Spatial Data Infrastructures - trends and impacts on society ... Spatial Data Infrastructures - trends

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  • Spatial Data Infrastructures - trends and impacts on society

    Max Craglia Joint Research Centre Digital Earth and Reference Data Unit

  • Outline

    •  Where we were 20 years ago •  Where we are now •  Where we are going •  OR •  From GIS to SDI to Digital Earth

  • Key research themes early 90s •  NSF-NCGIA

    initiatives in the USA 1988- onwards

    •  ESF GISDATA programme in Europe 1993-1997

  • From GIS to SDI

    •  Agenda of the late 80s and early 90s very GIS oriented with standard platform being the workstation

    •  GIS moves to PCs early 1990s •  WWW created at CERN in 1990, MOSAIC first real

    browser in 1993 opens up wide adoption •  NSDI launched 1994 in the US, discussion start in

    Europe on a European SDI in 1995 to become eventually INSPIRE in 2007.

  • First ideas about Digital Earth

    “Imagine, for example, a young child going to a Digital Earth exhibit at a local museum. After donning a head-mounted display, she sees Earth as it appears from space. Using a data glove, she zooms in, using higher and higher levels of resolution. ….. Having found an area of the planet she is interested in exploring, she takes the equivalent of a ‘magic carpet ride’ through a 3-D visualization of the terrain.” •  (Al Gore 31/1/1998)

  • Since then

    •  At the time, this vision of Digital Earth seemed almost impossible to achieve given the requirements on access to computer processing, broadband internet, interoperability of systems, and above all data organization, storage, and retrieval.

    •  Today rapid advancements in graphics co- processors, and techniques for data storage and progressive visualization, have made most of that vision available to us all.

  • Multiple developments

    •  Google Earth, Bing, etc. •  Spatial data Infrastructures at all levels •  Multiple EU developments: INSPIRE, GMES, SEIS,

    Digital Agenda, Research Infrastructures, Innovations Union, Horizon 2020…..

    •  Global Earth Observation System of Systems •  Sensors and sensor web •  Social Networks everywhere •  ……

  • So where are we going ? ... by 2050

    9  billion  people:  6  billion  tons  of   GHG  and  60  million  tons  of   urban  pollutants.  

     Resource-­‐hungry:  We  will   withdraw  30%  of  available   fresh  water.  

    Risky  living:  80%  urban  areas,   25%  near  earthquake  faults,   2%  in  coast  lines  less  than  1  m   above  sea  level.  

  • How can we manage change?

    •  Mitigation? •  Adaptation? •  International

    agreements? •  Public Participation,

    dialogue, shared understanding to build trust?

  • Earth system science needs to model the interactions between nature and society

    Nature:  Physical  equa;ons     Describe  processes  

    Society:  Decisions  on  how  to     Use  Earth´s  resources  

  • Key challenges for sustainability research

    •  Foster the multi-disciplinary research necessary to improve our understanding of the relationships environment-society;

    •  Develop the information infrastructures necessary for policy based on sound knowledge;

    •  Communicate science more effectively to decision makers and European citizens;

    •  Engage the public in the scientific process (e.g. help monitor the environment they live in).

  • Multi-disciplinary requirements

    •  Easy to find and access data fit for purpose from multiple disciplinary systems

    •  Have documentation not just of the data but also of how to use the data across different disciplines to address a problem. From metadata to description of process and ultimately executable workflows as geoprocessing services

    •  In the age of BIG data, move the processes to the data rather than the data to the processes.

  • Linking disciplines: example EuroGEOSS

    WP7: Capacity building

    WP3: Forestry WP4: Biodiversity WP5: Drought

    WP2: Multi-disciplinary interoperability

    ...

    GolbalSoilMap

    AEGOS

    III. Extend interoperability to other SBAs & systems

    I. Enable thematic interoperability & connections local to global

    II. Enable multi-disciplinary interoperability

    WP6: Cost benefit analysis

    WP7: Capacity building

    WP3: Forestry WP4: Biodiversity WP5: Drought

    WP2: Multi-disciplinary interoperability

    ...

