Putting All the Pieces Together: Understanding this Puzzle Called Autism

  • View
    227

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Putting All the Pieces Together: Understanding this Puzzle Called Autism

  • Slide 1
  • Putting All the Pieces Together: Understanding this Puzzle Called Autism
  • Slide 2
  • What Does Autism Look Like? Challenges With Social Interaction Problems interpreting nonverbal language Difficulty with pretend play Rigid adherence to rules Poor eye gaze or avoidance of eye contact Few facial expressions and trouble understanding the facial expressions of others Poor judge of personal space may stand too close to other students Trouble controlling emotions and anxieties Difficulty understanding another persons perspective or how their behavior affects others
  • Slide 3
  • What Does Autism Look Like? Communication Challenges Often delayed in expressive and receptive language; may not speak at all Very literal understanding of speech; difficulty in picking up nuances Echolalia may repeat last words heard without regard for meaning Lack of pretend play
  • Slide 4
  • What Does Autism Look Like? Behavior Differences Unusually intense or restricted interests in things (maps, dates, coins, numbers/statistics, train schedules) Unusual repetitive behavior, verbal as well as nonverbal (hand flapping, rocking) Unusual sensitivity to sensations may be more or less than typical students Difficulty with transitions, need for sameness Possible aggressive, disruptive, or self-injurious behavior; unaware of possible dangers
  • Slide 5
  • Slide 6
  • Six-Step Plan Step One: Educate Yourself
  • Slide 7
  • Six-Step Plan Step Two: Reach Out to the Parents
  • Slide 8
  • Six-Step Plan Step Three: Prepare the Classroom
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Need for Sameness Define classroom area. Create individual work areas, free time areas, open areas for discussion, etc. Keep classroom consistently organized Choose designated seat for student Keep daily schedule in one place in the classroom Develop a visual agenda to help the student understand the agenda in advance
  • Slide 11
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Problematic or Acting-Out Behavior Identify a home base to escape classroom stimulation for a while
  • Slide 14
  • Home Base or Cool Zone A home base is a place in the school where student can go to escape the over-stimulation of the classroom (Not a time-out or a punishment) Work goes with the student to Home Base May be scheduled or occur on an as-needed basis May be used for taking tests 142010WV Autism Training Center
  • Slide 15
  • Home Base, Cool Zone or Hot Pass Card A visual cue that helps prompt student to go to home base Everyone in the school knows the student has one Used in conjunction with other visual supports, as needed 152010WV Autism Training Center
  • Slide 16
  • Home Base at the Start of the Day Preview the schedule Overview any changes in the routine Priming for activities Allow time for transition from bus to school Ensure that materials are organized Support social skills instruction 162010WV Autism Training Center
  • Slide 17
  • Home Base at the End of the Day Review homework assignments Make sure student has materials needed for homework Review any social concerns of the day Overview any changes in the routine for the next day Priming for activities Allow time for transition from school to bus 172010WV Autism Training Center
  • Slide 18
  • Easily Distracted By Sights and Sounds Seat student in low traffic area of classroom Use carpeting Face desks away from windows/doors Teach student when he or she can and cannot use computer (cover when not in use) Seat students away from toys and books Help child to learn how to handle distractions over time
  • Slide 19
  • Sensitivity to Touch Avoid touching student initially Teach tolerance to touch
  • Slide 20
  • Sensitivity to Smells Avoid using perfumes or heavy lotions Seat student near open door or open window in rooms with strong smells (art room) Ask custodian to order and use unscented cleaning supplies
  • Slide 21
  • Sensitivity to Sounds Move student away from sounds Use soft voice when possible Have student use earplugs or headphones (when appropriate) Install carpeting or carpet remnants Put material under desk legs Prepare student for sound (before bell rings, fire drills) Gradually teach tolerance to sounds
  • Slide 22
  • Sensitivity to Light Lower levels of light Turn off overhead lights Try different colors of light Have student use sunglasses or baseball cap Move students seat from reflections on wall Use bulbs that do not flicker
  • Slide 23
  • Six-Step Plan Step Four: Educate Peers and Promote Social Goals
  • Slide 24
  • Teaching Points Children with autism are first and foremost children, they are like your typical students in many ways They experience the world very differently. Sights, sounds, tastes and feelings that seem normal to us might be scary and overwhelming for a child with autism. Conversely, they may not recognize danger or experience fear like your typically developing students do Children with autism need and want friends Understanding autism is the key to creating connections Children with autism have their own way of communicating its almost like a different language Autism is NOT contagious; no one catches it. Nor does anyone die from having autism Children with autism do have feelings and often understand more than they can express. No one should ever tease or make fun of someone with autism When a child with autism feels included, everyone in the classroom can learn and grow!
  • Slide 25
  • Six-Step Plan Step Five: Collaborate on the Implementation of an Educational Program
  • Slide 26
  • Six-Step Plan Step Six: Manage Behavioral Challenges The most important thing you can to help reduce the frequency and intensity of challenging behaviors is to decipher the cause and learn to distinguish the childs behavior stemming from autism from the deliberate misbehavior requiring disciplinary action
  • Slide 27
  • Effective Teacher Characteristics Knowledge of characteristics Develops a sense of trust with student Accepts student as he or she is Enjoys working with student and expresses it Models enthusiasm Provides non-threatening feedback Listens to student, analyzes needs and adapts curriculum Reacts calmly to all students 272010WV Autism Training Center
  • Slide 28
  • Effective Teacher Characteristics Avoids asking student why he did something States expected behaviors and provides examples Uses short sentences and limits the number of instructions Provides instruction in more than one modality Provides extra time for student to process and respond Provides predictable classroom structure 282010WV Autism Training Center
  • Slide 29
  • Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students With Autism Three psychological theories explain some of the characteristics of autism: Lack of Theory of Mind Weak Central Coherence Impaired Executive Function
  • Slide 30
  • Lack of Theory of Mind Deficits Inability to recognize and understand the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and intentions of others Mind blindness difficulty putting oneself in another persons shoes Find it challenging to understand nonverbal cues or misinterpret nonverbal cues Dont understand how their actions or behaviors affect others Challenges Charlies story Interpreting within text the thoughts, feelings, intentions of characters which is critical for accurate comprehension Social interactions
  • Slide 31
  • Weak Central Coherence Deficits Cant see big picture. Attend to detail, but have difficulty perceiving and understanding the gist of something. Challenges Sarahs story Joses story Difficulty with higher level thinking and comprehension May have large vocabulary, but fail to understand simple comments or directions May demonstrate strength in word decoding, but experience great challenges in comprehension
  • Slide 32
  • Impaired Executive Function Deficits Struggle with organization and planning, working memory, inhibition control, time management, prioritizing and using new strategies Challenges Initiating work, staying on task, and being able to organize themselves Difficulty with long term assignments/projects Difficulty integrating new information, situations or rules with existing concepts and knowledge especially in times of stress Need structure and stress reduction
  • Slide 33
  • Slide 34
  • CCSS Reading Charlotte Can read and decode on grade level Cant relate how characters respond to events in story Struggled to meet CCSS: Reading and Literature
  • Slide 35
  • Why didnt Maria just say what she thought? What will the character say instead?
  • Slide 36
  • CCSS Reading Stephen
  • Slide 37
  • CCSS Listening and Speaking Many children with ASD do not ask questions or seek help from others and may not understand that others have information that can be useful to them unless someone explicitly teaches them One of the characteristic of ASD is marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others
  • Slide 38
  • CCSS Listening and Speaking Johns story
  • Slide 39