On the Classification of My Drawings and Paintings

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    On the Classification of My Drawings and PaintingsAuthor(s): Paul RSource: Leonardo, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Spring, 1981), p. 172Published by: The MIT PressStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1574455 .Accessed: 12/06/2014 21:48

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  • Leonardo, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 172-176. Pergamon Press Ltd., 1981. Printed in Great Britian.

    LETTERS

    Leonardo, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 172-176. Pergamon Press Ltd., 1981. Printed in Great Britian.

    LETTERS

    Leonardo, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 172-176. Pergamon Press Ltd., 1981. Printed in Great Britian.

    LETTERS

    Readers' comments are welcomed on texts published in Leonardo. The Editors reserve the right to shorten letters. Letters should be written in English or in French. Readers' comments are welcomed on texts published in Leonardo. The Editors reserve the right to shorten letters. Letters should be written in English or in French. Readers' comments are welcomed on texts published in Leonardo. The Editors reserve the right to shorten letters. Letters should be written in English or in French.

    ON PICTURES WITHIN PICTURES (cont.)

    Here is a short comment on David Carrier's article in Leonardo 12, 197 (1979). I think some painters would agree with the premise in his article but disagree with the conclusion he draws in his last paragraph: 'It is clearly difficult to provide evidence to support convincingly claims of finding unconscious quotations in pictures...'

    Painters may be assumed to be aware of many influences on the execution of their paintings: visual, aural, tactile, olfactory, political, aesthetic, social, historical, etc. They may also be aware that both conscious and unconscious mental processes affect their execution. Thus, paintings may be the result both of conscious and rational forethought and of an unconscious thought process.

    Occasionally I recognize that something has appeared in one of my paintings in the form of an unconscious quotation, but I have not attempted to provide evidence for this occurrence in order to contradict Carrier's conclusion-perhaps I should do so.

    Mark David Gottsegen Dept. of Art

    University of North Carolina Greensboro, NC 27412, U.S.A.

    ON PICTURES WITHIN PICTURES (cont.)

    Here is a short comment on David Carrier's article in Leonardo 12, 197 (1979). I think some painters would agree with the premise in his article but disagree with the conclusion he draws in his last paragraph: 'It is clearly difficult to provide evidence to support convincingly claims of finding unconscious quotations in pictures...'

    Painters may be assumed to be aware of many influences on the execution of their paintings: visual, aural, tactile, olfactory, political, aesthetic, social, historical, etc. They may also be aware that both conscious and unconscious mental processes affect their execution. Thus, paintings may be the result both of conscious and rational forethought and of an unconscious thought process.

    Occasionally I recognize that something has appeared in one of my paintings in the form of an unconscious quotation, but I have not attempted to provide evidence for this occurrence in order to contradict Carrier's conclusion-perhaps I should do so.

    Mark David Gottsegen Dept. of Art

    University of North Carolina Greensboro, NC 27412, U.S.A.

    ON PICTURES WITHIN PICTURES (cont.)

    Here is a short comment on David Carrier's article in Leonardo 12, 197 (1979). I think some painters would agree with the premise in his article but disagree with the conclusion he draws in his last paragraph: 'It is clearly difficult to provide evidence to support convincingly claims of finding unconscious quotations in pictures...'

    Painters may be assumed to be aware of many influences on the execution of their paintings: visual, aural, tactile, olfactory, political, aesthetic, social, historical, etc. They may also be aware that both conscious and unconscious mental processes affect their execution. Thus, paintings may be the result both of conscious and rational forethought and of an unconscious thought process.

    Occasionally I recognize that something has appeared in one of my paintings in the form of an unconscious quotation, but I have not attempted to provide evidence for this occurrence in order to contradict Carrier's conclusion-perhaps I should do so.

    Mark David Gottsegen Dept. of Art

    University of North Carolina Greensboro, NC 27412, U.S.A.

    describing the specific role of homospatial thinking in producing those structures. Following that, I report documentary and empirically derived evidence indicating diverse types of creative functions of the homospatial process such as Beckmann's global bringing together of sensory characteristics, Gleizes and Metzinger and Moore's superimposition of self on material, Louis Kahn's superimposition of a circle and parallel lines in an architectural design, along with instances of the production of visual metaphor. It is perhaps because I start with metaphor that Hausman has mistakenly focused primarily on analyses of metaphor, stressed general problems about verbal exposition of visual metaphorical qualities with respect to the 'Mona Lisa' and labelled the process of homospatial thinking as a 'theory' or 'an idea'. The notion of visual metaphor surely has theoretical status and, although Hausman and I agree about the importance of metaphorical structures and on the paradoxical nature of these structures, such points are surely propositional. The homospatial process, however, is a form of cognition scientifically identified through detailed observations, documented reports and con- trolled experiments (which I have recently reported); it is not merely a thesis deduced from the interaction analyses of Richards or of others. Also, as I believe I have presented in The Emerging Goddess, it can be demonstrated in varying art styles and traditions throughout history, as well as in a broad spectrum of inventive and creative pursuits.

