Growth of the American Colonies
English Coming to America. . . Interests of the English peaked by the findings of previous explorers.
England wants/needs: Wealth- get rich quick schemePirates (sea dogs) would rob SpanishIncrease trade- English merchantsReligious FreedomSpread Protestantism
Theory of MercantilismA country should try to get and keep as much bullion, or gold and silver, as possible.balance of trade or the difference between imports and exports, should show more exports than imports.
The 13 Original Colonies
SALUTARY NEGLECTBritain allowed its colonies more freedom to govern themselves than other European nations did. Three causes:England had a long tradition of strong local government and weak central power.British government lacked the resources to enforce its wishes.Britain gave the colonies freedom because the existing economy and politics served the Britains best interests.
EFFECTS OF TRADE LAWSEuropean countries fought over territory and trade routes.British rulers tightened controls over the American colonies. King James II tried to take direct control over New York and New England by creating the Dominion of New England. Many colonists were loyal to Britain.
Effects on War and PoliticsNavigation Act: tightened British control over colonial tradeIt required the colonies to sell certain goods only to EnglandIf colonists wanted to sell goods to other parts of the world, they had to pay a duty, or tax, on it.
Southern ColoniesThe economy was based on staple cropscrops that are in constant demand.Staple crops included tobacco and rice, both grown on large plantations worked by slaves.In Virginia and MarylandSlaves in Virginia and Maryland made up a minority of the population.Few of those slaves came directly from Africa.Slaves had other tasks in addition to growing crops.There was more integration of European American and African American cultures than in South Carolina and Georgia.To save money, slave-owners encouraged slaves to have families.
Middle ColoniesEconomy of the Middle Colonies was a mixture of farming and commerce.Rich, fertile soil produced wheat, barley, and rye.New York and Philadelphia supported the business of merchants, traders, and craftspeople.New England Colonies
New England economy relied on carrying trade. Merchants carried crops and goods from one place to another.There were far fewer slaves in New England and the Middle Colonies than in the South.Slaves had more freedom to choose their occupations.Slaves in this region typically worked as cooks, housekeepers, and personal servants. They also worked as skilled artisans, dockworkers, merchant sailors, fishermen, whalers, privateers, lumberjacks, and in manufacturing.
Section 2: Life in Colonial America
Different types of jobs in the ColoniesArtisans: Young boys became apprentices, individuals placed under a legal contract to work for another person in exchange for learning a trade.Artisans made silver products, cabinets, tin-ware, pottery, and glassware.
Different types of jobs in the ColoniesPrinters:Colonial printers were considered vital because they gathered and circulated local news and information.Benjamin Franklin, one of Americas most famous printers, published Poor Richards Almanac. An almanac is a book containing information such as calendars, weather predictions, and advice.
Different types of jobs in the ColoniesFarmers:Farms in the colonies varied in size from large cash-crop plantations in the South Small and self-supporting farms in the Middle and New England Colonies
Different types of jobs in the ColoniesFishermen:Fish was dried, salted, and shipped out from harbor cities.Fishing became a strong industry and promoted the growth of shipbuilding.Indentured Servants: Many immigrants came to the colonies as indentured servantsImmigrants had their way to Americas paid for in return they worked as a servant in the familys home that paid their way. (usually 6-10 years)
Triangle TradeThe Middle Passage was one leg of the triangular trade also known as the forced transport of slaves from Africa to the Americas.Roughly 10 to 40 percent of Africans on slave trips died in the crossing. Slaves were beaten and had to endure chains; heat; and cramped, unsanitary conditions.Occasionally enslaved Africans staged a mutiny, or revolt, on the slave ships. Many of these were successful.
Slaves in the ColoniesSouth Carolina and GeorgiaHigh temperatures and disease made slave conditions especially harsh in this region.Slaves made up the majority of the population in South Carolina and more than one third of Georgias population.Southern slaves kept their culture alive through their speech, crafts, and music.Slave LawsSlaves that earned money as artisans or laborers had the possibility of saving enough to purchase their freedom Free African Americans did the same kind of work as enslaved African Americans, but were often worse off economically and sociallyFree blacks had poor living conditions Free blacks could not vote, testify in court, or marry whites.
Stono Rebellion, several dozen slaves in South Carolina killed more than 20 whites.The rebels were captured and killed.New York City had slave rebellions in 1708, 1712, and 1741. After the 1741 revolt, 13 African Americans were burned alive as punishment.African Americans undertook almost 50 documented revolts between 1740 and 1800.
French Indian War