the first winter and in reality are saved by Native Americans. Thanksgiving Feast- This is a total lie told by Americans.
The Massachusetts Bay Company John Winthrop-is Puritan colonys first governor and founder in 1630. Reason for founding- In 1620s persecution of their religion grows and the Puritans get permission for a colony charter. Great Migration- over 15,000 colonist travel to New England for religious freedom and found the city of Boston. Puritan Thinking- Puritan leaders did not like anyone who questioned their authority or religious teachings and disagreement would lead to a banishment from the colony. Government- Religious leaders were government leaders.
The Other New England Colonies Because of the treatment of rebel thinkers several colonies are created out of Massachusetts.
Rhode Island Founder- Roger Williams in 1636. He is chased out of Massachusetts for believing Major difference with Rhode Island and the other Puritan Colonies 1.Roger Williams negotiated with the Native Americans for the land. Roger Williams Roger Williams 2.Rhode Island offered religious freedom to everyone (1 st time in the Americas). Also the church and state were separated in Rhode Island.
Rhode Island continued. Anne Hutchinson- she preaches that a good Christian does not need church leaders just faith in God.
Connecticut Founder- Thomas Hooker, he leads a large group of Puritans out of Mass. Bay Colony in 1636. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut- 1639 its the first written constitution in American history. 1. Grants the colony a representative government. The legislature is elected by popular vote of the people.
New Hampshire Founder- John Mason in 1630 Reason- Freedom from Puritan oppression 1. Created by the King of England as a Royal Colony to increase English control over the colonies in 1680. 2. The Last New England colony
War with Native Americans Settlers spread to western Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut encroaching on Native American Land Native Americans think land treaties temporary, Europeans think permanent The Pequot War Pequot War Pequot takes stand against colonists, nearly destroyed King Philips War King Philips War 1. Deprived of land, natives toil for English, must follow Puritan laws 2. Wampanoag chief Metacom- organizes tribes to wipe out settlers (1675) 3. King Philips War fierce; hunger, disease, casualties defeat tribes
The Middle Colonies Originally not a part of the English colonies They are located between Englands two main colonies: New England and the Southern colonies.
Middle Colonies Map
New York Originally founded by the Dutch and called New Amsterdam. Founder- Peter Minuit Conquered- 1664 the Duke of York invades the Dutch colony and claims it for England by renaming it. Purpose- founded by the Dutch as a colony for trade and commerce
New Jersey Founder- Lord Berkley Purpose- trade and farming Once a part of New York it is split off because the size of the territory is too big. Given to friends of the Duke of York and split into two: East and West Jersey 1702 the crown combines it into one colony
Pennsylvania Founder- William Penn 1682 he is a Quaker 1. He designs and builds the city of Philadelphia 2. Treats Native Americans fairly in his deals to buy their land. Quakers- religious group that believed in the equality of all men and women, non-violent and resisted military service.
The Holy Experiment Holy Experiment- the colony was founded with three goals in mind 1. Provide religious freedom- the colony granted everyone freedom of religion for Quakers and anyone willing to move to Pennsylvania from Europe. 2. Representative Government- Adult males get 50 acres and the right to vote. Also elected officials and unrestricted immigration to anyone. 3. Profit- make money for William Penn.
Delaware Created when William Penn grants the area the right to representation in 1702.
Maryland Founder- George Calvert in 1634 Maryland was founded as a place for religious freedom for Catholics in America.
Southern Colonies These include Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia
Southern Colonies Map
North Carolina Founders- group of landowners in 1653 Purpose- This was a land of small tobacco farms Had very little plantations so it didnt rely on slaves like its southern neighbors.
South Carolina Founded- by the same landowners in 1670 Developed very differently than North Carolina Purpose- Had large plantations used to grow rice and indigo. By the time of the Revolutionary War South Carolina has a huge slave population working the plantations.
Georgia Land of Debtors, Criminals and Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733 1. He bans the sale of rum and slaves in the colony to promote his idea of utopia 2. The last of the original 13 colonies Georgia was created for two reasons 1. Buffer- a defensive buffer to protect the rice plantations of South Carolina from the Spanish in Florida 2. Debtors Paradise- to relieve the jails of thousands of imprisoned debtors Oglethorpe brings them to Georgia and gives them land. (REMEMBER PIRATES).