Student-centered instructional StrategiesQuality teachers are facilitators: Help learners build their own Knowledge
Today Cooperative learning chap. 10 Planning for instruction Reflection/Reaction/Thinking/Meaning
Other D.I. Lesson plan due todayTheory & practice draft paper due 10/24 Please see both the grading rubric and syllabus p. 7 A sample paper is uploaded Fall Break on 10/17class excused; Practicum on 10/19 10/24 Constructivism (Project)Cooperative Learning Chap. 10
Project Read chap. 11 (Problem-based learning) & chap 12 (discussion) and do the following:Identify a teaching project/lesson plan/activity/topics based on what you know about constructivism (Civil war, Writing, Biomes, wind energy, food groups, story telling, addiction) As you prepare your project, use the knowledge gained from Chap. 11&12 to answer the following questions:Why did you choose this project?What is your (teachers) role?What are the students roles?What challenges do you think might arise?What is your solution to expected challengesHow might this project influence your philosophy?What else (Aha? Confusion?, etc) would you like to discuss?
Student-centered Instructional StrategiesCooperative Learning, Group Learning, & Discussions
Constructivist theoryInquiry/Problem-solvingDiscovery learningExperiments
Approach: What is? Whats the focus?Whats the teachers role?Whats the learner's role?What are the benefits?How is it structured?How might it impact your philosophy/values?
Cooperative Learning Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much.Helen Keller
COOPERATIVE LEARNING (p. 360)Non-competitive, student-centered approach that promotes achievement
Students work cooperatively in small teams (Not groups) to achieve a specific goal
Celebrates peer tutoring & rewards based on team performance
Celebrates, recognizes & rewards individual performance
A powerful, effective instructional method that is rarely used (Kindsvatter, at.el, 2004)
Cooperative Learning Not a new phenomenon- humans always cooperated for survival
As a formal instructional strategy- Rooted in Greek historyTheorists: Jean Piaget Cognitive Development (help of others) Sensorimotor- 0-2, child learns about self and his/her environment through motor and reflex actions. Teaching should focus on sensorimotor system frown, a stern or soothing voice -- Preoperational:- 2-7, Applying new knowledge of language, using symbols to represent objects. Teaching should focus on fantasiesConcrete- 6-early adolescence, Abstract thinking and rational judgment. Teaching should give opportunity to ask questions and to explain his/her thinking.
Theorists PiagetFormal Operations, 15- 20, Stage of cognition. Learner is able to form hypothetical and deductive (general to specific) reasoning. Teaching should allow opportunities for many possibilities and different perspectives.
Lev Vygotsky- Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).. P. 401 (Social Development)
John Dewey 1916 (Learning & Democracy)
David Johnson & Roger Johnson (Experiential Learning ) designed cooperative learning in the 1980s (Arends, R., 2012)
JOHN DEWEYJohn Deweys (1916) book: Democracy & Education
Classroom should mirror larger societyClassrooms should be laboratories for real lifeDemocratic procedures and scientific processesEngage students in inquiryProblem solving in groups, searching for answers
Industrial Model:1940sCOMPITITION IN SCHOOLSINDIVIDUAL ABOVE WHOLE
Schools as a machine, an industrial process not unlike an assembly line. Its purpose is to mass produce factors of production, well trained, obedient inputs that can be used in the manufacture of wealth.
Herbert ThelenJohn Deweys disciple Classrooms are miniature democraciesThus Learners shouldLearn social issues Develop solutions to social issues Group investigation increased learning His work on group learning become the foundation for CL (p.362).
