Chapter 6 Organizational Socialization. Learning Goals Explain organizational socialization as a process that develops and communicates an organization's

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Text of Chapter 6 Organizational Socialization. Learning Goals Explain organizational socialization as a...

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  • Chapter 6 Organizational Socialization
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  • Learning Goals Explain organizational socialization as a process that develops and communicates an organization's culture Distinguish between roles and role behaviors Describe the stages of organizational socialization and how they repeat during a work career
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  • Learning Goals (Cont.) Distinguish the socialization issues in expatriate and repatriate adjustment Discuss the ethical issues in organizational socialization
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  • Chapter Overview Introduction Roles and Role Behavior Individual and Organizational Perspectives on Socialization Stages of Organizational Socialization International Aspects of Organizational Socialization Ethical Issues in Organizational Socialization
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  • Introduction (Cont.) Organizational Culture (Chapter 4) Organizational Socialization (Chapter 6) What a new employee needs to learn. The process by which a new employee learns the culture. Organizational culture and organizational socialization
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  • Introduction (Cont) Organizational socialization: process by which people learn the content of an organization's culture Powerful process that affects an individual's behavior Helps shape and maintain an organization's culture The process by which people learn the values, norms, and required behaviors of an organizations culture.
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  • Introduction (Cont) Organizations almost inevitably leave their imprint on individual members through the socialization process Usually the first behavioral process a person experiences after joining an organization Socialization process unfolds through several stages
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  • Introduction (Cont) Perspectives As an individual affected by the process As a manager using the process Process by which people adjust to new organizations, new jobs, and new groups of people Focuses employees on acquiring important values, attitudes, and role behaviors Deals with the basic question of individual- organization fit
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  • Roles and Role Behavior Role: activities, duties, responsibilities, required behaviors Contributions from the person in exchange for inducements from the organization (pay, fringe benefits) Must roughly balance for the person to accept the role
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  • Roles and Role Behavior (Cont.) Role behavior Pivotal role behaviors: must accept them to join and remain a member of an organization Relevant role behaviors: considered desirable and good by the organization but not essential to membership Peripheral role behaviors: neither necessary nor desirable but tolerated
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  • Roles and Role Behavior (Cont.) See text book Figure 6.1 Role episodes Series of role episodes communicate pivotal and relevant role behaviors Start when an organization recruits an individual Continue during the early employment period
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  • Roles and Role Behavior (Cont.) Role Episodes (Cont.) Role senders Before joining the organization: often a company's recruiter After joining The person who hired or will supervise the new employee Other managers Coworkers
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  • Roles and Role Behavior (Cont.) Role Episodes (Cont.) Sent role Role sender defines a sent role's pivotal and relevant role behaviors Pivotal role behaviors: orally or in job descriptions, company policies, and employee handbook Relevant role behaviors: orally and less formally than pivotal
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  • Roles and Role Behavior (Cont.) Role Episodes (Cont.) Focal person Receives the role behavior sent by the role sender Enacts the role behavior according to the way the person perceives it Focal person's perception forms the received role Complies with the role sender's request or resists it
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  • Roles and Role Behavior (Cont.) Role Episodes (Cont.) Role sender assesses how closely behavior matches the sender's perception of the role Reacts to focal persons behavior Pivotal and relevant role behavior Reinforcement if acceptable Sanctions if not complying Peripheral role behavior: nonreinforcement (ignoring)
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  • Roles and Role Behavior (Cont.) Role Episodes (Cont.) Repeats with same role sender Ends when Compliance occurs Noncompliance accepted Termination or employee leaves the organization
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  • Roles and Role Behavior (Cont.) Role Episodes (Cont.) Can repeat with other managers or coworkers as the role senders Often receive conflicting role behaviors Likely complies with role sender believed to have the most control over the persons future
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  • Individual and Organizational Perspectives on Socialization Organization Socialization Person Individualization Socialization Versus Individualization
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  • Stages of Organizational Socialization Three stages of socialization Choice: Anticipatory Socialization--before joining the organization Entry/Encounter--after entering the organization Change: Metamorphosis--late stage featuring a new self-image Result of one stage becomes input to next stage
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  • Stages of Organizational Socialization (Cont.) Individual perspective: experiences at each stage Management perspective: each stage helps the socialization process achieve its goals When experienced? First job New position in same organization New position in different organization
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  • Stages of Organizational Socialization (Cont.) Choice: Anticipatory socialization (Getting in) Entry/encounter (Breaking in) Change: Metamorphosis (Settling in) Expectations Reality Taking on the role Text book Figure 6.2
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  • Choice: Anticipatory Socialization (Getting In) Happens before joining an organization or taking a new job Prepares the person for organizational entry First glimpse of the organizations culture Develops a persons expectations or beliefs about the organization
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  • Choice: Anticipatory Socialization (Cont.) Two issues Realism of self and organization Congruence of self and organization Realism: responsibility of both the organization and the individual Organization: present the positive and negative sides of working for the company Potential employee: present an accurate picture of self
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  • Choice: Anticipatory Socialization (Cont.) Congruence of self and organization Are your skills and abilities congruent with the needs of the organization? Can the organization satisfy your needs and offer you a congruent set of values?
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  • Choice: Anticipatory Socialization (Cont.) Lack realism and congruence High turnover Low satisfaction Low organizational commitment Poor job performance Clear negative effects for both the individual and the organization
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  • Choice: Anticipatory Socialization (Cont.) Ways people learn about an organization Advertising Press accounts Web pages Present employees, especially alumni Internet searches Electronic databases
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  • Choice: Anticipatory Socialization (Cont.) Socialization processes Recruitment advertising: presentation of the organization Company recruiters: campus interviews Internships: experience the organization while still a student Screening and selection devices: written tests, oral interviews, job simulations
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  • Choice: Anticipatory Socialization (Cont.) Realistic job previews Balanced descriptions of the job and organization Recruiting brochures or videotapes Interviews with present employees Creates realistic expectations Increases job satisfaction Reduces turnover Realistic employee previews: accurate, candid presentation of self
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  • Entry/Encounter Stage (Breaking In) Crosses the boundary of the organization and enters this second stage of socialization Brings expectations from the anticipatory stage Compares expectations to the reality of the organization Often eager to learn the ropes
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  • Entry/Encounter Stage (Cont.) New self-image The intent of the organization Focuses on pivotal and relevant role behaviors Highlights the tug of war between socialization and individualization
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  • Entry/Encounter Stage (Cont.) Purposes Role clarification Organization: immediate supervisor Immediate workgroup Describe same role requirements? Teach tasks, duties, and responsibilities
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  • Entry/Encounter Stage (Cont.) Purposes (cont.) Teach immediate workgroup norms Social status Bases of power Informal leaders Performance norms; not always same as organizations or individuals values
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  • Entry/Encounter Stage (Cont.) Conflicting behavioral demands and new employees adjustment Work and nonwork roles Stress during this early adjustment period
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  • Entry/Encounter Stage (Cont.) Socialization processes Purpose: give employee a new self-image Process has three steps Unfreezing: discard old self-image Changing: move to new self-image Refreezing: puts the new self-image solidly in place Metaphor: melting ice cubes in a heart shaped mold and refreezing the mold
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  • Entry/Encounter Stage (Cont.) Socialization processes (cont.) Indoctrination programs Teach

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