    describing the specific role of homospatial thinking in producing those structures. Following that, I report documentary and empirically derived evidence indicating diverse types of creative functions of the homospatial process such as Beckmann's global bringing together of sensory characteristics, Gleizes and Metzinger and Moore's superimposition of self on material, Louis Kahn's superimposition of a circle and parallel lines in an architectural design, along with instances of the production of visual metaphor. It is perhaps because I start with metaphor that Hausman has mistakenly focused primarily on analyses of metaphor, stressed general problems about verbal exposition of visual metaphorical qualities with respect to the 'Mona Lisa' and labelled the process of homospatial thinking as a 'theory' or 'an idea'. The notion of visual metaphor surely has theoretical status and, although Hausman and I agree about the importance of metaphorical structures and on the paradoxical nature of these structures, such points are surely propositional. The homospatial process, however, is a form of cognition scientifically identified through detailed observations, documented reports and con- trolled experiments (which I have recently reported); it is not merely a thesis deduced from the interaction analyses of Richards or of others. Also, as I believe I have presented in The Emerging Goddess, it can be demonstrated in varying art styles and traditions throughout history, as well as in a broad spectrum of inventive and creative pursuits.

    describing the specific role of homospatial thinking in producing those structures. Following that, I report documentary and empirically derived evidence indicating diverse types of creative functions of the homospatial process such as Beckmann's global bringing together of sensory characteristics, Gleizes and Metzinger and Moore's superimposition of self on material, Louis Kahn's superimposition of a circle and parallel lines in an architectural design, along with instances of the production of visual metaphor. It is perhaps because I start with metaphor that Hausman has mistakenly focused primarily on analyses of metaphor, stressed general problems about verbal exposition of visual metaphorical qualities with respect to the 'Mona Lisa' and labelled the process of homospatial thinking as a 'theory' or 'an idea'. The notion of visual metaphor surely has theoretical status and, although Hausman and I agree about the importance of metaphorical structures and on the paradoxical nature of these structures, such points are surely propositional. The homospatial process, however, is a form of cognition scientifically identified through detailed observations, documented reports and con- trolled experiments (which I have recently reported); it is not merely a thesis deduced from the interaction analyses of Richards or of others. Also, as I believe I have presented in The Emerging Goddess, it can be demonstrated in varying art styles and traditions throughout history, as well as in a broad spectrum of inventive and creative pursuits.

    Albert Rothenberg Austen Riggs Center

    HOMOSPATIAL THINKING IN THE CREATIVE Stockbridge, MA 01262, U.S.A. PROCESS (cont.)

    Albert Rothenberg Austen Riggs Center

    HOMOSPATIAL THINKING IN THE CREATIVE Stockbridge, MA 01262, U.S.A. PROCESS (cont.)

    Albert Rothenberg Austen Riggs Center

    HOMOSPATIAL THINKING IN THE CREATIVE Stockbridge, MA 01262, U.S.A. PROCESS (cont.)

    First, I must call attention to the need for a correction in my article in Leonardo 13, 17 (1980). My book The Emerging Goddess (Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1979) appeared prior to the publication of the article, thus its footnote on p. 17 needs to be amended and Ref. 6 cited instead of Ref. 2.

    Carl R. Hausman's letter in Leonardo 13, 348 (1980), though appreciative and insightful, is primarily focused on one aspect of my article. Therefore, a reemphasis both on the major thrust of the article and on the research studies reported in my recent book is required. The process of homospatial thinking was first discovered during empirical studies of persons engaged in creative processes in the fields of literary art, visual art and science. Although production of metaphor is one of the functions of the homospatial process, there are also many other functions of this major mode of inventive thinking within a wide range of artistic and intellectual fields. Unification and metaphorization are results of homospatial thinking, but the character of the latter is not equivalent to the character of metaphorical structure or of unified art products and ideas. Analyses of the nature of metaphor, therefore, are not the same as descriptions of the empirically discovered process I have designated as homospatial thinking.

    This is not to say, of course, that there is no relationship between the structure of resulting metaphor and the homospatial process that produces it. Indeed, in my article I adopted the strategy of first arguing for the central importance of metaphorical structures in art (I argue for their central importance in the literary arts, music and science in my recent book) and then

    First, I must call attention to the need for a correction in my article in Leonardo 13, 17 (1980). My book The Emerging Goddess (Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1979) appeared prior to the publication of the article, thus its footnote on p. 17 needs to be amended and Ref. 6 cited instead of Ref. 2.

