The English Colonies 1605-1774. The Southern Colonies

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The English Colonies 1605-1774 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Southern Colonies </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Founding a New Colony </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Jamestown founded May 14, 1607 40 miles up James River in Virginia Lack of preparation Surrounded by marshes Disease carrying mosquitos </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Jamestown 105 colonists 2/3 died by winter Lack of preparation Disease carrying mosquitos </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> John Smith </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Real John Smith </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> John Smiths Impact John Smith Took Control of Jamestown 1608 Colonists rewarded for harder work Powhatan Confederacy of Native Americans </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> John Rolfe + = </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> John Rolfes Impact John Rolfe made Jamestown profitable Introduced new type of tobacco Sold well in England </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Powhatan Confederacy + = </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> John Rolfe married Pocahontas in 1614 Strengthened relations with Powhatan </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Powhatan Confederacy </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> War in Virginia In 1622, colonists killed Powhatan leader Powhatan retaliated later that year Fighting continued for 20 more years </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Headright System Colonists paid passage to Virginia Received 50 acres of land 50 additional acres for every new person brought. Richer colonists + relatives (servants) = large amounts of land </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Indentured Servants High death rates in Virginia Majority of workers indentured servants Contracted to work 4-7 years for person who paid passage </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Expansion of Slavery </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> First Africans brought in 1619 by Dutch Demand for workers soon outpaced supply of indentured servants Cost of slaves fell By mid-1600s most Africans in Virginia were kept as slaves </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Jamestown Grows Economy of Jamestown grew Colonial officials asked for more taxes Poor colonists began to protest </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Nathaniel Bacon </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Opposed to trade with American Indians Attacked friendly tribe in 1676 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Bacons Rebellion </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Bacon attacked and burned Jamestown Controlled much of the colony But died shortly after of dysentery </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Other Southern Colonies Church of England v. Roman Catholic Church English Catholics were not allowed to worship freely English leaders feared English Catholics would join other Catholic nations like France and Spain </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Maryland Fightin Turtles Technically its a terrapin </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Maryland Proposed by Lord George Calvert as a haven for Catholics in America in 1620 Charter awarded in 1632 to Cecilius Calvert Colony established in 1634 and named in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Maryland By the 1640s, Protestants began moving into the colony Religious conflicts arose Cecilius Calvert (a.k.a Lord Baltimore) proposed the Toleration Act of 1649 Made it a crime to restrict the rights of all Christians First law supporting religious tolerance in the colonies </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> North Carolina Settlers of North Carolina came primarily from Virginia </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> North Carolina Split from South Carolina in 1712 Economy relied heavily on tobacco production </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> South Carolina Settlers of South Carolina came primarily from Europe </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> South Carolina Like Virginia, those who paid their passage from Europe received large land grants By 1730, some 20,000 slaves lived in South Carolina, compared to 10,000 white settlers Remember this fact for later </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Georgia Charter granted to James Oglethorpe in 1732 Intended as a buffer between Spanish Florida and the rest of the colonies Oglethorpe wanted a place where debtors could make a fresh start What a nice guy </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Georgia In 1733 Oglethorpe founded Savannah Did not want large plantations owned by a few Outlawed slavery to accomplish this But less than 20 years later. New laws were passed and Georgia was soon filled with large rice plantations worked by thousands of slaves </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Economies of Southern Colonies Depended on agriculture Many small farms and some large plantations Warm climate and long growing season Cash crops By 1700s, slaves replaced indentured servants as main source of labor </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Slave Codes Slave Codes - Laws to control slaves Virginia, 1705 "If any slave resists his master... and in correcting such a slave, shall happen to be killed in such correction... the master shall be free of all punishment... as if such accident never happened." Alabama, 1833 - "Any person or persons who attempt to teach any free person of color, or slave, to spell, read, or write, shall, upon conviction thereof by indictment, be fined in a sum not less than two hundred and fifty dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars." South Carolina, 1712 - Any slave who evades capture for 20 days or more is to be publicly whipped for the first offense; branded with the letter R on the right cheek for the second offense; and lose one ear for the third offense; and castrated for the fourth offense. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Tortures, murder, and every other imaginable barbarityare practiced upon the poor slaves with impunity. I hope the slave-trade will be abolished. Olaudah Equinao </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> The Big Idea Despite a difficult beginning, the Southern Colonies soon flourished </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Main Ideas Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in America </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Main Ideas Daily life in Virginia was challenging to the colonists </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Main Ideas Religious freedom and economic opportunities were motives for founding other southern colonies </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Main Ideas Farming and slavery were important to the economies of the southern colonies </li> </ul>