    GolbalSoilMap

    AEGOS

    III. Extend interoperability to other SBAs & systems

    I. Enable thematic interoperability & connections local to global

    II. Enable multi-disciplinary interoperability

    WP6: Cost benefit analysis

    •  Three year project 2009-2012 focusing on forestry, drought, biodiversity

    •  Three interoperability phases

    •  Two iterations: •  i) connecting and

    focusing on discovery and access to data,

    •  ii) moving to models and inclusion of social networks.

  • Connecting disciplinary service buses

  • Traditional approaches Heavy on providers

    Heavy on users

  • New approach: Brokering

  • Because there are many.. .many standards and protocols

    OGC WCS 1.0, 1.1, 1.1.2 OGC WMS 1.1.1, 1.3.0 OGC WFS 1.0.0, 1.1.0 OGC WPS 1.0.0 OGC SOS 1.0.0 OGC CSW 2.0.2 Core OGC CSW 2.0.2 AP ISO 1.0 OGC CSW 2.0.2 ebRIM/CIM OGC CSW 2.0.2 ebRIM/EO OGC CSW 2.0.2 CWIC WAF Web Accessible Folders 1.0 THREDDS 1.0.1, 1.0.2 THREDDS-NCISO 1.0.1, 1.0.2 THREDDS-NCISO-PLUS 1.0.1, 1.0.2 CDI (Common Data Index)1.04, 1.3, 1.4 GBIF GeoNetwork catalog service 2.2.0, 2.4.1, 2.6

    Deegree (version 2.2) catalog service ArcGIS Geoportal (version 10) catalog service OpenSearch 1.1 with Geo and Time extensions OAI-PMH 2.0 (support to ISO19139 and dublin core formats) NetCDF-CF 1.4 NCML-CF 1.4 NCML-OD GeoRSS 2.0 GDACS DIF File system SITAD (Sistema Informativo Territoriale Ambientale Diffuso) INPE HYDRO (WaterML)

  • EuroGEOSS brokering framework

  • Benefits of brokering •  Allow a real Network of Networks (System of Systems)

    implementation (bottom-up not top-down) •  No need to “push” a common (federal) Service Bus

    specification ! •  Lower entry barriers for Users and Data Producers •  Implements Multi-disciplinary interoperability •  Introduce new capabilities •  Data access, semantic discovery, service composition,

    quality, control, ranking, tagging •  Facilitate sustainability •  Accept and support heterogeneity (present and future)

  • Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    •  GEOSS is an intergovernmental initiative overseen by 81 nations and 56 international organizations: the Group on Earth Observations (GEO)

    •  GEOSS is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation among existing Earth observing and data management systems (in situ and remote sensors and systems).

  • From GEOSS to Digital Earth

    •  GEOSS developing a framework for sharing data at the global level

    •  Other platforms in the private sector exist and are very successful (e.g. Google, Microsoft, ESRI)

    •  Need for a new reflection and vision •  Vespucci Initiative for the advancement of GI

    Science (www.vespucci.org) and International Society for Digital Earth sponsored such a reflection. Position paper in 2012 in IJDE.

  • A (revised) vision of Digital Earth •  3, 4, n-D: from the global to local (inside buildings, and

    under ground and under water) and everywhere on Earth. •  Visualize change through historical data and integrated

    models. •  Contribute to a multi-disciplinary shared understanding

    of how the Earth system works and impact of human activity.

    •  Dynamic, interactive, participative: synthesis of heterogeneous data from people, sensors, statistics, models. People providing data but also making sense of the science and having a say on options and ways forward.

    •  Ubiquitous, open and accessible for people and things on line at all times.

    •  Easy to use and fun!

  • Our contribution to realizing it

    •  Spatial data infrastructures

    •  Multi-disciplinary interoperability

    •  Citizen science and social networks

  • INSPIRE = SDI for Europe and European contribution to GEOSS

    •  Established through a European legal act (Directive) in 2007 to support environmental policies, and policies that affect the environment

    •  The environment is one of the policy areas for which the 27 Member States of the European Union agreed to share competences as environmental phenomena do not stop at national boundaries.

    •  INSPIRE is a decentralized infrastructure based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and op

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