Johnson and Johnson Experiential Learning
People learn best when they are involved in learning process
One has to discover knowledge
Commitment to learning is best when one is free to set their own goals and pursue them
Edwards Deming (Cody, Wyoming)Quality Theory. Cooperation leads to quality (TQM)Total Quality Management W. Edwards DemingImproves American Production During WWIIHigh Expectations, Group Work, Quality Control American Industry Declines his EffortTakes theory to Japan
COOPERATIVE LEARNINGIm not afraid of storms for Im learning to sail my ship. ~ Louisa May Alcott~ American Author)
Setting for Cooperative learningPI. G/TS. FacePigsface
PIGsFace (p. 380.)Provide a specific plan to provide for: P: Positive (Task) interdependence (Reasons to work as a team)
I: Individual accountability
G/T: Group (Team) Processing- ReflectionsS: Social skills
Face: Face to face interaction
Distribution of work
Teachers decisionsideal classroom Love and Logic?Children think for themselves, are responsible, and function effectively--- decisions, and consequencesJim Fay, long-time teacherFoster W. Cline, M.D., psychologistCharles Fay, Ph.D., psychologist
Building Responsibility1. Give a child a chance to act responsibly
2. Allow mistakes
3. Allow consequences, accompanied by empathy,
Three Basic RulesUse enforceable limitsonly use practical consequencesProvide choices within limitsSelect choices that YOU likeApply consequences with empathyWhen a child forgets to wear a coat, say, I'm so sorry that you're cold.How sad. ~ Bummer. ~ That stinks.I know. ~ I bet it feels that way.
Enforceable LimitsI'll listen when your voice is as calm as mine.I grade papers that I can read.I respect you too much to argue.I'll accept all papers that have your name at the top.This is such a bummer. I cased me to talk a lot. Now I don't have energy to help you prepare class party.
Ideal Classroom- Glasser All human do is make Choices to meet their needs. Survivalfood, water and shelterLove and BelongingPowerWant a say & personal responsibilityFreedomWant choicesFunWant to be involved
Teaching approaches (p. 368..)Teacher decides appropriate CL approach such as:Student Teams Achievement DivisionsTeacher presents, students teach each other in home teams, then tested individually. Team score is based on individual students improvement Think-Pair-ShareIndividual thinking, then pair up, then share with whole class Group InvestigationFrom a broad topic, students decide learning methods, then present to whole class
Teaching Approaches Jigsaw 1Students given specific parts, become an expert by learning from others with similar assignment, return to home team to teachJigsaw 11Teacher assign a problem, students learn on their own, then share with team members, students are tested individuallyOther (see Kagan & Kagan, 2006)
Approaches (Kagan & Kagan, 2006) Mix-Pair-share: Pair with classmate to discuss question posed by teacher
Time-Pair Share: Partners take timed turns listening & sharing
RallyRobin: In pairs students alternate generating oral responses
RoundRobin: In teams, students take turns responding orally
Approaches Think Write Round Robin: Students write individually then take turns to share orally in teams
All Write Consensus: In teams students take turns stating an answer. If there is consensus, all teammates write the answer.
Team Stand-N-Share: Teams stand to share their answers with the class
TEACHERS ROLE IN C.L. (p.371)Considerably different from traditional roles.
A teacher is a facilitator and a resource person.
C.L. is not suitable for every lesson. Students need independence and competition
MAKES DECISIONS ABOUT:What to teach and learning objectivesTypes of teams based on task (p.369)Size of teamsAssign students to teamsArrange the room to allow face to face interaction (p. 375)Set rules (learning and feedback)..p. 380Assign roles..p. 378..
TASKSet tasks and positive interdependenceExplain tasksTeach basic concepts and skillsStructure positive interdependenceStructure individual accountabilityStructure social skillsExplain criteria for successSpecify desired behaviors
MONITORMonitor and Intervene
Provide task assistance
Monitor student behavior Closure to lesson
PROCESSINGEvaluate quantity and quality of learning (formatively and summertively)
Assess team functioning (ask them to list what they did well and what to improve)
Have teams share their projects, review important points, etc.)
C.L. is not suitable for every lesson (Johnson & Johnson, 1987).
Research on the Benefits & Problems (p. 361 &388)Higher achievement & increased retention
Use of H.O.T.S. & critical reasoning
Increased positive attitude about subject matter, school, learning, and school
Increased collaborative skills and attitudes
Increased academic benefits to children of color (Cultural incongruity between home and school cultures is hindrance to learning (Smith 1998) Culture!What else?
Problems Noise level this is productive noiseTakes time (teachers & students)Chaotic when used improperly Fear teacher not being in-chargeOpposition students, school, & communityCould hold back fast learners plan well Increased student movement (Fenton, 1992)
Education Education is what survives