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ENERGY, Photosynthesi s & Cellular Respiration

ENERGY, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

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ENERGY, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Releasing Food Energy. I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule. All ______ is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of ENERGY, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

ENERGY, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

ENERGY,Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration1

Releasing Food Energy2I. ATP: Energy In A MoleculeAll ______ is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion.By the time food reaches your ____________, it has been broken down into nutrient rich molecules that can enter your cells.foodbloodstream

3I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule

Cellular reactionsreleasingEnergy___________________ then break down the food molecules, __________ energy for the biological work your cells need to perform.

______ = the ability to do work4I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule_____________________________= energy storing molecule

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)5I. ATP: Energy In A MoleculeCells STORE energy by bonding a third _______________ to ____ (adenosine diphosphate) to form ____.Cells RELEASE energy when ATP breaks down into ____ and _________!phosphate groupADPATPADPphosphate6

I. ATP Energy In A Molecule

7I. ATP: Energy In A MoleculeWithin a cell, _________ of ATP from ADP and phosphate occurs over and over, ________________ each time!

storing energyformation

8

I. ATP: Energy In A MoleculeCells use energy for:Maintaining ____________Eliminating _______Transmitting _________ (nerve cells)Cellular __________ (muscle cells)Without ATP a cell would ____!movementdieimpulseswasteshomeostasis9

Photosynthesis

I. Overview:The Big Picture_______________ = the process that provides energy for almost all life.___________ = organisms that make their own food.Ex. plantsPhotosynthesis requires:The _____________, ______ and ________________ to make ________________________ and _______ as byproducts.Suns energycarbon dioxidewaterAutotrophsPhotosynthesiscarbohydrate moleculesoxygen11The process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS can be summarized by the following equation:6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2

chlorophyll12

13I. Overview: The Big PictureThe energy stored in glucose and other carbohydrates can be used later to produce ____ during the process of _____________________.

Well discuss cellular respiration in more detail very soon!cellular respirationATP14I. Overview: The Big PictureThe process of photosynthesis does ____ happen all at once; rather it occurs in 2 stages:NOT

15I. Overview: The Big PictureSTAGE 1 called the ________________.

_____________ is converted to _______________.

Takes place - _______ is captured from _________ in the _____________ of the chloroplasts of plant cells

A photosynthetic cell contains one to thousands of chloroplasts!Light energyLIGHT REACTIONSchemical energyEnergysunlightchlorophyll

16Stage 1: Light Reactions______ is split into hydrogen ions, electrons and oxygen (O2) through the process called the electron transport chain.

The _____________ is now converted to __________________, which is temporarily stored in _______________ (energy molecules).

The ___ diffuses out of the chloroplasts.Water

light energychemical energyATP and NADPHO217Stage 2: Calvin CycleStage 2 Called the _______________ or ________________

_______________ (CO2) and the chemical energy stored in _____ and _________ powers the formation of ______________________________ (sugars, starch and fiber)

CALVIN CYCLECarbon dioxideDark ReactionATPcarbohydrate moleculesNADPH18Stage 2: Calvin CycleTakes place in the ________ of a chloroplast

stroma

19Stage 2: Calvin Cycle

20PHOTOSYNTHESIS Flowchart

Light ReactionDarkReactionNADPHATPH2OSunlightO2CO2C6H12O621PHOTOSYNTHESIS Equation______ + _____ + _________ ________ + ____6H2O6CO2SunlightC6H12O66O2chlorophyll22Cellular Respiration

OVERVIEW: The Big Picture______________________ = an energy (ATP) releasing process.PLANTS: sugars (C6H12O6) produced during _______________ are broken down so energy is released.ANIMALS: sugars (C6H12O6) produced during __________ are broken down so energy is released.Cellular respirationphotosynthesisdigestionOVERVIEW: The Big PictureEquation: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP

The PRODUCTS of ________________ glucose (C6H12O6) and O2, are the REACTANTS used in _____________________.The WASTE PRODUCTS of ______________________, CO2 and water, are the REACTANTS used in _________________.C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATPphotosynthesiscellular respirationcellular respirationphotosynthesis6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2OVERVIEW: The Big PictureProcesses:1. ____________2. ______________ (Citric Acid Cycle)3. ____________________ (ETC)

GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainII. Two Types of Cellular Respiration1. ___________________ OXYGEN is presentIf OXYGEN is PRESENT, the __________ of glycolysis ENTER the pathways of aerobic respiration.2 major stages: ______________ & ________________________Produces large amounts of ATPAerobic respirationproductsKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainII. Two Types of Cellular Respiration2. _____________________ = No OXYGEN is present.Aka . . . _______________ additional _____ is created AFTER glycolysis produces 2 ATP.Anaerobic respirationfermentationNoATPNote: Both types of respiration BEGIN with ____________.

glycolysisIII. Aerobic Respiration Processes: 1. __________ : Occurs in the ____________ of the cell Starting molecule: ONE molecule of _________ (__________)GlycolysiscytoplasmglucoseC6H12O6

Glycolysis . . . Produces: TWO _______________ or ___________ (________) ____________ molecules Attaches Hs and Nad+ (electron carrier) and forms _______ (_______________________)pyruvic acidspyruvates2 ATPNADHC3H6O3high energy moleculeIII. Aerobic Respiration Processes: 2. ___________________________________: _____________________

____________ process (requires oxygen) Occurs in the ________________Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)AerobicmitochondrionAerobic respiration

Krebs Cycle: Starting molecules: _____________ and ________ Produces: ______________, ____ and _______ molecules Attaches Hs to NAD+ and FAD to create NADH and FADH2 (these will be used to make more _____ in the _____.2 pyruvatesNADH and FADH2ETCoxygen

CO22 ATPATPIII. Aerobic Respiration Processes: 3. ___________________________________: _____________________

____________ process (requires oxygen) Occurs in the ________________ of the ______________Electron Transport Chain (ETC)Aerobicinner membraneAerobic respiration

mitochondriaETC . . . : Starting Molecules: _____________________ and _________.

Uses the NADH and FADH2 from the ______________ and another NADH from ____________.NADH and FADH2Krebs Cycleoxygen

GlycolysisETC: Produces: _______ and ___________

FADH2 and NADH, release Hs so they can attach to ________ and produce _______. Energy is released as a result of breaking down these molecules.wateroxygen32 ATPs

waterImportance of Aerobic Respiration: To transfer chemical energy (_________) to a form of energy that is __________ by cells (_____)!!!Total net gain of ATP molecules per 1 glucose = ____________glucose36 ATPsuseableATPAnaerobic Respiration

aerobicanaerobicIV. Aerobic Respiration Processes: Occurs _______ glycolysis, only if ____ oxygen is present.

____ additional _____ is created after the 2 ATPs from glycolysis!AFTERNoATPNO 1. _____________________: Occurs in ________________ Starting molecules: _____________ and ______ (from glycolysis) Produces: _______________ and ________________.Bakers use alcoholic fermentation of _______.

Anaerobic Respiration2 TypesAlcoholic fermentationNADHethyl alcoholplants and yeast2 pyruvates

carbon dioxide

yeastUsed to make wine and beer. 2. _______________________: Occurs in ________ Starting molecules: _____________ and ______ (from glycolysis) Produces: _______________.Lactic acid fermentation by microorganisms plays an essential role in the manufacturing of food products such as ________ and ________.Anaerobic Respiration2 TypesLactic Acid fermentationNADHlactic acidanimals2 pyruvatesyogurtcheese

DURING EXERCISE: breathing ________ provide your body with all the oxygen it needs for aerobic respirationcannotLactic Acid Fermentation:

When muscles run out of ________, the cells switch to _________________________. Provides your _________ with the energy then needed during exercise.oxygenLactic Acid Fermentation & Exercise:lactic acid fermentationmuscles

Side effects of lactic acid fermentation are _________________, ______, ________, and __________.Most lactic acid made in the muscles diffuses into the bloodstream, then to the liver; where it is converted back to PYRUVIC ACID when oxygen comes available.muscle fatigueLactic Acid Fermentation & Exercise:paincrampssorenessAEROBIC Respiration

(_____________________________________)oxygen PRESENT

2 ATP2 ATP32 ATP2 PyruvatesNADHFADH2 + NADHNADH#1Glycolysis#2Krebs Cycle#3ETCAerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration EQUATION:________ + _____ ______ + ______ + _______6H2O6CO236 ATPC6H12O66O2ANAEROBIC Respiration

(_____________________________________)NO oxygen PRESENT

AnimalsPlants & Yeast

EthylAlcoholLacticAcid2 PyruvatesNADH2 ATP

GlycolysisAlcoholicFermentationLactic AcidFermentationAnaerobic Respiration