Study Guide: Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, and Organic
Review 1) Read the text pages 25 30 and 44 - 53 (Chapter 1,
Sections 3 and
Chapter 2 sections 1 and 2) 2) Study diagrams in these sections:
Chapter 2, figures 1, 3, 7, and 8 3) Study notes taken in class 4)
Be very familiar with your labs and exactly how they show evidence
photosynthesis, respiration, and the presence of organic
compounds. Notes 1) Recognize that producers or autotrophs (plants
chlorophyll) use the light energy from sunlight to make sugars
(glucose) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) through a
process called photosynthesis. This food (glucose) can be used
immediately, stored for later use, or used by other organisms such
as plants and animals.
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy -----> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
carbon dioxide water from the sun glucose oxygen
Energy can be stored in the form of starch or used right away as
chemical energy in the process of cellular respira-tion.
2) Stomata: Openings in the leaves where the gases of
respiration and photosynthesis enter and exit (CO2 and O2) and also
one place where water enters and exits the plant.
3) Recognize that organisms (both autotrophs and heterotrophs)
usable energy from the glucose produced by photosynthesis during
the process of cellular respiration. IMPORTANT: The main function
of respiration is to get energy out of food!
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -----> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy Glucose oxygen
carbon dioxide water usable energy
Cellular Respiration occurs in the mitochondria (powerhouse of
Recap: Pulling it all Together! 1. Energy from the sun (light
energy) is put into food (glucose containing
chemical energy). That chemical energy is converted into usable
energy during cellular respiration. REMEMBER: The amount of energy
that is captured from the sun does not change by the time an
organism uses it after respiration. Energy does not disappear!
Energy changes form:
light energy (from sun) chemical energy (sugar) usable energy
(used by cells)
2. The processes of photosynthesis and respiration depend on one
another! Look at them as both part of a cycle as shown in the
Organic Compounds in Cells: Use Your Chart!
1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (covered
in more detail in our next unit)
Chemical Compounds in Cells
Compound Elements Primary Functions Carbohydrates (sugars,
fruits, vegetables, starches: potatoes, bread, rice, pasta)
C, H, O (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen)
- quick source of energy - includes complex carbohydrates called
starches (which can store excess energy [plants often store energy
this way], but not as well as lipids can)
Lipids (fats, oils, waxes)
C, H, O (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen)
- Storing energy
Proteins (meat, eggs, fish, nuts, beans)
C, H, O, N (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) and sometimes
sulfur (S) )
- Building tissue and cell parts - Enzymes: assist with cellular
process (such as digestion)
C, H, O, N, P (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) and
- components of DNA (genetic material in all cells)
What Essential Questions will be considered? Have a strong idea
how to respond thoroughly and meaningfully to each question.
1. Does a plant need to eat and breath to stay alive like humans
do? If so, how do they do it?
2. If our cells need certain compounds to survive (ex.
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins), where do we get them and how do
we get these compounds to our cells? What are the elements that
make up each type of compound? What are the functions of each type
of compound in organisms?
3. What is energy? 4. Why do we need energy? 5. How do plants
and animals obtain energy?
Understand that 1) All living things rely on the sun for energy.
2) Plants can make their own food by using the energy from
sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide in a process called
photosynthesis. 3) All living things which do not perform
photosynthesis (ex. Animals) rely on living things which do perform
photosynthesis in order to obtain energy from the sun. 4) All
living things which do not perform photosynthesis (ex. Animals)
rely on plants for food (energy). 5) Respiration is the process by
which cells obtain energy from oxygen and glucose. Lab Review: Be
able to describe and explain evidence of photosynthesis and
respiration in these labs).
1. BTb and elodea (Evidence of photosynthesis and respiration in
elodea plants): Use your notes from class and the pre-lab sheet you
received in the hand out. Experiment (phase #1: evidence of
photosynthesis in elodea):
1) 3 test tubes with water and BTb. 2) Test tube A is blue, test
tube B is yellow (blew CO2through
straw and turned BTb yellow), and test tube C is yellow (same as
test tube B) and has a small piece of the aquatic plant elodea.
3) Results after 24 hours: A = blue, B = yellowish green, C =
blue. 4) Analysis: BTb is blue and turns yellow in the presence of
The test tube with BTb and elodea was yellow in the
of the experiment because CO2 was put into it by your team
through a straw. It turned blue because the CO2 was taken out or
the BTb solution when it was used for photosynthesis by the elodea
plant as can be seen in the equation below.
