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© Prentice Hall, 2 001 Chapter 6 1 Basic Motivation Concepts Chapter 6

©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 61 Basic Motivation Concepts Chapter 6

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Page 1: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 61 Basic Motivation Concepts Chapter 6

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 1

Basic Motivation Concepts

Chapter 6

Page 2: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 61 Basic Motivation Concepts Chapter 6

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 2

Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives

• Outline the motivation process

• Describe Maslow’s need hierarchy

• Contrast Theory X and Theory Y

• Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors

• Examine the job characteristics that high

achievers prefer

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 3

Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives

• Examine goals that increase performance

• State the impact of under-rewarding

employees

• Clarify relationships in expectancy theory

• Learn how the contemporary theories of

motivation complement each other

Page 4: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 61 Basic Motivation Concepts Chapter 6

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 4

What Is Motivation?

Direction

PersistenceIntensity

Goals

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 5

Maslow’sMaslow’sHierarchyHierarchyof Needsof Needs SelfSelf

EsteemEsteem

SocialSocial

SafetySafety

PhysiologicalPhysiological

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 6

Theory XTheory XWorkersWorkers

Dislike WorkDislike Work

Avoid ResponsibilityAvoid Responsibility

Little AmbitionLittle Ambition

Theory YTheory YWorkersWorkers

Enjoy WorkEnjoy Work

Accept ResponsibilityAccept Responsibility

Self-DirectedSelf-Directed

Douglas McGregor

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 7

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Hygiene FactorsHygiene Factors Motivational FactorsMotivational Factors

• Quality of supervision• Rate of pay• Company policies• Working conditions• Relations with others• Job security

• Quality of supervision• Rate of pay• Company policies• Working conditions• Relations with others• Job security

• Career Advancement

• Personal growth

• Recognition

• Responsibility

• Achievement

• Career Advancement

• Personal growth

• Recognition

• Responsibility

• Achievement

High HighJob Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction0

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 8

Alderfer’s ERG TheoryAlderfer’s ERG TheoryAlderfer’s ERG TheoryAlderfer’s ERG Theory

ExistenceExistenceExistenceExistence GrowthGrowth

RelatednessRelatednessRelatednessRelatedness

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The TheoryThe Theoryof Needsof Needs

DavidDavidMcClellandMcClelland

The TheoryThe Theoryof Needsof Needs

DavidDavidMcClellandMcClelland

Need forNeed forAchievementAchievement

(nAch)(nAch)

Need forNeed forAchievementAchievement

(nAch)(nAch)

Need forNeed forPowerPower(nPow)(nPow)

Need forNeed forPowerPower(nPow)(nPow)

Need forNeed forAffiliationAffiliation

(nAff)(nAff)

Need forNeed forAffiliationAffiliation

(nAff)(nAff)

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 10

McClelland’s Theory of needs

• nAch: moderately challenging goals, not too easy, not difficult, stretching

• nPow: status-oriented, competitive, “in charge”,

• nAff: be liked and accepted; cooperative

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 11

Need Theory and Job Performance

• Achievers prefer jobs that offer– Personal responsibility– Feedback– Moderate risks– Not a good manager

• Interested in how they doing personally, rather than influencing others.

• Npow and Naff– Related to managerial success

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 12

Cognitive EvaluationCognitive Evaluation

IntrinsicMotivatorsIntrinsic

MotivatorsExtrinsic

MotivatorsExtrinsic

Motivators

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 13

Cognitive evaluation theory

• Interdependence, rather than independence between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards

• Allocating extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic rewards

• Loss control over one’s own behavior• Implications– Individual pay non-contingent on performance

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 14

• SpecificitySpecificity

• ChallengeChallenge

• FeedbackFeedback

• ParticipationParticipation

• CommitmentCommitment

• Self-efficacySelf-efficacy

• Task CharacteristicsTask Characteristics

• CultureCulture

Goal-Setting TheoryGoal-Setting Theory

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Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement TheoryBehavior is a pattern of its consequencesBehavior is a pattern of its consequences

ConsequencesConsequences

RewardsRewards

No RewardsNo Rewards

PunishmentPunishment

BehaviorBehavior

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Ratio Comparison*

Employee’sPerception

Outcomes A

Inputs A

Outcomes A

Inputs A

Outcomes A

Inputs A

Outcomes B

Inputs B

Outcomes B

Inputs B

Outcomes B

Inputs B

<

=

>

Inequity (Under-Rewarded)

Equity

Inequity (Over-Rewarded)

*Where A is the employee, and B is a relevant other or referent.

Equity TheoryEquity Theory

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 17

Research into EquityResearch into EquityPerceived fairnessPerceived fairness

Amount andAmount andAllocationAllocation

of Rewardsof Rewards

PerceivedPerceivedFairness of theFairness of the

Distribution ProcessDistribution Process

DistributiveDistributiveJusticeJustice

ProceduralProceduralJusticeJustice

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 18

Expectancy Theory

3. Rewards-personal goals relationship

1. Effort-performance relationship

2. Performance-rewards relationship

IndividualIndividualEffortEffort

IndividualIndividualPerformancePerformance

PersonalPersonalGoalsGoals

OrganizationalOrganizationalRewardsRewards

1 2

3

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Performance DimensionsPerformance Dimensions

OpportunityOpportunityMotivationMotivation

AbilityAbility

PerformancePerformance

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An Integrative Model of MotivationAn Integrative Model of Motivation

PersonalGoals

PersonalGoals

IndividualPerformance

IndividualPerformance

IndividualEffort

IndividualEffort

Goals DirectBehavior

Goals DirectBehavior

HighnAchHighnAch

AbilityAbility

OpportunityOpportunity PerformanceAppraisal Criteria

PerformanceAppraisal Criteria

PerformanceAppraisalSystem

PerformanceAppraisalSystem

ReinforcementReinforcement DominantNeeds

DominantNeeds

EquityComparison

O O IA IB

EquityComparison

O O IA IB

OrganizationRewards

OrganizationRewards

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 21

Motivation TheoriesAre Culture Bound

Need forNeed forAchievementAchievement

Hierarchy Hierarchy of Needsof Needs

Equity TheoryEquity Theory