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Page 1: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 2 1

Foundations of

Individual Behavior

Page 2: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 2 2

BiographicalBiographicalCharacteristicsCharacteristics

MaritalMaritalStatusStatus

GenderGender

TenureTenure

AgeAge

Page 3: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 2 3

Intellectual Abilities

• Number aptitude

• Verbal comprehension

• Perceptual speed

• Inductive reasoning

• Deductive reasoning

• Spatial visualization

• Memory ability

Page 4: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 2 4

Flexibility

Factors

Flexibility

Factors

Strength

Factors

Strength

Factors

Other

Factors

Other

Factors

Basic Physical AbilitiesBasic Physical Abilities

Page 5: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 2 5

The Ability-Job FitThe Ability-Job Fit

• Abilities of the

employee

• Requirements of

the job

Page 6: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 2 6

SocialSocialLearningLearning

ClassicalClassical

ConditioningConditioning

OperantOperant

ConditioningConditioning

What Is Learning?What Is Learning?

Page 7: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 2 7

Methods ofMethods ofShaping BehaviorShaping Behavior

Methods ofMethods ofShaping BehaviorShaping Behavior

Negative Negative ReinforcementReinforcement

Negative Negative ReinforcementReinforcement

PositivePositiveReinforcementReinforcement

PositivePositiveReinforcementReinforcement

ExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionPunishmentPunishmentPunishmentPunishment

Page 8: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 2 8

Schedules of Reinforcement

Fixed-Interval

Fixed-Ratio

Variable-Ratio

Variable-Interval

Interval Ratio

Low

Hig

h

Page 9: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 9

Values, Attitudes,

and Job Satisfaction

Page 10: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 10

The Importance of The Importance of ValuesValues

JudgmentJudgment ContentContent

IntensityIntensityStabilityStability

Page 11: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 11

Types of Values

TerminalTerminalValuesValues

TerminalTerminalValuesValues

InstrumentalInstrumentalValuesValues

InstrumentalInstrumentalValuesValues

Page 12: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 12

Unique Values of Today’s Workforce

CareerStage

Entered theWorkforce

ApproximateCurrent Age

Dominant Work Values

1. Protestant

2. Existential

3. Pragmatic

4. Generation X

Mid-1940s toLate 1950s

1960s to Mid-1970s

Mid-1970s toMid-1980s

Mid-1980sthrough 1990s

60 to 75

45 to 60

35 to 45

Under 35

Hard working; loyal tofirm; conservative

Nonconforming; seeksautonomy; loyal to self

Ambitious, hard worker;loyal to career

Flexible, values leisure;loyal to relationships

Page 13: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

13Chapter 3©Prentice Hall, 2001

Hofstede’s Cultural DimensionsHofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

• Power distance• Uncertainty avoidance• Individualism or

Collectivism• Quantity or Quality of Life• Long-term or Short-term

• Power distance• Uncertainty avoidance• Individualism or

Collectivism• Quantity or Quality of Life• Long-term or Short-term

Page 14: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

14Chapter 3©Prentice Hall, 2001

Selected Countries on theUncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity Scales

Selected Countries on theUncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity Scales

• Uncertainty Avoidance Index• Uncertainty Avoidance Index

Masc

ulin

ity In

dex

Masc

ulin

ity In

dex

Fem

Status QuoStatus Quo Risk-taking

Masc

HK

USAGB

SING

GRE

JAPAN

GER

YUG

SOAMER

SoAMER

SWE

FRANSPN

Page 15: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

15Chapter 3©Prentice Hall, 2001

Selected Countries on theUncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance Scales

Selected Countries on theUncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance Scales

•Uncertainty Avoidance Index•Uncertainty Avoidance Index

Pow

er

Dis

tan

ce In

dex

Pow

er

Dis

tan

ce In

dex

Low

High - Status QuoHigh - Status Quo Risk-taking -Low

High

SWE

USAGB

HK SING

PHIL

IND

SPN

FRAN

JAPAN

GRE

YUG

GER

SOAMER

Page 16: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 16

What Are Attitudes?What Are Attitudes?

• Cognitive component

• Affective component

• Behavioral component

Page 17: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 17

Types of AttitudesTypes of Attitudes

• Job satisfaction

• Job involvement

• Organizational

commitment

Page 18: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 18

Importance Importance of the Elementsof the Elements

Importance Importance of the Elementsof the Elements

CognitiveCognitiveDissonanceDissonanceCognitiveCognitive

DissonanceDissonanceDegree ofDegree of

Personal InfluencePersonal InfluenceDegree ofDegree of

Personal InfluencePersonal Influence

RewardsRewardsInvolvedInvolvedRewardsRewardsInvolvedInvolved

Page 19: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 19

Attitude-Behavior RelationshipAttitude-Behavior Relationship

• Importance

• Specificity

• Accessibility

• Social pressures

• Direct experience

Moderating VariablesModerating Variables Behavioral InfluenceBehavioral Influence

High

Low

Page 20: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 20

Self-Perception TheorySelf-Perception Theory

AfterAfterthe Factthe Fact

CasualCasualStatementsStatements

PlausiblePlausibleAnswersAnswers

Behavior-Attitude RelationshipBehavior-Attitude Relationship

Page 21: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 21

Measuring JobSatisfaction

SingleSingleGlobalGlobalRatingRating

SummingSummingup Jobup JobFacetsFacets

Page 22: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 22

ProductivityProductivityProductivityProductivity

AbsenteeismAbsenteeismAbsenteeismAbsenteeism

TurnoverTurnoverTurnoverTurnover

JobJob

SatisfactionSatisfaction

and Employeeand Employee

PerformancePerformance

JobJob

SatisfactionSatisfaction

and Employeeand Employee

PerformancePerformance

Page 23: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 23

Responses to Job Responses to Job DissatisfactionDissatisfaction

Destructive

Active

Passive

Constructive

Exit Voice

Neglect Loyalty

Page 24: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 3 24

Job Satisfaction and OCBJob Satisfaction and OCB

OutcomesOutcomes TreatmentTreatment ProceduresProcedures

Perceptions of FairnessPerceptions of Fairness