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Organizational Culture, Socialization, & Mentoring Organizational Culture: Definition and Context Dynamics of Organizational Culture Developing High-Performance Cultures The Organizational Socialization Process Embedding Organizational Culture through Mentoring

Organizational Culture, Socialization, & Mentoring Organizational Culture: Definition and Context Dynamics of Organizational Culture Developing High-Performance

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  • Organizational Culture, Socialization, & MentoringOrganizational Culture: Definition and ContextDynamics of Organizational CultureDeveloping High-Performance CulturesThe Organizational Socialization ProcessEmbedding Organizational Culture through Mentoring

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Organizational CultureShared values and beliefs that underlie a companys identityWhat types of organizational cultures have you worked in?How does the organizations culture manifest itself?

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Understanding Organizational CultureFigure 3-1

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Layers of Organizational CultureObservable artifactsExamples?Values enduring belief in a mode or conduct or end-stateDifference between espoused and enacted?Basic Assumptions

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Four Functions of Organizational Culture

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Three Types of CulturesConstructivePassive-defensiveAggressive-defensive

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Constructive CultureConstructive Culture employees are encouraged to interact with others and to work on tasks and projects that will assist in satisfying their needs to grow and develop Table 3-1

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Passive-Defensive CulturePassive- Defensive Culture overriding belief that employees must interact with others in ways that do not threaten their job securityTable 3-1

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Aggressive-Defensive CultureAggressive-Defensive Culture encourage employees to approach tasks in forceful ways in order to protect their status and job securityTable 3-1

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Developing and Preserving an Adaptive Culture

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Embedding Culture in OrganizationsFormal statements or organizational philosophyDesign of physical spaceSlogans, language, acronyms, sayingsDeliberate role modeling, trainingExplicit rewards, status symbolsStories, legends, myths

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Embedding Culture in OrganizationsLeader reactions to critical incidentsWorkflow and organizational structureOrganizational activities, processes, or outcomes leaders attend toOrganizational systems and proceduresOrganizational goals and criteria for managing human resources

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Organizational SocializationPhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesFigure 3-4

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Organizational SocializationPhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesEncounter values, skills, and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what the organization is truly likeManaging lifestyle-versus-work conflictsManaging intergroup role conflictsSeeking role definition and clarityBecoming familiar with task and group dynamicsFigure 3-4

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Organizational SocializationPhasesPerceptual and Social ProcessesChange and acquisition recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to work groups values and normsCompeting role demands are resolvedCritical tasks are masteredGroup norms and values are internalizedFigure 3-4

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Organizational SocializationOutsiderBehavioral Outcomes Performs role assignments Remains with organization Spontaneously innovates and cooperatesSocialized InsiderAffective Outcomes Generally satisfied Internally motivated to work High job involvementFigure 3-4

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Socialization Tactics

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*MentoringMentoring is the process of forming and maintaining developmental relationships between a mentor and a junior person

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Functions of MentoringPsychologicalFunctionsCareerFunctionsSponsorshipExposure and ViabilityCoachingProtectionChallenging AssignmentsRole ModelingAcceptance and ConfirmationCounselingFriendship

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-*Functions of MentoringCareer FunctionsIn what ways can mentoring assist in ones career progression?Psychological FunctionsHow can mentoring serve a psychological function?

    2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

    3-* D2D1 PReceptive D2D1 PTraditionalEntrepreneurial POpportunisticDevelopmental Relationship StrengthWeak TiesStrong TiesD1 D2D3 D4Low RangeHigh RangeDevelopmental Relationship DiversityKey:D = developerP = protege PD1 D2D3 D4Figure 3-5Developmental Networks Associated with Mentoring

    **Organizational Culture Shared values and beliefs that underlie a companys identity

    What types of organizational cultures have you worked in?Students may respond with competitive, laid back, stressful, bureacratic, etc. Follow up question How do you know? What were the indicators of the organizations culture. Probe for manifestations of organizational culture (e.g., shared things (objects) sayings, behavior, feelings.*This figure shows the importance of organizational culture on individual, group and organizational behavior. The roots of an organizations culture are driven by the values of the founders and senior leaders, the culture of the nation, and the particular industry and business environment.

    Now, lets look at the organizational culture box specifically to understand what it is comprised of.

