Text of Phonics and Fluency Paola Pilonieta, Ph.D.. 2 What is phonics? The main focus of phonics instruction...
Phonics and Fluency Paola Pilonieta, Ph.D.
2 What is phonics? The main focus of phonics instruction is to
help beginning readers understand letter-sound correspondences and
spelling patterns, and to help them learn how to apply this
knowledge in their reading.
Sound It Out! 3
Sounding It Out What are you really asking? 4 snap
Sound It Out Why doesnt it always work? 5 faceocean
What else can do I do when a child cant figure out the word?
Prompting Prompting is what the teacher says when a child cant
decode a word. Start by offering the least support possible. Move
from general prompts to more specific prompts. 7
General Prompts When the child notices the error: Ask: What can
you do to figure out that word? When the child doesnt notice the
error: Give the child a few seconds to notice. Ask: Does that make
Specific Prompts: Use when general prompts dont work Can you
sound it out? Are there parts of the word that you know? (chunking)
Can the pictures help you? Point to the part of the word with which
they are struggling, ask: What letter is this? What sound does that
letter make? 9
Prompting vs. Telling Prompt when: the word can be sounded out.
you have practiced similar words with the child. Tell when: the
word is too hard. the word is impossible to sound out (ex: ocean).
11 Offer 1-2 quick prompts. If the child still cant figure it out,
tell them the word and move on.
Lets Try It! What prompts might you offer to students
struggling with crater?
13 Example 1 Example 2
What are other ways I can teach phonics? 14
Word Families Words that have different beginning letters but
the same ending Possible Word Families ack, ain, ake, ale, all,
ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw ay, eat, ell, est, ice, ick,
ide, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, it, ock, oke, op, ore, ot,
uck,ug, ump, unk. 16
Tic Tac Toe Create a tic tac toe board. Each player chooses a
different word family (ex: -at and ig). Player 1 writes a word from
the at family anywhere he chooses on the board. Player 2 writes a
word from the ig family on any empty space he chooses on the board.
Play continues until someone has 3 words from their word family in
Word Chains Have learner look for words that belong in the same
word family in a book or think of their own words. Have the learner
write the words on construction paper strips. Tape or staple the
ends of the strips into a circle, linking the circles with one
another to form a chain. 19
dot hot got not Word Chain example with ot family Variations
use words with the same beginning sound (hat, head, help, home) Use
beginning/ending letters (Metal, almost, stone, nest, stare,
reverse, seat 20
Word Family Slides Give learner a word family slide and Real
vs. Nonsense Word worksheet. The learner reads the first word
created by the slide. The learner determines whether the word is
real or nonsense and writes it on the correct space on the
Additional word family resources can be found at: Florida
Center for Reading Research (FCRR)(FCRR)
ADDITIONAL PHONICS ACTIVITIES
25 Words You Know Words you know is an activity that helps
students see that you can use words you know to figure out words
you dont know! Choose 3-4 words the student knows and identify the
spelling patterns in those words. Have the learner make a chart on
their paper. Head the columns with the words you know and underline
the spelling pattern. Show the learner some words on an index card.
Have them read the word and write it in the correct column. Say
some words. Have the learner decide where to write them on their
26 Words you know: red green brown black Words to read: queen
crown knack shed attack between coed touchdown Words to write:
smack screen fled drown sled unseen downtown backpack
Word Building Place the consonant cards face down in one stack
and the vowel cards face down in another stack. Give the learner a
Real vs. Nonsense Word worksheet. The learner selects 2 cards from
the consonant stack, 1 from the vowel stack, and places the vowel
card between the consonants. The learner reads the word, determines
if it is real or nonsense and writes it under the correct column.
Additional phonics resources can be found at: Florida Center
for Reading Research (FCRR)(FCRR)
What is fluency? Fluency is the ability to read accurately,
quickly, effortlessly, and with appropriate expression and meaning.
There are three components to fluency: 1.Accuracy 2.Expression
Timed Repeated Reading Ideal for students who read accurately,
but slowly. Procedure 1 st reading Choose a passage between 100-150
words that is not too hard for the learner. Say to the learner,
Doing your best reading, please read aloud this passage to me with
expression and at a good, even pace. Time the learner while he is
reading. While the learner is reading, keep track of how many
errors he or she made. Review their performance. 33
Timed Repeated Reading Procedure Subsequent Readings Set a
reasonable goal for the next tutoring session. You can expect the
child to read 2-3 words more per minute Practice reading the
passage one more time that session. Encourage the learner to
practice reading the passage at least one time every day until you
see him or her again. At the next tutoring session time the learner
while he or she reads the passage. 34
Readers Theatre Ideal for students who need to improve their
expression. Students read a script (rather than memorize it).
Emphasis is placed on expression, not on props, costumes, or acting
Readers Theatre Procedures Select a script
Read the script with the student the first time (read all roles
together). Check that the student understood the plot. Choose roles
and read the script like a play. Repeat as desired. 36