Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

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Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Energy. All organisms use energy to survive Cells in your body use energy to maintain the organism in which they make up Examples of different forms of energy. Light Energy. Heat Energy. Sound Energy. Elastic Energy. Electrical Energy. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis1All organisms use energy to surviveCells in your body use energy to maintain the organism in which they make upExamples of different forms of energyEnergyLight Energy

Heat Energy

Sound Energy

Elastic Energy

Electrical Energy

Motion Energy

Chemical Energy

Cells get energy when the chemical bonds in food are broken such as glucose and starch.The main form of cellular energy is Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP

Cellular EnergyATP: stores and releases energy

Phosphates determine how much energy exists

ADP: 2 phosphate groupsADP is your uncharged battery; ATP is your charged battery

ADP to ATP

Energy is released when the 3rd phosphate group is broken off

How Chemical Equations Work

What goes inWhat comes out

Equations are balanced

ATP is the molecule we use to get energy. Now, we need a process in order to get a bunch of ATP so we can use it as energy.Cellular Respiration: How we get ATPStarts in the cytoplasm with glycolysisTake one molecule of glucose and through a series of chemical reactions, we get 2 ATP molecules.Glucose = C6H12O6Glucose Chemical Reactions 2 ATP Cellular Respiration: Step 1Before step 2 takes place, you must ask a question. Is oxygen present?

Cellular Respiration: Step 2 (2 possibilities)Step 2 if oxygen is present goes to a process called Aerobic RespirationAerobic literally means living in airAerobic Respiration is divided into 2 parts

Oxygen present? YESPart 1 is called the Krebs CycleThis takes place in the mitochondria and produces 2 more ATPAerobic Respiration: Part 1Part 2 of Aerobic Respiration is called the Electron Transport ChainTake place in the mitochondria as well but produces 34 more ATPTotal ATP produced: 36Calculate: 2 + 2 + 34 - 2 = 36Aerobic Respiration: Part 2GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainAmount used up during processSummary

Chemical Equation for Aerobic Respiration

ReactantsProducts36 ATPIf no oxygen is present, then Part 2 of Cellular Respiration goes to a process called Anaerobic RespirationProduces only 2 ATP from one glucose moleculeOccurs in the cytoplasmTwo types of Anaerobic RespirationOxygen present? NoLactic acid builds up in your muscles after you do exercise.Type 1: Lactic Acid Fermentation

Used by plant cells and some microorganisms such as yeastProduces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Other names are ethanol, pure alcohol, drinking alcohol, and grain alcohol

Type 2: Alcoholic FermentationWine through grapesMead through honeyBeer, whiskey, vodka through grainRum through sugarcaneBread rises due to the formation of carbon dioxideCommon products made through alcoholic fermentation

Anaerobic Respiration SummaryGlucoseLactic Acid FermentationLactic AcidAlcoholic FermentationEthanol and Carbon DioxideAerobic Respiration Anaerobic RespirationOxygen must be presentOxygen NOT neededTakes place in mitochondriaTakes place in cytoplasmProduces 36 ATPProduces 2 ATPCompare the TwoCells get their energy from converting glucose into ATP.Glucose gets its energy from the main source, which is the sun.Living things are divided into two categoriesEnergy: the sourceHeterotrophs: organisms that must eat other organisms to survive (consumers)Autotrophs: Organisms that use the energy directly from the sun (producers)Two types of living thingsThe process that uses the energy from the sun to change water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen.The equation for PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis

Inorganic: cannot consumeOrganic: CAN consumePhotosynthesis fixes carbon so we can eat it though a process called carbon fixation

Fixing Carbon

Light dependent reactionsMust have lightChlorophyll, the green pigment in chloroplasts, absorbs sunlight.This energy is used to convert ADP to ATPWater molecules are split to form oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electronsPhotosynthesis: Part 1NADP: a molecule similar to ADP that carries hydrogen ions to the next step which then becomes NADPHThe ADP cousinCO2H+6CO2 + 6H2OO2NADPThis stage is called the Calvin Cycle also called light independent reactionLight is NOT needed here

Photosynthesis: Part 2CO2 +H+C6H12O6Both equations are opposites

Cellular RespirationPhotosynthesisTakes place where?All cellsCells with chlorophyllOccurs when?All of the timeIn the presence of lightWhat goes in? (the reactants)Glucose and oxygenCarbon dioxide and waterWhat comes out? (the products)Carbon dioxide and waterGlucose and oxygenEnergy source?Chemical bonds in glucoseLightResult?Energy is stored as ATPEnergy is stored as glucoseComparison Chart