CHAPTER TWO: Organizational Culture, Socialization, and ... Chapter 02 - Organizational Culture, Socialization,

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  • Full file at Chapter 02 - Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring


    CHAPTER TWO: Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring

    Chapter Contents Page

    Learning objectives 71

    Opening case summary 72

    Lecture outline 73

    Key terms presented in this chapter 89

    Discussion questions 91

    Ethical dilemma 92

    Internet exercise 94

    Lecture enhancer 95

    Lecture enhancers Power Point 97

    Power Point slide show 99

    Explanation of symbols:

    Self-Assessment Exercise, Test Your Knowledge Quiz, Group Exercise, or Manager’s Hot Seat Application (found on the Online Learning Center at

    Power Point Slide

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    Group and Video Resource Manual: An Instructor’s Guide to an Active Classroom

    Learning Objectives

    See Slide 2-2 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to:

     Discuss the layers and functions of organizational culture.

     Describe the general types of organizational culture and their associated


     Summarize the process by which organizations change their cultures.

     Describe the three phases in Feldman’s model of organizational socialization.

     Discuss the various tactics used to socialize employees.

     Explain the four types of developmental networks derived from a developmental

    network model of mentoring.

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    Opening Case: Apple’s Innovative Culture Fuels Financial Success

    Apple’s success in developing commercial blockbuster products is a result of an organizational culture that emphasizes creativity and innovation. The organizational culture is profoundly impacted by Steve Jobs’ presence and his dedication to discovery. Apple focuses on “shoot to the moon” projects rather than minor tweaking to existing products. The company has had some “misses” but its successes are far more notable. Hiring the right people to fit with the corporate culture is crucial to Apple’s success. The company seeks individuals who demand perfection and are emotive about their work. Any “weak link” individuals can be ejected from teams and Apple is “not for the faint of heart.” The firm seeks to limit its corporate scope by only producing a limited number of products, but making those products exceedingly well. For Discussion: How would you describe the organizational culture at Apple? Explain. For an interpretation of this case and additional comments, visit our Online Learning Center at

    Apple’s organizational culture that emphasizes creativity and innovation has given the world products that consumers cannot imagine living without, despite the fact we did not know we needed the products until Apple invented them. Apple’s corporate culture is characteristic of the adhocracy culture profile from the competing values framework discussed in Chapter 2. The main thrust of the adhocracy culture is to create, and Apple continues to create innovative products in spades. People from all ages, even small children, know about Apple’s iPods, iPhones and Macs. Steve Jobs has played a strong role in the organizational culture of Apple, illustrating how a company’s founder influences organizational culture. There appears to be a strong relationship between the firm’s espoused values and its enacted values—individuals who are not contributing to the success of a team can be ejected and employees can revolt against an underperforming boss. In terms of the functions of organizational culture, it is clear that Apple has been able to facilitate collective commitment. The fact that Apple in the span of less than a decade has gone from not even being a part of the music business, to being the second-largest music retailer in the United States is a testament to the value of Apple’s organizational culture. To gain further insight and knowledge about Apple, visit its website:

  • Full file at Chapter 02 - Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring


    Lecture Outline

    I. Organizational Culture: Definition and Context

    i) Organizational culture: shared values and beliefs that underlie a company’s

    identity. See Slide 2-3

    ii) Organizational culture is passed on to new employees through the process of

    socialization, it influences our behavior at work and it operates at different

    levels. See Slide 2-4

    iii) Figure 2-1: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Organizational

    Culture provides a conceptual framework for reviewing the widespread

    impact organizational culture has on organizational behavior. See Slide


    (1) Organizational culture is shaped by the founders’ values, the industry and

    business environment, the national culture and the senior leaders’ vision

    and behavior.

    (2) Organizational culture influences the type of structure adopted by the

    organization and a host of practices, policies, and procedures

    implemented in pursuit of organizational goals.

    (3) Organizational culture is a contextual variable influencing individual,

    group, and organizational behavior.

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    II. Dynamics of Organizational Culture

    i) Layers of Organizational Culture See Slides 2-6, 2-8, 2-10, 2-11

    (1) Observable Artifacts

    (a) Artifacts consist of the physical manifestation of an organization’s


    (b) Examples include acronyms, manner of dress, awards, myths and

    stories told about the organization, published lists of values,

    observable rituals and ceremonies, special parking spaces,

    decorations, and so on.

    (c) This level also includes visible behaviors exhibited by people and


    (d) Artifacts are easier to change than the less visible aspects of

    organizational culture.

    (2) Espoused Values

    (a) Values: enduring belief in a mode of conduct or end-state.

    (b) Values:

    (i) Are concepts or beliefs.

    (ii) Pertain to desirable end-states or behaviors.

    (iii) Transcend situations.

    (iv) Guide selection or evaluation of behavior and events.

    (v) Are ordered by relative importance.

    (c) Espoused values: the stated values and norms that are preferred by

    an organization.

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    (i) Espoused values are generally established by the founder of a new

    or small company and by the top management team in a larger


    (ii) The espoused values of Williams-Sonoma, Inc. are presented in

    the Skills & Best Practices: Williams-Sonoma’s Espoused

    Values Focus on Employees, Customers, Shareholders,

    Ethical Behavior, and the Environment.

    (iii)Because espoused values constitute aspirations that are explicitly

    communicated to employees, managers hope that espoused values

    will directly influence employee behavior, but this often does not


    (d) Enacted values: the values and norms that are exhibited or converted

    into employee behavior.

    (e) The enacted values may differ from the values an organization

    espouses, such as when Citibank espoused the value of collaboration

    across business units but individual employees within the units tried to

    maintain their separate identities.

    (f) Any gaps between an organization’s espoused and enacted values

    should be reduced because they can significantly influence employee

    attitudes and organizational performance.

    (g) Managers can use a “cultural fit assessment” survey to determine the

    match between espoused and enacted values and use the results to

    take corrective action.

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    (3) Basic Assumptions

    (a) Basic assumptions: taken-for-granted underlying assumptions about

    the organizational values that guide organizational behavior.

    (b) Basic assumptions are highly resistant to change.

    ii) Four Functions of Organizational Culture See Slide 2-12

    (1) Figure 2-2: The Four Functions of Organizational Culture illustrates

    the four functions of organizational culture are to:

    (a) Give members an organizational identity.

    (b) Facilitate collective commitment.

    (c) Promote social system stability—social system stability reflects the

    extent to which the work environment is perceived as positive and

    reinforcing, and conflict and change are managed effectively.

    (d) Shape behavior by helping members make sense of their

    surroundings—helps employees understand why the organization does


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