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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE. Definition Culture is the unique dominant pattern of shared beliefs, assumptions, values, and norms that shape the socialization,

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  • DefinitionCulture is the unique dominant pattern of shared beliefs, assumptions, values, and norms that shape the socialization, symbols, language and practices of a group of people.The attitudes and approaches that typify the way staff carry out their tasks.Culture is developed and transmitted by people, consciously and unconsciously, to subsequent generations.

  • What must be for culture to exist?It must be shared by the vast majority of members of a group or society;It must be passed on from generation to generation; andIt must shape behaviour and perceptions.

  • Cultural icebergObservable elements of cultureNot observablePracticesLanguageSymbolsNormsValuesAssumptions

  • Shared assumptionsShared assumptions are the thoughts and feelings that members of a culture take for granted and believe to be true.

  • Values and normsValues are the basic beliefs people hold that specify general preferences and behaviours, and define what is right and wrong.Cultural values are reflected in a societys morals, customs and established practicesNorms are rules that govern behaviours of groups of people.

  • SymbolsA symbols is any visible object, act, or event that conveys meaning to others. Examples:ArtefactsDressOffice layoutSlogansceremonies

  • LanguageLanguage is a shared system of vocal sounds, written signs, and/or gestures used to convey meaning among members of a culture.The Nike swoosh was inspired by the Greek goddess Nike, the winged goddess of victory. The swoosh symbolizes her flight. It conveys the meaning of a brand of sports shoes

  • Practices Practices are observable cultural customs such as taboos (culturally forbidden behaviours) and ceremonies

  • SocializationSocialization is the process by which people lean valves, norms, behaviours and social skills. It is the means by which new members are brought into a culture.

  • Types of organizational cultureThe basic types of organizational culture are:BureaucraticClanMarketEntrepreneurial

  • Bureaucratic CultureIn this type of culture the behaviour of employees is governed by formal rules and standard operating procedures.Such a culture perpetuates stability.Organizations with bureaucratic culture tend to produce standardized goods and services, examples:Government ministriesFast food establishments

  • Clan CultureIn a clan culture the behaviour of individuals are shaped by tradition, loyalty, personal commitment, extensive socialization and self-management.A clan culture achieve unity through socialization.Long-term employees serve as mentorsMembers are aware of the organizations history and have an understanding of the expected manner of conduct and organizational style.Members share feelings of pride in membership.Peer pressure to adhere to important norms is strong

  • Market CultureIn a market culture, the values and norms reflect the significance of achieving measurable and demanding goals mainly concerning those that are financial and market based. Companies with a market culture tend to focus on:Sales growthProfitabilityMarket shareIn a market culture the relationship between individuals and the organization is contractual (previously agreed).Individuals are responsible for their performance; whereas the organization promises specific rewards for levels of performance.Managers are not judge on their effectiveness as role models or mentors; but on monthly, quarterly, and annual performance goals based on profit.

  • Entrepreneurial CultureOrganizations existing in the context of an entrepreneurial culture are characterized by high levels of risk taking and creativity.There is a commitment to experimentation, innovation, and being on the leading edge. Steve Jobs Apple

  • Relationship between culture and organizational performanceOrganizational culture has the potential to enhance organizational performance, individual satisfaction, the sense of certainty about how problems are to be handled.Culture serves as a control mechanism to channel behaviour towards desired behaviours and to prevent undesired behaviours.

  • Building a strong organizational cultureA common behavioural style must be shared by managers and employees.Have the same basic approaches to solving problems, meeting goals, and dealing with stakeholders.Have share common norms that guide rule governing rewards and punishment.A strong organizational culture assists in the creation of a stable organization, the consequence of which lead to the achievement of the companys strategic goals.

  • Steps to building a strong organizational culture - socialization

  • Outcomes of socialization processJob satisfactionRole clarityHigh work performanceUnderstanding of cultureCommitment to organizationInternal valuesJob dissatisfactionRole ambiguity and conflictMisunderstanding, tension, and perceived lack of controlLow job involvementLow performanceRejection of valuesSuccessful socializationUnsuccessful socialization