Student-centered instructional Strategies Quality teachers are facilitators: Help learners build their own Knowledge.

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  • Slide 1
  • Student-centered instructional Strategies Quality teachers are facilitators: Help learners build their own Knowledge
  • Slide 2
  • Today Cooperative learning chap. 10 Cooperative learning chap. 10 Planning for instruction Reflection/Reaction/Thinking/Meaning Other D.I. Lesson plan due today Theory & practice draft paper due 10/24 Please see both the grading rubric and syllabus p. 7Please see both the grading rubric and syllabus p. 7 A sample paper is uploadedA sample paper is uploaded Fall Break on 10/17class excused; Practicum on 10/19 10/24 Constructivism (Project) Cooperative Learning Chap. 10 Cooperative Learning Chap. 10
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  • Project Read chap. 11 (Problem-based learning) & chap 12 (discussion) and do the following: Read chap. 11 (Problem-based learning) & chap 12 (discussion) and do the following: Identify a teaching project/lesson plan/activity/topics based on what you know about constructivism (Civil war, Writing, Biomes, wind energy, food groups, story telling, addiction) As you prepare your project, use the knowledge gained from Chap. 11&12 to answer the following questions: Why did you choose this project? What is your (teachers) role? What are the students roles? What challenges do you think might arise? What is your solution to expected challenges How might this project influence your philosophy? What else (Aha? Confusion?, etc) would you like to discuss?
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  • Student-centered Instructional Strategies Cooperative Learning, Group Learning, & Discussions Cooperative Learning, Group Learning, & Discussions Constructivist theory Constructivist theory Inquiry/ Problem-solving Discovery learning Experiments Approach: Approach: What is? Whats the focus? Whats the teachers role? Whats the learner's role? What are the benefits? How is it structured? How might it impact your philosophy/values?
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  • Cooperative Learning Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much. Helen Keller Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much. Helen Keller
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  • COOPERATIVE LEARNING (p. 360) Non-competitive, student-centered approach that promotes achievement Non-competitive, student-centered approach that promotes achievement Students work cooperatively in small teams (Not groups) to achieve a specific goal Students work cooperatively in small teams (Not groups) to achieve a specific goal Celebrates peer tutoring & rewards based on team performance Celebrates peer tutoring & rewards based on team performance Celebrates, recognizes & rewards individual performance Celebrates, recognizes & rewards individual performance A powerful, effective instructional method that is rarely used (Kindsvatter, at.el, 2004) A powerful, effective instructional method that is rarely used (Kindsvatter, at.el, 2004)
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  • Cooperative Learning Not a new phenomenon- humans always cooperated for survival Not a new phenomenon- humans always cooperated for survival As a formal instructional strategy- Rooted in Greek history As a formal instructional strategy- Rooted in Greek historyTheorists: Jean Piaget Cognitive Development (help of others) Jean Piaget Cognitive Development (help of others) Sensorimotor- 0-2, child learns about self and his/her environment through motor and reflex actions. Teaching should focus on sensorimotor system frown, a stern or soothing voice -- Preoperational:- 2-7, Applying new knowledge of language, using symbols to represent objects. Teaching should focus on fantasies Concrete- 6-early adolescence, Abstract thinking and rational judgment. Teaching should give opportunity to ask questions and to explain his/her thinking.
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  • Theorists Piaget Piaget Formal Operations, 15- 20, Stage of cognition. Learner is able to form hypothetical and deductive (general to specific) reasoning. Teaching should allow opportunities for many possibilities and different perspectives. Formal Operations, 15- 20, Stage of cognition. Learner is able to form hypothetical and deductive (general to specific) reasoning. Teaching should allow opportunities for many possibilities and different perspectives. Lev Vygotsky- Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).. P. 401 (Social Development) Lev Vygotsky- Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).. P. 401 (Social Development) John Dewey 1916 (Learning & Democracy) John Dewey 1916 (Learning & Democracy) David Johnson & Roger Johnson (Experiential Learning ) designed cooperative learning in the 1980s (Arends, R., 2012) David Johnson & Roger Johnson (Experiential Learning ) designed cooperative learning in the 1980s (Arends, R., 2012)
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  • JOHN DEWEY John Deweys (1916) book: Democracy & Education Classroom should mirror larger society Classrooms should be laboratories for real life Democratic procedures and scientific processes Engage students in inquiry Problem solving in groups, searching for answers John Deweys (1916) book: Democracy & Education Classroom should mirror larger society Classrooms should be laboratories for real life Democratic procedures and scientific processes Engage students in inquiry Problem solving in groups, searching for answers
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  • Industrial Model:1940s COMPITITION IN SCHOOLS INDIVIDUAL ABOVE WHOLE Schools as a machine, an industrial process not unlike an assembly line. Its purpose is to mass produce factors of production, well trained, obedient inputs that can be used in the manufacture of wealth.
