Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
_____________ processes are the chemical processes that occur in all living things. Two of these processes are _____________ _____________ and _____________. They are both controlled by _____________. _____________ ______________ is carried out by _____________ organisms. ______________ is carried out by _____________ _____________ and some single-celled organisms.
Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis
II. Cellular Respiration: You learned that when you eat foods that are
carbohydrates (bread and pasta) they are broken down by your ____________ ______________.
They are broken down into ____________ ____________ (glucose)
The bonds of glucose are then broken by a series of ____________ ______________ _____________ to form energy.
This energy is captured into the bonds of the High Energy Molecule known as ____________ (Adenosine Triphosphate)
This energy is used by the organism for its ______________ ______________
Enzyme controlled reactions
Diagram of ATP
II A. The ATP/ADP Cycle: ATP and ADP are compounds that are found in all cells. The D in ADT is for Diphosphate or ________ phosphates. The T in ATP is for Triphosphates or ________ phosphates. ADP and ATP are converted back and forth as a ____________ is added or removed.
We get energy to put the third phosphate on to ADP by burning _____________. The most common food that is burned is ____________.
ATP 100% Renewable Energy
All living things rely on one source of energy to do all things from building molecules to flexing muscles = ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). Breaking down ATP releases energy and cells constantly replace their ATP by attaching a spare phosphate onto ADP. The energy from that comes from food we eat (animals) or make (plants). Enzymes control the breaking and making of ATP
II. B Two Types of Respiration: There are two ways to burn glucose (two types of
respiration) Anaerobic Respiration does NOT use
____________. This is also called ____________.
Aerobic Respiration USES _____________ II. C Anaerobic Respiration (fermentation) Some cells lack the _____________ necessary
for aerobic respiration and other cells like your muscle cells change to anaerobic respiration when oxygen is lacking
The enzymes necessary for this type of respiration are located in the ____________ of the cells. In Anaerobic respiration ____________ is partially broken down by the ____________ to form either ____________ ____________ or ____________ _____________ and _____________. Both of these form only ______________ ATP molecules. ____________ and ___________ ___________ cells form the lactic acid and 2 ATP. ____________ form the alcohol and carbon dioxide and 2 ATP.
Glucose 2 Lactic Acid + 2 ATP or Glucose 2 alcohol + 2CO2 + 2ATP
Lactic Acid Carbon Dioxide Alcohol
Bacteria Human Muscle
II D. Aerobic Respiration: Most organisms are more complex and need more _______________to perform their life activities than anaerobic respiration can produce. Aerobic respiration occurs in the cell organelle called the ____________.
In Aerobic Respiration ____________ is completely broken down in a series of _____________ controlled reactions to form _____________ _____________ and ____________ and _________ ATP molecules.
+ 36 ATP
Enzyme Carbon Dioxide
II E. Comparison Chart for Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration
1. Takes place in the __________________
Takes place in the ______________________________
2. No ______________ Requires ______________
3. Less efficient ( _______ ATP) More efficient ( _______ ATP)
4. Waste products: ____________ __________ or ______________ and _______________ ________________.
Waste products: ______________ ______________ and ______________
5. Time frame: ___________ Time frame: _____________
6. Glucose breakdown is _________________
Glucose breakdown is _______________.
lactic acid alcohol
Carbon dioxide water
III. Photosynthesis: The energy for life primarily comes from the _____________. Photosynthesis is biochemical food-making process that provides a connection between the ____________ and _____________ needs of living things. During _____________ solar energy is used to combine _____________ molecules of ____________ _____________ and ____________ into energy rich organic compounds such as ____________.
water dioxide Carbon
This process releases ____________ into the environment.
Photosynthesis is a type of nutrition called ___________ nutrition. III A. Location for Photosynthesis Green _____________ cells and and some __________ celled organisms contain ____________ this organelle is involved in the process of ___________. ____________ are located mainly in the _________ of green plants.
Plant Chloroplasts Single
___________ are located in the cytoplasm and contain the green pigment _____________. ___________ along with ____________ are necessary for the food-making process of ____________. The __________ is considered the food factory of photosynthetic plants. The leaf has many ____________ ____________ that make it well adapted for the process of photosynthesis
A. Leaves are arranged on stems, so that they can receive the maximum ____________ absorption
B. Leaves have ____________ and _________ __________ for gas exchange.
C. The majority of chloroplasts are located in the __________ __________.
D. ___________ __________ are bean shaped structures located around stomates which contain ____________ and ___________ the opening and closing of the stomates.
air Stomates Light
Leaf cross section
Stomata and guard cells
III b. Chemistry of Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis involves ____________ __________ in which __________ __________ and __________ are converted into sugar molecules. ___________ gas is a by-product. Besides __________ photosynthesis also requires ____________ and __________.
light chlorophyll Enzymes
reactions carbon water
+ + +
Sexy Sally Sun
Phyll the Chlorophyll Molecule Splits H2O to give off O2
NADP Train A carrier molecule that picks up H2 and combines It with CO2 to make PGAL, a sugar which will then Form the sugar glucose
6 6 6 12
III c. Factors that influence The Rate of Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis occurs best at 350 Celsius. Above this _________ the enzymes are destroyed (denatured)
__________ intensity. ____________ ____________ increases the rate up to a point. __________ shortage decreases photosynthesis.