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy -----> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
carbon dioxide water from the sun glucose oxygen 5) The results
of this experiment could be interpreted as showing
evidence for photosynthesis in the elodea plant.
Experiment (phase #2: 48 hours after beginning phase #1:
Evidence of respiration in elodea):
1) 3 test tubes with water and BTb. Test tube A is blue, test
tube B is blue, test tube C is blue.
2) 24 hours in the cabinet (dark). 3) Results: Test tube A is
blue, Test tube B is blue, Test tube C is
yellow. 4) Analysis: CO2 was introduced into Test tube C by the
during respiration (see the equation below). At night, plants
use respiration in order to get the energy out of the sugar they
produced during photosynthesis. The CO2 caused the BTb to turn
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -----> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
Glucose oxygen carbon dioxide water usable energy 2. Respiration
in Yeast: Use your notes from class and the pre-lab
sheet you received in the hand out and pictures from the
website. 1) Yeast was added to a beaker filled with a water and
solution, and then covered with a balloon or rubber glove. 2)
Results: bubbles appeared in the solution. Foam appeared. The
balloon/glove filled up with gas and foam. 3) Analysis: The
yeast conducted fermentation (a form of cellular
respiration that uses an enzyme instead of oxygen as a reactant)
which produced CO2. The gas in the balloon could be interpreted as
evidence that respiration occurred. In other words, the yeast ate
the sugar or got the energy out of sugar through respiration and
Vocabulary: The definitions of: energy, light energy, chemical
energy, autotroph, heterotroph, photosynthesis, respiration,
chemical formula, chemical symbol, element, carbohydrate, protein,
starch, lipids, products, reactants, raw materials, chlorophyll,
stomata, fermentation. Biology Vocabulary: Chapter 2 Cell Processes
1. photosynthesis: the process by which a cell captures energy
in sunlight and uses it to make food. Photo means light,and
synthesis means putting together.
2. Energy: the ability to do work or cause change. 3. Light
energy: 4. Chemical energy: energy from chemical bonds within
matter. 5. Chemical symbol: a one- or two-letter representation of
an element (O
= oxygen and He = helium). 6. Chemical formula: : a short hand
scientist use to write the names of
compounds. It tells you the elements and the number of atoms in
one molecule of that substance (ie. A molecule of water has 2
hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom H20).
7. Chemical equation: a symbolic representation of a chemical
reaction. 8. compound: a substance made of 2 or more elements
combined (ex. H2O or table sugar, which is C12H22O11). 9.
Element: : a substance that cant be broken down any further by
chemical or physical means (ex. hydrogen, oxygen). 10.
Carbohydrate: use your chart 11. Lipid: use your chart 12. Starch:
use your chart 13. Products: the substances on the right hand side
of a chemical
equation. What is produced by a chemical reaction. 14.
Reactants: The substances on the left-hand side of a chemical
equation. The substances that react together in a chemical
reaction and undergo a chemical change.
15. autotroph: an organism that makes its own food (producers).
Plants make their own food throughphotosynthesis.
16. heterotroph: an organism that cannot make its own
food(consumers). Many heterotrophs get their food from eating other
organisms, such as a lion eating a zebra or a zebra eating
17. pigments: colored chemical compounds found in plants that
18. chlorophyll: a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of
plants. Chlorophyll makes plants green and absorbs the light needed
19. stomata: openings in the underside (bottom) of the leaf that
open an close using guard cells to let CO2 into the leaf and O2
20. photosynthesis equation: CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 21.
respiration: the process by which cells get energy from glucose
(sugar). During respiration, cells break down simple food
molecules such as sugar and release the energy inside of them.
22. respiration equation: C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy 23.
fermentation (2 kinds: alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid
fermentation): a process by which certain organisms get energy
from food without oxygen. For example, some single celled organisms
such as yeast use alcoholic fermentation. Others live where there
is no oxygen, such as deep in the ocean or in the mud of lakes and
swamps. Also, the cells of humans use lactic acid fermentation when
they have run out of oxygen. Have you ever felt aches and pains
after running really far? That is the result of lactic acid build
up in your muscles as a product of fermentation.