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  • Herbert Thelen John Deweys disciple Classrooms are miniature democracies Thus Learners should Learn social issues Develop solutions to social issues Group investigation increased learning His work on group learning become the foundation for CL (p.362).
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  • Johnson and Johnson Experiential Learning Three presumptions: People learn best when they are involved in learning process One has to discover knowledge One has to discover knowledge Commitment to learning is best when one is free to set their own goals and pursue them
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  • Edwards Deming (Cody, Wyoming) Quality Theory. Cooperation leads to quality (TQM)Total Quality Management W. Edwards Deming Improves American Production During WWII High Expectations, Group Work, Quality Control American Industry Declines his Effort Takes theory to Japan
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  • COOPERATIVE LEARNING Im not afraid of storms for Im learning to sail my ship. ~ Louisa May Alcott~ American Author)
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  • Setting for Cooperative learning P I. G/T S. Face Pigsface
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  • PIGsFace (p. 380.) Provide a specific plan to provide for: Provide a specific plan to provide for: P: Positive (Task) interdependence (Reasons to work as a team) I: Individual accountability G/T: Group (Team) Processing- Reflections S: Social skills Face: Face to face interaction
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  • Distribution of work
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  • Teachers decisionsideal classroom Love and Logic? Love and Logic? Children think for themselves, are responsible, and function effectively--- decisions, and consequences Children think for themselves, are responsible, and function effectively--- decisions, and consequences Jim Fay, long-time teacher Foster W. Cline, M.D., psychologist Charles Fay, Ph.D., psychologist
  • Slide 19
  • Building Responsibility 1. Give a child a chance to act responsibly 1. Give a child a chance to act responsibly 2. Allow mistakes 2. Allow mistakes 3. Allow consequences, accompanied by empathy, 3. Allow consequences, accompanied by empathy,
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  • Three Basic Rules Use enforceable limits Use enforceable limits only use practical consequences Provide choices within limits Provide choices within limits Select choices that YOU like Apply consequences with empathy Apply consequences with empathy When a child forgets to wear a coat, say, I'm so sorry that you're cold. How sad. ~ Bummer. ~ That stinks. I know. ~ I bet it feels that way.
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  • Enforceable Limits I'll listen when your voice is as calm as mine. I'll listen when your voice is as calm as mine. I grade papers that I can read. I grade papers that I can read. I respect you too much to argue. I respect you too much to argue. I'll accept all papers that have your name at the top. I'll accept all papers that have your name at the top. This is such a bummer. I cased me to talk a lot. Now I don't have energy to help you prepare class party. This is such a bummer. I cased me to talk a lot. Now I don't have energy to help you prepare class party.
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  • Ideal Classroom- Glasser All human do is make Choices to meet their needs. Survival food, water and shelter food, water and shelter Love and Belonging Power Want a say & personal responsibility Want a say & personal responsibilityFreedom Want choices Want choicesFun Want to be involved Want to be involved
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  • Teaching approaches (p. 368..) Teacher decides appropriate CL approach such as: Teacher decides appropriate CL approach such as: Student Teams Achievement Divisions Teacher presents, students teach each other in home teams, then tested individually. Team score is based on individual students improvement Think-Pair-Share Individual thinking, then pair up, then share with whole class Group Investigation From a broad topic, students decide learning methods, then present to whole class
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  • Teaching Approaches Jigsaw 1 Students given specific parts, become an expert by learning from others with similar assignment, return to home team to teach Jigsaw 11 Teacher assign a problem, students learn on their own, then share with team members, students are tested individually Other (see Kagan & Kagan, 2006)
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  • Approaches (Kagan & Kagan, 2006) Mix-Pair-share: Pair with classmate to discuss question posed by teacher Mix-Pair-share: Pair with classmate to discuss question posed by teacher Time-Pair Share: Partners take timed turns listening & sharing Time-Pair Share: Partners take timed turns listening & sharing RallyRobin: In pairs students alternate generating oral responses RallyRobin: In pairs students alternate generating oral responses RoundRobin: In teams, students take turns responding orally RoundRobin: In teams, students take turns responding orally
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  • Approaches Think Write Round Robin: Students write individually then take turns to share orally in teams Think Write Round Robin: Students write individually then take turns to share orally in teams All Write Consensus: In teams students take turns stating an answer. If there is consensus, all teammates write the answer. All Write Consensus: In teams students take turns stating an answer. If there is consensus, all teammates write the answer. Team Stand-N-Share: Teams stand to share their answers with the class Team Stand-N-Share: Teams stand to share their answers with the class
  • Slide 27
  • TEACHERS ROLE IN C.L. ( p.371) Considerably different from traditional roles. Considerably different from traditional roles. A teacher is a facilitator and a resource person. A teacher is a facilitator and a resource person. C.L. is not suitable for every lesson. Students need independence and competition C.L. is not suitable for every lesson. Students need independence and competition
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  • MAKES DECISIONS ABOUT: What to teach and learning objectives What to teach and learning objectives Types of teams based on task (p.369) Types of teams based on task (p.369) Size of teams Size of teams Assign students to teams Assign students to teams Arrange the room to allow face to face interaction (p. 375) Arrange the room to allow face to face interaction (p. 375) Set rules (learning and feedback)..p. 380 Set rules (learning and feedback)..p. 380 Assign roles..p. 378.. Assign roles..p. 378..
