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© Prentice Hall, 2 001 Chapter 12 1 Communication and Communication and Interpersonal Interpersonal Skill Skill

©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 121 Communication and Interpersonal Skill

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©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 1

Communication Communication and Interpersonal and Interpersonal

SkillSkill

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 2

Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes

• Learn why communication is important to

managers

• Describe the communication process

• Learn to overcome communication barriers

• Identify active listening techniques

• Learn how to give effective feedback

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 3

Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes

• Describe contingency factors that affect

delegation

• Learn how to delegate

• Learn how to analyze and resolve conflict

• Explain why managers stimulate conflict

• Compare distributive and integrative

bargaining

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 4

The Communication Process

SenderSender

EncodingEncoding

ReceiverReceiver

DecodingDecodingChannelChannel

Feedback

Message Message

Noise

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 5

Communication IssuesCommunication IssuesCommunication IssuesCommunication Issues

Written Communication

Verbal Communication

The Grapevine

Nonverbal Cues

Electronic Media

Written Communication

Verbal Communication

The Grapevine

Nonverbal Cues

Electronic Media

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 6

FilteringFiltering

EmotionsEmotions

SelectiveSelectivePerceptionPerception

InformationInformationOverloadOverload

ApprehensionApprehension

LanguageLanguage

Communication BarriersCommunication Barriers

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 7

Overcoming Overcoming Communication BarriersCommunication Barriers

• Constrain emotions

• Watch nonverbal cues

• Use feedback

• Simplify language

• Listen actively

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 8

ContemporaryContemporaryCommunication IssuesCommunication Issues

ContemporaryContemporaryCommunication IssuesCommunication Issues

Communication Communication

between Men between Men

and Womenand Women

Communication Communication

between Men between Men

and Womenand Women

CommunicationCommunication

in the Globalin the Global

VillageVillage

CommunicationCommunication

in the Globalin the Global

VillageVillage

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 9

Active Listening Skills

Active Listening Skills

AcceptanceAcceptanceAcceptanceAcceptanceResponsibilityResponsibilityResponsibilityResponsibility

IntensityIntensityIntensityIntensity EmpathyEmpathyEmpathyEmpathy

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 10

EffectiveEffectiveFeedbackFeedbackEffectiveEffectiveFeedbackFeedback

ProvideProvideTimelyTimely

FeedbackFeedback

ProvideProvideTimelyTimely

FeedbackFeedback

KeepKeepFeedbackFeedback

ImpersonalImpersonal

KeepKeepFeedbackFeedback

ImpersonalImpersonal

Focus on What Focus on What the Receiverthe ReceiverCan ControlCan Control

Focus on What Focus on What the Receiverthe ReceiverCan ControlCan Control

Focus onFocus onSpecificSpecific

BehaviorsBehaviors

Focus onFocus onSpecificSpecific

BehaviorsBehaviors

StayStayGoal-Goal-

OrientedOriented

StayStayGoal-Goal-

OrientedOriented

EnsureEnsureUnderstandingUnderstanding

EnsureEnsureUnderstandingUnderstanding

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 11

Delegation Delegation Contingency Factors Contingency Factors

• Size of the organization

• Importance of the duty or decision

• Complexity of the task

• Culture of the organization

• Qualities of employees

• Size of the organization

• Importance of the duty or decision

• Complexity of the task

• Culture of the organization

• Qualities of employees

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 12

Delegating EffectivelyDelegating Effectively

• Clarify the assignment

• Specify the range of discretion

• Encourage participation

• Inform others

• Establish feedback channels

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 13

Three ViewsThree Viewsof Conflictof Conflict

TraditionalTraditionalHumanHumanRelationsRelations

InteractionistInteractionist

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 14

Conflict and Unit PerformanceConflict and Unit PerformanceU

nit

P

erfo

rman

ce

High

Low Level of Conflict High

A B C

Situation

A

B

C

Conflict Level Conflict Type Internal Characteristics Outcomes

Low or none

Optimal

High

Dysfunctional

Functional

Dysfunctional

Apathetic, stagnant

Viable, innovative

Disruptive, chaotic

Low

High

Low

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 15

ConflictConflict

ManagementManagement

ConflictConflict

ManagementManagement

AvoidanceAvoidanceAvoidanceAvoidance

AccommodationAccommodationAccommodationAccommodation

ForcingForcingForcingForcing

CompromiseCompromiseCompromiseCompromise

CollaborationCollaborationCollaborationCollaboration

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 16

Sources ofConflict

Sources ofConflict

CommunicationDifferences

CommunicationDifferences

StructuralDifferencesStructural

Differences

PersonalDifferences

PersonalDifferences

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 17

When to Stimulate ConflictWhen to Stimulate Conflict• Are you surrounded by “yes” people?

• Are employees afraid to admit ignorance?

• Do decision makers sacrifice values for compromise?

• Do managers maintain an “impression” of cooperation?

• Are managers overly concerned about the feelings of others?

• Is popularity more important than performance?

• Do managers crave decision-making consensus?

• Are managers resistant to change?

• Is there a lack of new ideas?

• Is turnover unusually low?

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 18

Stimulating ConflictStimulating Conflict

• Legitimize conflict

• Use communication

• Bring in outsiders

• Use structural variables

• Appoint a “devil’s advocate”

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 19

• Available Resources

• Primary Motivations

• Primary Interests

• Focus of Relationships

• Available Resources

• Primary Motivations

• Primary Interests

• Focus of Relationships

• Fixed Amount

• I Win, You Lose

• Opposed

• Short-Term

• Fixed Amount

• I Win, You Lose

• Opposed

• Short-Term

• Variable Amount

• I Win, You Win

• Congruent

• Long-Term

• Variable Amount

• I Win, You Win

• Congruent

• Long-Term

IntegrativeBargainingIntegrativeBargaining

DistributiveBargainingDistributiveBargaining

BargainingCharacteristics

BargainingCharacteristics

The Two Types ofThe Two Types ofNegotiating StrategiesNegotiating Strategies

The Two Types ofThe Two Types ofNegotiating StrategiesNegotiating Strategies

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 20

The Bargaining Zone

Party A’sParty A’sAspirationAspiration

RangeRange

Party A’sParty A’sAspirationAspiration

RangeRangeSettlementSettlement

RangeRange

Party B’sParty B’sAspirationAspiration

RangeRange

Party B’sParty B’sAspirationAspiration

RangeRange

Party A’sTarget Point

Party B’sResistance

Point

Party A’sResistance

Point

Party B’sTarget Point

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 21

Developing Negotiation SkillsDeveloping Negotiation Skills

• Research your opponent

• Begin in a positive way

• Address problems, not people

• Ignore initial offers

• Seek win-win solutions

• Consider third-party assistance

©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 12 22

Making Effective PresentationsMaking Effective Presentations

• Prepare for the presentation

• Make opening comments

• Make your points

• End the presentation

• Answer questions