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Page 1: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 1

Leadership and Leadership and TrustTrust

Page 2: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 2

Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes

• Define the term leader

• Compare leaders and managers

• Review the trait theories of leadership

• Describe the Fiedler contingency model

• Summarize the path-goal leadership theory

Page 3: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 3

Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes

• Explain situational leadership

• Discuss the qualities of charismatic leaders

• Describe the skills of visionary leaders

• Explain the roles of effective team leaders

• Identify the five dimensions of trust

Page 4: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 4

What Is Leadership?What Is Leadership?

• A definition of management

• A definition of leadership

• Formal and informal leaders

• Leadership and management

Page 5: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 5

Trait Theories of LeadershipTrait Theories of Leadership

AmbitionAmbitionand Energyand Energy

DesireDesireto Leadto Lead

Self-Self-ConfidenceConfidence

HonestyHonestyand Integrityand Integrity

IntelligenceIntelligence Job-RelevantJob-RelevantKnowledgeKnowledge

Page 6: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 6

Continuum of Leader BehaviorContinuum of Leader BehaviorManager

makes decision

Managersells decision

Managerpresents ideas

Manager presents tentative decision

Manager presents problem

Manager sets decision limits

Employees make decision

Autocratic

Laissez-faire

Consultative

Participative

Democratic

Bo

ss-C

ente

red

Lea

der

ship

Em

plo

yee-Cen

tered L

eadersh

ip

Page 7: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 7

Formal Studies Formal Studies of Behavioral Stylesof Behavioral Styles

Ohio State Ohio State Initiating StructureInitiating Structure

ConsiderationConsideration

Employee-OrientationEmployee-Orientation

Production-OrientationProduction-Orientation

University ofUniversity ofMichiganMichigan

Page 8: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 8

The Managerial Grid1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 6 7 8 9

Co

nce

rn f

or

Peo

ple

Co

nce

rn f

or

Peo

ple

Concern for ProductionConcern for Production

(1,9)(1,9)

(1,1)(1,1)

(5,5)(5,5)

(9,9)(9,9)

(9,1)(9,1)

Page 9: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 9

Fiedler’s LPC ScaleFiedler’s LPC Scale

PleasantPleasantFriendlyFriendly

RejectingRejectingHelpfulHelpful

UnenthusiasticUnenthusiasticTenseTense

DistantDistantColdCold

CooperativeCooperativeSupportiveSupportive

BoringBoringQuarrelsomeQuarrelsomeSelf-assuredSelf-assured

EfficientEfficientGloomyGloomy

OpenOpen

UnpleasantUnpleasantUnfriendlyUnfriendlyAcceptingAcceptingFrustratingFrustratingEnthusiasticEnthusiasticRelaxedRelaxedCloseCloseWarmWarmUncooperativeUncooperativeHostileHostileInterestingInterestingHarmoniousHarmoniousHesitantHesitantInefficientInefficientCheerfulCheerfulGuardedGuarded

...........................

...........................

...........................

...........................

...........................

...........................

...........................

...........................

...........................

...........................

.....................….

...........................

...........................

...........................

......................…. ...........................

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Page 10: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001

Findings of the Fiedler ModelFindings of the Fiedler Model

• Category• Leader-Member Relations• Task Structure• Position Power

• Category• Leader-Member Relations• Task Structure• Position Power

I

Good

HighStrong

II

Good

HighWeak

III

Good

LowStrong

IV

Good

HighWeak

V

Poor

HighStrong

VI

Poor

HighWeak

VII

Poor

LowStrong

VIII

Poor

LowWeak

High

Low

Per

form

ance

People-Oriented

Task-Oriented

Favorable Moderate Unfavorable

Page 11: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 11

The Path-Goal Theory

Environmental Environmental Situational FactorsSituational Factors

OutcomesOutcomesLeaderLeaderBehaviorBehavior

Subordinate Subordinate Situational FactorsSituational Factors

Page 12: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 12

1 2 3 4 5

Increased Employee InvolvementIncreased Employee Involvement

Increased Leader ControlIncreased Leader Control

Employee Involvement ContinuumEmployee Involvement Continuum

Leader Participation ModelLeader Participation Model

Page 13: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 13

Contingency Variables in the Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Revised Leader-Participation

ModelModelQuality

Requirement

ProblemStructure

EmployeeConflict

GeographicDispersion

CommitmentRequirement

CommitmentProbability

EmployeeInformation

MotivationTime

LeaderInformation

Goal Congruence

TimeConstraint

MotivationDevelopment

Page 14: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 14

Participating Selling

Delegating Telling

The Situational Leadership ModelThe Situational Leadership Model

Style of Leader

High task andhigh relationship

High relationshipand low task

Low relationshipand low task

High task andlow relationship

Task Behavior

Rel

atio

nsh

ipB

ehav

ior

Able andwilling

Unable andunwilling

R4

Able andunwilling

R3

Unable andWilling

R2 R1

High Moderate Low

S3 S2

S4 S1

Page 15: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 15

Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership

• Self-confidence

• Vision and articulation

• Strong convictions

• Extraordinary behavior

• Image as a change agent

• Environmental sensitivity

Page 16: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 16

ExtendExtendthe Visionthe Vision

ExplainExplainthe Visionthe Vision

ExpressExpressthe Visionthe Vision

Visionary Visionary LeadershipLeadership

Page 17: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 17

LeadershipStyles

Motivationversus

Inspiration

TransformationalLeaders

TransactionalLeaders

Page 18: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 18

Team LeaderTeam LeaderRolesRoles

ConflictConflictManagersManagers

Trouble-Trouble-ShootersShooters

CoachesCoaches LiaisonsLiaisons

Page 19: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 19

LeadershipLeadershipIssuesIssues

LeadershipLeadershipIssuesIssues

SubstitutesSubstitutesfor Leadershipfor Leadership

SubstitutesSubstitutesfor Leadershipfor Leadership

NationalNationalCulture andCulture andLeadershipLeadership

NationalNationalCulture andCulture andLeadershipLeadership

Page 20: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 20

What Is Trust?What Is Trust?

• Integrity

• Competence

• Consistency

• Loyalty

• Openness

Page 21: ©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 11 21

Deterrence-Deterrence-BasedBased

Knowledge-Knowledge-BasedBased

Identification-Identification-BasedBased

Three Types of TrustThree Types of Trust