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  • TASK Set tasks and positive interdependence Set tasks and positive interdependence Explain tasks Explain tasks Teach basic concepts and skills Teach basic concepts and skills Structure positive interdependence Structure positive interdependence Structure individual accountability Structure individual accountability Structure social skills Structure social skills Explain criteria for success Explain criteria for success Specify desired behaviors Specify desired behaviors
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  • MONITOR Monitor and Intervene Provide task assistance Monitor student behavior Closure to lesson
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  • PROCESSING Evaluate quantity and quality of learning (formatively and summertively) Evaluate quantity and quality of learning (formatively and summertively) Assess team functioning (ask them to list what they did well and what to improve) Assess team functioning (ask them to list what they did well and what to improve) Have teams share their projects, review important points, etc.) Have teams share their projects, review important points, etc.) C.L. is not suitable for every lesson (Johnson & Johnson, 1987).
  • Slide 32
  • Research on the Benefits & Problems (p. 361 &388) Higher achievement & increased retention Higher achievement & increased retention Use of H.O.T.S. & critical reasoning Use of H.O.T.S. & critical reasoning Increased positive attitude about subject matter, school, learning, and school Increased positive attitude about subject matter, school, learning, and school Increased collaborative skills and attitudes Increased collaborative skills and attitudes Increased academic benefits to children of color (Cultural incongruity between home and school cultures is hindrance to learning (Smith 1998) Culture! Increased academic benefits to children of color (Cultural incongruity between home and school cultures is hindrance to learning (Smith 1998) Culture!Culture! What else? What else?
  • Slide 33
  • Problems Noise level this is productive noise Noise level this is productive noise Takes time (teachers & students) Takes time (teachers & students) Chaotic when used improperly Chaotic when used improperly Fear teacher not being in-charge Fear teacher not being in-charge Opposition students, school, & community Opposition students, school, & community Could hold back fast learners plan well Could hold back fast learners plan well Increased student movement (Fenton, 1992) Increased student movement (Fenton, 1992)
  • Slide 34
  • Education Education is what survives when what has been learned is forgotten ~ B.F. Skinner Education is what survives when what has been learned is forgotten ~ B.F. Skinner How to ensure survival How to ensure survival Use a variety of strategies: Reading and reading, Thinking (metacognation) talking, reflecting, discussing, writing, acting or hands- on, practicing, re-visiting, KWL, etc.
  • Slide 35
  • Constructivism Problem-based learning (chap. 11&12) What is constructivism?...p. 17, 205-206 &526 What is constructivism?...p. 17, 205-206 &526 Theoretical support and teaching strategies consistent with constructivism p. 399 Theoretical support and teaching strategies consistent with constructivism p. 399 What we need to know about problem-based learning.p. 396 What we need to know about problem-based learning.p. 396 Teacher & Students roles..p. 403 Teacher & Students roles..p. 403 Discussions Discussions Promoting thinking skills p. 429 Promoting thinking skills p. 429 The learning environment.p. 416 The learning environment.p. 416 Other items in the rubric will be explored as we discuss the above
  • Slide 36
  • Project Read chap. 11 (Problem-based learning) & chap 12 (discussion) and do the following: Read chap. 11 (Problem-based learning) & chap 12 (discussion) and do the following: Identify a teaching project/lesson plan/activity/topics based on what you know about constructivism (Civil war, Biomes, wind energy, food groups, story telling, addiction) As you prepare your project, develop answers to the following questions: Why did you choose this project? What is your (teachers) role? What are the students roles? What challenges do you think might arise? What is your solution to expected challenges How might this project influence your philosophy? What else (Aha? Confusion?, etc) would you like to discuss?

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