Quality Attributes; Product specific, Organization Specific Standards of Quality; ISO, TQM, Six Sigma

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Quality Attributes; Product specific, Organization Specific

Standards of Quality; ISO, TQM, Six SigmaQuality AttributesQuality attributes set is a way to represent customer quality requirementsAsk your current and prospective customers about their definition of qualityDevelop a quality assurance program based on the requirements of your customersProduct-Specific AttributesEase of useDocumentationDefect toleranceDefect frequencyDefect impactPackagingPrice versus reliabilityPerformanceOrganization-Specific AttributesService and supportInternal processesAchieving High Levels of Software Quality - 1Enterprise-wide quality programsQuality awareness and training methodsQuality standards and guidelinesQuality analysis methodsQuality measurement methodsDefect prevention methodsNon-test defect removal methodsAchieving High Levels of Software Quality - 2Testing methodsUser-satisfaction methodsPost-release quality controlQuality Assurance OrganizationsNo quality assurance60%Token quality assurance20%Passive quality assurance15%Active quality assurance 5%Best in Class Quality Results - 1Quality measurementsDefect preventionDefect and quality estimation automationDefect tracking automationComplexity analysis toolsTest coverage analysis toolsFormal inspectionsBest in Class Quality Results - 2 Formal testing by test specialistsFormal quality assurance groupExecutive and managerial understanding of qualityTwo Components ofSoftware Quality ImprovementReductions in total defect potentials using methods of defect preventionImprovements in cumulative removal efficiency levelsCategories of Software DefectsErrors of commission: something wrong is done Errors of omission: something left out by accidentErrors of clarity and ambiguity: different interpretationsErrors of speed and capacitySoftware Defect Prevention

Joint Application DevelopmentUsers are active participants in the requirements sessionsBoth client and MIS sides agree on uninterrupted time commitmentsJAD-based requirements are more complete versus the traditional requirementsQuality Function DeploymentQFD is a very formal, structured group activity involving clients and development personnelDuring QFD sessions, users quality criteria are exhaustively enumerated and defined. This is followed by the products quality response to these requirementsProject Management Approaches and Poor Software QualityExact opposite of the project management approaches correlating with high software quality SQA Groups Activities - 1Preparation of an SQA plan for a projectEvaluations to be performedAudits and reviews to be performedStandards that are applicable to the projectProcedures for error reporting and trackingDocuments to be produced by the SQA groupAmount of feedback provided to the software project teamSQA Groups Activities - 2Participation in the development of the projects software process descriptionReview of software engineering activities to verify compliance with the defined software processAudit of designed software work products to verify compliance with those defined as part of the software processSQA Groups Activities - 3Ensure that deviations in software work and work products are documented and handled according to a documented procedureRecord any noncompliance and reports to senior managementCosts of Software Quality - 1 Defects prevention costsUser satisfaction optimization costsData quality defect prevention costsData quality defect removal costsQuality awareness/training costsNon-test defect removal costsTesting defect removal costs Costs of Software Quality - 2Post-release customer support costsLitigation and damage award costsQuality savings from reduced scrap/reworkQuality savings from reduced user downtimeQuality value from reduced time-to-market intervalsCosts of Software Quality - 3Quality value from enhanced competitivenessQuality value from enhanced employee moraleQuality return on investmentCost Per Defect HazardsTest cases must be created whether there are many bugs, only a few, or none at allTest cases must be run whether there are any bugs or not, although tests will be run more often for buggy softwareDuring testing, programmers are waiting (and getting paid) for bugs to be foundStandards for Quality Management SystemCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-24Fitness forConsumer UseProducers PerspectiveConsumers PerspectiveQuality of Conformance

Conformance to specificationsCostQuality of Design

Quality characteristicsPriceMarketingProduction Meaning of QualityMeaning of QualityCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-25TQM and Partneringa relationship between a company and its supplier based on mutual quality standards Customerssystem must measure customer satisfaction Information Technologyinfrastructure of hardware, networks, and software necessary to support a quality program

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-26Quality Improvement and Role of EmployeesParticipative problem solvingemployees involved in quality management every employee has undergone extensive training to provide quality service to Disneys guests

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-27PresentationImplementationMonitoringSolutionProblem resultsProblem AnalysisCause and effectData collection and analysisProblem IdentificationList alternativesConsensusBrainstormingTrainingGroup processesData collectionProblem analysisOrganization8-10 membersSame areaSupervisor/moderatorQuality Circle27Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-28Strategic Implications of TQMStrong leadershipGoals, vision, or missionOperational plans and policiesMechanism for feedbackCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-29Six SigmaA process for developing and delivering near perfect products and servicesMeasure of how much a process deviates from perfection3.4 defects per million opportunitiesChampionan executive responsible for project success

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-30Black Belts and Green BeltsBlack Belt project leaderMaster Black Belta teacher and mentor for Black BeltsGreen Beltsproject team members

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-31

3.4 DPMO67,000 DPMOcost = 25% of salesDEFINECONTROLIMPROVEANALYZEMEASURESix Sigma: DMAICCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-32TQM in Service CompaniesPrinciples of TQM apply equally well to services and manufacturingServices and manufacturing companies have similar inputs but different processes and outputsServices tend to be labor intensiveService defects are not always easy to measure because service output is not usually a tangible itemCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-33Quality Attributes in ServiceBenchmarkbest level of quality achievement one company or companies seek to achieveTimelinesshow quickly a service is provided

quickest, friendliest, most accurate service available.Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-34Cost of Quality Cost of Achieving Good QualityPrevention costscosts incurred during product designAppraisal costscosts of measuring, testing, and analyzing Cost of Poor QualityInternal failure costsinclude scrap, rework, process failure, downtime, and price reductionsExternal failure costsinclude complaints, returns, warranty claims, liability, and lost salesCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-35Prevention CostsQuality planning costscosts of developing and implementing quality management programProduct-design costscosts of designing products with quality characteristicsProcess costscosts expended to make sure productive process conforms to quality specificationsTraining costscosts of developing and putting on quality training programs for employees and managementInformation costscosts of acquiring and maintaining data related to quality, and development of reports on quality performance

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-36Appraisal CostsInspection and testingcosts of testing and inspecting materials, parts, and product at various stages and at the end of a processTest equipment costscosts of maintaining equipment used in testing quality characteristics of productsOperator costscosts of time spent by operators to gar data for testing product quality, to make equipment adjustments to maintain quality, and to stop work to assess qualityCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-37Internal Failure CostsScrap costscosts of poor-quality products that must be discarded, including labor, material, and indirect costsRework costscosts of fixing defective products to conform to quality specificationsProcess failure costscosts of determining why production process is producing poor-quality productsProcess downtime costscosts of shutting down productive process to fix problemPrice-downgrading costscosts of discounting poor-quality productsthat is, selling products as secondsCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-38External Failure CostsCustomer complaint costscosts of investigating and satisfactorily responding to a customer complaint resulting from a poor-quality productProduct return costscosts of handling and replacing poor-quality products returned by customerWarranty claims costscosts of complying with product warrantiesProduct liability costslitigation costs resulting from product liability and customer injuryLost sales costscosts incurred because customers are dissatisfied with poor quality products and do not make additional purchasesCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-39Seven Quality Control ToolsPareto AnalysisFlow ChartCheck SheetHistogramScatter DiagramSPC ChartCause-and-Effect Diagram39Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-40NUMBER OFCAUSEDEFECTSPERCENTAGEPoor design8064%Wrong part dimensions1613Defective parts1210Incorrect machine calibration76Operator errors43Defective material32Surface abrasions32

125100%Pareto Analysis40Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3-41Percent f