Living things need energy to survive and function.You get the energy you need from the food you eat.Where does that energy come from?Sun Plants You !!!2
You must eat food to get energy (you are a heterotroph).When you breakdown your food you store the energy in the bonds of ATP.Plants can make their own food (they are autotrophs).Plants store sunlight energy in the chemical bonds of glucose (a carbohydrate).
ATP: Energy StorageWHAT IS ATP? Universal Energy MoleculeThe cells Energy BankAdenosine Triphosphate (ATP)Consist of a sugar called riboseN containing AdenineThree phosphate groups4
ATPAdenineRibose3 Phosphate groups5
When the energy is used the ATP is converted into ADPPartiallychargedbatteryFullychargedbatteryPPADPATPCLIPThe Bonds between the phosphate groups in ATP are VERY HIGH ENERGY.When a phosphate group is removed-energy is released6
Using ATP in Active Transport Animation7
ATPCell can make ATP from ADP by using the energy from carbohydrates.This means that the energy in carbohydrates is then stored in ATP until needed by cells.Breaking down Carbohydrates releases energyADPATPEnergy from the Carbohydrates is stored in ATP!!!8
CLIP. ATP is the major energy link between energy-using and energy releasing reactions. 9
Usesunlight, carbon dioxide & water Produce high energy carbohydrates such as sugars (glucose) &starches.Photosynthesis is the process by which plants: Plants store sunlight energy in Glucose!11Clip
Where does photosynthesis take place?12
Leaf StructurePhotosynthesis Location:The leaves of plants:a.stomatab.cellsCO2Goes in13
Section 23-4EpidermisStomataGuard cellsThe Internal Structure of a LeafCO2 enters through the stomataChloroplastsCO2Goes in14
Lets go look at leaves
Chloroplasts are only found in photosynthetic, eukaryotic cells. Using the energy from the sunlight, chloroplasts are able to form ATP as well as synthesizing sugars from H20 & CO2. Chloroplast Structure15
ChloroplastOrganelle where photosynthesis takes place.Chloroplast Structure16
Chloroplast Picture17Chloroplast Structure
Things to know about ChloroplastsHave a double membrane the inner membrane the outer membrane Have their own DNA this carries the information to make the enzymes 18.1
Have a double membrane the inner membrane the outer membrane Have their own DNA this carries the information to make the enzymes Have their own ribosomes more like the ribosomes of prokaryotes than eukaryotes make their own enzymes required for photosynthesis require carbon dioxide and water produce glucose Contain chlorophyll this green chemical (pigment) "traps" sunlight energy Things to know about Chloroplasts18.2Pigments are molecules that absorb light energy
Plants absorb certain wavelengths of light.Blue and Red.Pigments are molecules that absorb light.Main pigment is Chlorophyll.When they absorb light, they are absorbing Energy.ba19
Photosynthesis: Products &ReactantsCO2 + H2OChloroplastLight EnergyGlucose & O220SUNSUN
Formula For Photosynthesis6 _____ + 6 ______ +__________ ______ + ______
Photosynthesis Takes Place in 2 Steps.22
Step 1: Light Dependent Reaction.
Energy captured from Sunlight. H2O is split into H+, electrons, & Oxygen (O2). The O2 diffuses out of the Chloroplasts.
MADE: O2 , ATP & NADPH.Takes place: Thylakoid 23The light reaction is the photo part of photosynthesis.
The Chemical Energy Stored in ATP and NADPH is used to make Glucose using CO2. This is a light independent reaction.MADE: GlucoseTakes place: Stroma
Step 2: Light Independent Reaction (CALVIN CYCLE). 24SunlightWaterOxygenThe Calvin cycle is the synthesis part of photosynthesis.ATPNADPHStep 1: Light Dependent ReactionThis process is known as carbon fixation.
ChloroplastLight-Dependent ReactionsCalvinCycleNADPHATPADP + PNADP+ChloroplastSection 8-3Photosynthesis: An OverviewGo to Section:LIGHT REACTIONDARK REACTION-Light IndependentThylakoid MembraneStroma25SUNLIGHT
PhotosynthesisOccurs in two StepsLight dependent ReactionDark Reaction/ Calvin CycleOxygen ATPNADPH Thylakoid MembraneGlucose StromaProducesProducesOccurs (location)26Occurs (location)6CO2 + 6H2O + energy from sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2
PLANTS STORE ENERGY FROM THE SUN IN THE BONDS OF GLUCOSE !!!!CLIP27
Where does each reactant enter the plant???28
Once plants use light energy to form carbohydrates, other organisms, called Heterotrophs, can then use this carbohydrate energy for their own life processes. One way carbohydrate energy is used by organisms is through the process of cellular respiration. Sun Plants You!!29
Major ConceptHow its all connected.
CellularRespirationProcess that occurs in cells in which cells break down Glucose for ENERGY!Occurs in cytoplasm and Mitochondria.31Breaking down food for energy.
Cellular Respiration Overview:Plants are producers and make glucose by the process of photosynthesis.Heterotrophs breakdown glucose for energy.There are two important ways a cell can harvest energy from food: fermentation and cellular respiration. 32Breaking down food for energy.36
Cellular Respiration Takes Place in 3 Steps.Step 1: GlycolysisStep 2: Krebs Cycle Step 3: Electron Transport33
Step 1: GlycolysisMeans Splitting GlucoseGlycolysis starts with Glucose.34Glucose is broken down into 2 molecules called Pyruvate (aka pyruvic acid ).Happens in the Cytoplasm.ClipGlycolysis does not need oxygen!
Mitochondria Anatomy35Steps 2 & 3 Occur in the Mitochondria2 membranesOwn ribosomesOwn DNA
In the presence of Oxygen:Step 2: Krebs CycleStep 3: Electron TransportHappens in the MitochondriaStarts with Pyruvate.Pyruvate moves into the mitochondria and is broken down into CO2,H2O & ATP.36
GlucoseGlycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transportFermentation (without oxygen)Alcohol or lactic acidCellular Respiration ReviewGo to Section:With oxygen3836
GlucoseGlycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transportFermentation (without oxygen)Alcohol or lactic acidBreaking down glucose without oxygenGo to Section:With out oxygen39Ethanol and Carbon DioxideLactic AcidPyruvic Acid
FermentationWithout oxygen: Pyruvate is converted into Lactic Acid or Alcohol during Fermentation.
Lactic Acid- Muscle cellsAlcohol- Yeast
In the presence of oxygen: 1 Glucose is converted into 36 ATP.
Without oxygen: 1 Glucose is converted into 2 ATP.
41C6H12O6 + 6 O2 => 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP
Photosynthesis vs. Respiration43
produces food stores energy Uses H2Ouses CO2 releases O2occurs in sunlightuses food releases energy Produces H2Oproduces CO2 uses O2occurs in the dark as well as light
44Energy Converters video. Click picture.
Photosynthesis they might be giants