    Carl R. Hausman's letter in Leonardo 13, 348 (1980), though appreciative and insightful, is primarily focused on one aspect of my article. Therefore, a reemphasis both on the major thrust of the article and on the research studies reported in my recent book is required. The process of homospatial thinking was first discovered during empirical studies of persons engaged in creative processes in the fields of literary art, visual art and science. Although production of metaphor is one of the functions of the homospatial process, there are also many other functions of this major mode of inventive thinking within a wide range of artistic and intellectual fields. Unification and metaphorization are results of homospatial thinking, but the character of the latter is not equivalent to the character of metaphorical structure or of unified art products and ideas. Analyses of the nature of metaphor, therefore, are not the same as descriptions of the empirically discovered process I have designated as homospatial thinking.

    This is not to say, of course, that there is no relationship between the structure of resulting metaphor and the homospatial process that produces it. Indeed, in my article I adopted the strategy of first arguing for the central importance of metaphorical structures in art (I argue for their central importance in the literary arts, music and science in my recent book) and then

    First, I must call attention to the need for a correction in my article in Leonardo 13, 17 (1980). My book The Emerging Goddess (Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1979) appeared prior to the publication of the article, thus its footnote on p. 17 needs to be amended and Ref. 6 cited instead of Ref. 2.

    Carl R. Hausman's letter in Leonardo 13, 348 (1980), though appreciative and insightful, is primarily focused on one aspect of my article. Therefore, a reemphasis both on the major thrust of the article and on the research studies reported in my recent book is required. The process of homospatial thinking was first discovered during empirical studies of persons engaged in creative processes in the fields of literary art, visual art and science. Although production of metaphor is one of the functions of the homospatial process, there are also many other functions of this major mode of inventive thinking within a wide range of artistic and intellectual fields. Unification and metaphorization are results of homospatial thinking, but the character of the latter is not equivalent to the character of metaphorical structure or of unified art products and ideas. Analyses of the nature of metaphor, therefore, are not the same as descriptions of the empirically discovered process I have designated as homospatial thinking.

    This is not to say, of course, that there is no relationship between the structure of resulting metaphor and the homospatial process that produces it. Indeed, in my article I adopted the strategy of first arguing for the central importance of metaphorical structures in art (I argue for their central importance in the literary arts, music and science in my recent book) and then

    ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF MY DRAWINGS AND PAINTINGS

    In response to my article in Leonardo 13, 94 (1980) I have received a number of warm letters. However, one question keeps arising, and I want to clarify it. I must strongly emphasize that my works are not simply the result of analytical reasoning, although this is an important facet. I use classification and analysis primarily as tools to help me to arrive at new basic shapes. The classification system is a 'road map' that tells me 'where I have been and where I have yet to journey'. It helps me shape ideas that arise from abstractions of natural forms as well as those that come directly as flashes of inspiration or of insight. Without my daily walks, playing with natural forms and inspiration, I could not make them. Although the mental aspect of my artworks was emphasized in the above article, those who know them find in them a blend of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual qualities. I hope that the balance of these facets will become clear in two articles I am preparing for Leonardo. The first considers how the basic shapes of my drawings and paintings are shaded, and the second shows how the basic shapes in them are derived from closed curves stemming from my early rather more complex, surrealistic drawings.

    Paul Re 10533 Sierra Bonita Ave., NE

    Albuquerque, NM 87111, U.S.A.

    ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF MY DRAWINGS AND PAINTINGS

    In response to my article in Leonardo 13, 94 (1980) I have received a number of warm letters. However, one question keeps arising, and I want to clarify it. I must strongly emphasize that my works are not simply the result of analytical reasoning, although this is an important facet. I use classification and analysis primarily as tools to help me to arrive at new basic shapes. The classification system is a 'road map' that tells me 'where I have been and where I have yet to journey'. It helps me shape ideas that arise from abstractions of natural forms as well as those that come directly as flashes of inspiration or of insight. Without my daily walks, playing with natural forms and inspiration, I could not make them. Although the mental aspect of my artworks was emphasized in the above article, those who know them find in them a blend of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual qualities. I hope that the balance of these facets will become clear in two articles I am preparing for Leonardo. The first considers how the basic shapes of my drawings and paintings are shaded, and the second shows how the basic shapes in them are derived from closed curves stemming from my early rather more complex, surrealistic drawings.

    Paul Re 10533 Sierra Bonita Ave., NE

    Albuquerque, NM 87111, U.S.A.

    ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF MY DRAWINGS AND PAINTINGS

    In response to my article in Leonardo 13, 94 (1980) I have received a number of warm letters. However, one question keeps arising, and I want to clarify it. I must strongly emphasize that my works are not simply the result of analytical reasoning, although this is an important facet. I use classification and analysis primarily as tools to help me to arrive at new basic shapes. The classification system is a 'road map' that tells me 'where I have been and where I have yet to journey'. It helps me shape ideas that arise from abstractions of natural forms as well as those that come directly as flashes of inspiration or of insight. Without my daily walks, playing with natural forms and inspiration, I could not make them. Although the mental aspect of my artworks was emphasized in the above article, those who know them find in them a blend of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual qualities. I hope that the balance of these facets will become clear in two articles I am preparing for Leonardo. The first considers how the basic shapes of my drawings and paintings are shaded, and the second shows how the basic shapes in them are derived from closed curves stemming from my early rather more complex, surrealistic drawings.

    Paul Re 10533 Sierra Bonita Ave., NE

    Albuquerque, NM 87111, U.S.A.

    172 172 172

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    Article Contentsp. 172

    Issue Table of ContentsLeonardo, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Spring, 1981), pp. 89-176Front MatterArticles by ArtistsColour as Sensation in Visual Art and in Science [pp. 89 - 98]A Critical Account of Some of Josef Albers' Concepts of Color [pp. 99 - 105]On My Drawings and Paintings: An Extension of the System of Their Classification [pp. 106 - 113]

    Influence of Tuberculosis on the Work of Visual Artists: Several Prominent Examples [pp. 114 - 117]Toward Improving the Objective Status of Aesthetics: On Style and Content of Figurative Pictorial Art [pp. 118 - 121]NotesArtistic Graphic Musical Scores Influenced by Tantric Art [pp. 122 - 124]My Clay Sculpture Series 'Unidentified Intergalactic Rovers (UIR)' [pp. 125 - 127]Commentary on the Book "Paradoxes of Progress" by Gunther S. Stent [pp. 128 - 131]Paintings Depicting My Ambiguous Reactions to an Urban Environment [pp. 132 - 133]'Light Modules': Pictorial Artworks Produced by Daylight Projected onto a Translucent Screen [pp. 134 - 136]

    DocumentsArtificial Intelligence and Visual Art [pp. 137 - 139]Extracts from the Published Views of the Painter Pavel Kuznetsov [pp. 140 - 143]

    Statements on the Relationships between the Natural Sciences and the Visual Fine Arts and, in Particular, on the Meaning of Order (Part I)On Creativity and Discovery in the Fine Arts and in the Natural Sciences [pp. 144 - 145]The Idea of Order in the Natural Sciences and in the Visual Arts [p. 146]Order and Tolerance [p. 147]On a Priori Order and Order to Be Discovered [pp. 147 - 148]The Concept of Order in Science and in Art [pp. 148 - 149]

    Terminology [p. 150]Calendar of Events [p. 151]International Association of Art (IAA) News [p. 152]Aesthetics for Contemporary Artists [pp. 153 - 156]Booksuntitled [p. 157]untitled [pp. 157 - 158]untitled [p. 158]untitled [p. 158]untitled [p. 159]untitled [p. 159]untitled [pp. 159 - 160]untitled [pp. 160 - 161]untitled [p. 161]untitled [pp. 161 - 162]untitled [p. 162]untitled [p. 162]untitled [p. 163]untitled [p. 163]untitled [pp. 163 - 164]untitled [p. 164]untitled [pp. 164 - 165]untitled [p. 165]untitled [pp. 165 - 166]untitled [p. 166]untitled [pp. 166 - 167]untitled [p. 167]untitled [p. 167]untitled [pp. 167 - 168]untitled [p. 168]untitled [pp. 168 - 169]untitled [p. 169]untitled [p. 169]untitled [pp. 169 - 170]untitled [p. 170]untitled [p. 170]untitled [p. 170]Books Received [pp. 170 - 171]

    LettersOn Pictures within Pictures (Continued) [p. 172]Homospatial Thinking in the Creative Process (Continued) [p. 172]On the Classification of My Drawings and Paintings [p. 172]On Characteristics of Information in J. J. Gibson's Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Continued) [p. 173]On a Painter's View of Self-Development and Creativity (Continued) [p. 173]On the Appeal of M. C. Escher's Pictures (Continued) [p. 174]Science and Traditional Cultures (Continued) [p. 174]On Zvi Hecker's Polyhedric Architecture [pp. 174 - 175]Correction [p. 175]

    On Book ReviewsThe Other Half: A Self-Portrait [p. 175]Structure of Nature Is a Strategy for Design [pp. 175 - 176]The Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art [p. 176]Romantic Roots in Modern Art; Romanticism and Expressionism: A Study in Comparative Aesthetics [p. 176]The Arts Betrayed [p. 176]

    Back Matter