    *Layers of Organizational Culture

    Observable artifactsExamples include dress, awards, myths and stories, published lists of values, observable rituals and ceremonies, visible behavior exhibited by people and groups. Values enduring belief in a mode or conduct or end-stateAn important part of an orgs culture is the stated values to which they ascribe and expect of all employees. These are called espoused values. In theory the espoused values and enacted values (values and norms exhibited by employees) are the same. Organizational cynicism and low morale may occur when an organization acts counter to its espoused values. For example, a company who states that they value work/family balance and then calls a meeting on the weekend for a task force to discuss it.Basic assumptionsRepresent the core of the organizational culture and are so ingrained and understood by everyone that to act counter to them would be inconceivable. For example, Southwest Airlines whos assumptions are that employees welfare and providing high quality service is paramount to what they are all about.*Give members an organizational identity. Culture helps to establish who the company is and what is stands for. Ideally, employees should be proud to belong to a company who shares their values.

    Facilitate collective commitment drive energy around what is really important. At Southwest, employees know theyll be taken care of if they take care of their customers.

    Promote social system stability a positive culture is more likely to be able to resolve conflict using a problem-focused approach rather than person-focused or blaming mentality.

    Shape behavior by helping members make sense of their surroundings. Decisions made by the company that are consistent with the culture are easy for employees to understand. Performance is rewarded that is aligned with that corporate strategy and values.

    *Constructive employees are encouraged to interact with others and work on tasks and projects in ways that will assist them in satisfying their needs to grow an develop

    Passive-defensive overriding belief that employees must interact with others in ways that do not threaten their own job securityNormative beliefs include approval, conventional, dependent, avoidance

    Aggressive defensive encourages employees to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and job securityNormative beliefs oppositional power, competitive, perfectionist

    For example, Enron had an aggressive-defensive culture. Employees are quoted as saying that when they go to discuss their raise and bonus with their boss that they know if they step on someone else on the way to the office they will be more likely to get more money and bonus. The highly competitive environment contributed to the poor, opportunistic decisions made by upper management ultimately causing the demise of the company.****An adaptive culture is one that changes in response to business and environmental demands. It begins with having a clear vision and mission. When the strategy is successful, employee become proud and want to work to push the company even further.*Formal statements or organizational philosophyDesign of physical spaceSlogans, language, acronyms, sayingsDeliberate role modeling, trainingExplicit rewards, status symbolsStories, legends, myths

    *Leader reactions to critical incidentsWorkflow and organizational structureOrganizational activities, processes, or outcomes leaders attend toOrganizational systems and proceduresOrganizational goals and criteria for managing human resources

    *Phase 1 this occurs largely before the person enters the organization and information from current employees or members of the community is gathered to form the impression of the company. A realistic job preview is useful tool to let people understand the nature of the organization, its culture, and what the job entails.

    *Phase 2 Encounter employee begins to understand who plays what role in the work group and company and starts to learn the norms and beliefs of employees and managers

    *Phase 3 employee learns to embrace the culture in order to maximize his/her effectiveness in working towards his/her goals.

    ***Developing and instituting a mentoring relationship can contribute to future career success of a new employee or person transitioning to a new role within the organization.

    Mentored employees have been shown to have higher compensation and more promotions than nonmentored employees and report higher job and career satisfaction.*Topic Covered: Mentoring

    Kathy Kram, a Boston University researcher, identified two general functions of the mentoring process: career and psychological

    Five career functions that enhanced career development were:SponsorshipActively nominating a junior manager for promotions and desirable positionsExposure-and-visibilityPairing a junior manager with key executives who can provide opportunitiesCoachingProviding practical tips on how to accomplish harmful situations or senior managersProtectionShielding a junior from potentially harmful situations or senior managersChallenging assignmentsHelping a junior manager develop necessary competencies through favorable job assignments and feedback

    Four psychological functions were:Role modelingGiving a junior manager a pattern of values and behavior to emulate (this is the most frequently observed psychological function)Acceptance-and-confirmationProviding mutual support and encouragementCounselingHelping a junior manger work our personal problems, thus enhancing his or her self imageFriendshipEngaging in mutually satisfying social interaction

    The psychological functions clarified the participants identities and enhanced their feelings of competence

    Source: R Kreitner and A Kinicki, Organizational Behavior 5th ed. p. 88 Irwin/McGraw-Hill: Burr Ridge, IL 2001

    *Career FunctionsIn what ways can mentoring assist in ones career progression?SponsorshipExposure-and-VisibilityCoachingProtectionChallenging Assignments

    Psychological FunctionsHow can mentoring serve a psychological function?Role ModelingAcceptance-and-ConfirmationCounselingFriendship

    *Mentoring is no longer thought to be performed by only one person.Developmental NetworksReceptive composed of a few weak ties from one social system such as an employer or professional association.Traditional few strong ties between an employee and developer that all come from one social systemOpportunistic characterized by weak ties with a diverse set of developersEntrepreneurial characterized by strong ties with a diverse set of developers.

    People who have strong ties with a diverse set of people tend to change their careers and benefit from personal learning more than people with receptive, traditional, and opportunistic networks.