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SMART ENTRY PARKING SYSTEM (SEPS) NIK ABDURRAHMAN IZZUDDIN B NIK ISMAIL BACHELOR OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (NETWORK SECURITY) UNIVERSITI SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDIN 2018

NIK ABDURRAHMAN IZZUDDIN B NIK ISMAIL · 2018. 5. 27. · NIK ABDURRAHMAN IZZUDDIN B NIK ISMAIL Bachelor of Computer Science (Network Security) Faculty of Informatics and Computing

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Text of NIK ABDURRAHMAN IZZUDDIN B NIK ISMAIL · 2018. 5. 27. · NIK ABDURRAHMAN IZZUDDIN B NIK ISMAIL...

  • SMART ENTRY PARKING SYSTEM (SEPS)

    NIK ABDURRAHMAN IZZUDDIN B NIK ISMAIL

    BACHELOR OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

    (NETWORK SECURITY)

    UNIVERSITI SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDIN

    2018

  • SMART ENTRY PARKING SYSTEM (SEPS)

    NIK ABDURRAHMAN IZZUDDIN B NIK ISMAIL

    Bachelor of Computer Science (Network Security)

    Faculty of Informatics and Computing

    Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia

    MAY 2018

  • ii

    DECLARATION

    I hereby declare that this report is based on my original work except for quotations

    and citations, which have been duly acknowledged. I also declare that it has not been

    previously or concurrently submitted for any other degree at Universiti Sultan Zainal

    Abidin or other institutions.

    ________________________________

    Name : ..................................................

    Date : ..................................................

  • iii

    CONFIRMATION

    This is to confirm that:

    The research conducted and the writing of this report was under my supervison.

    ________________________________

    Name : ..................................................

    Date : ..................................................

  • iv

    DEDICATION

    Praise be upon Allah, the Almighty, I would like to express my gratitude and

    appreciation to all those gave me the possibility to complete this report. A special

    thanks to my final year project supervisor, Professor Madya Dr Fatma Susilawati

    Mohamad, whose help, stimulating suggestion and encouragement, helped me to

    coordinate my project especially in writing this project. I would also like

    acknowledgement with much appreciation the crucial role of the lecturer, who gave

    guidance to create a design the system architecture and project framework as well.

    Last but not least, many thanks go to my beloved mother and father, who have given

    their full effort in encouraged me in achieving the goal of this project. Hopefully, this

    is not last chance to me to gain knowledge in this field and spread it to the others.

    InshaAllah.

    Thank You.

  • v

    ABSTRACT

    Now days, the increasing of cars usage is growing rapidly, and also the system of the

    parking lots must be upgrade to be more systematic and efficient to the users. This

    project present a simple model of parking congestion which focuses on parking lot

    search for a vacant parking space in a parking lots, and this project can be used to

    identify both quantity and location of available area in a car park. The problem

    statement in this project is difficult for user to find parking with so many vehicles

    around and it consume a lot of their current condition with the use of many vehicles

    which wasting a lot of their time. Besides, manual parking system is not systematic

    because user do not know where the exact the empty parking spaces are. In addition,

    not all the parking system display how many parking spaces available. Objective of

    this project is to design a systematic “Smart Entry Parking System” which have

    connection between devices (to display available parking lot) and system centre (user

    to choose the parking lot), to develop the “Smart Entry parking” in order to solve the

    problem of finding available parking space and to test and evaluate the effectiveness

    of “Smart Entry Parking System” by applying Schedule algorithm. The scope in this

    project is User can check the availability of parking space and can make choice

    parking spot based on Web-based system. Connection between Web-based system and

    Arduino is to inform the availability of parking lot by display it in websites. The

    outcomes of the system will be a systematic and efficient system that can give a lots of

    benefit to user.

  • vi

    ABSTRAK

    Kini, penggunaan kereta semakin meningkat dari masa ke semasa, dan sistem pakir

    kereta perlu ditingkatkan untuk menjadi lebih sistematik dan efisien kepada

    pengguna. Projek ini, membentangkan model bagi mengatasi kesesakan ketika

    memakir kereta dan permasalahan pengguna dalam mencari pakir kereta yang

    kosong dan projek ini boleh digunakan untuk mengenal pasti kedua-dua kuantiti dan

    lokasi kawasan yang disediakan di pakir kereta. Masalah yang timbul ialah kepada

    pengguna adalah sukar untuk mencari pakir yang kosong dan memakan masa untuk

    mencari pakir yang kosong. Selain itu, sistem pakir yang sedia ada tidak sistematik

    kerana pengguna tidak tahu kekosongan pakir yang ada. Tambahan pula, tidak semua

    sistem pakir kereta menunjukkan jumlah pakir yang masih kosong. Objektif dalam

    projek ini ialah, untuk merekabentuk “Smart Entry Parking System” yang mempunyai

    hubunga diantara peranti dan juga sistem. Membangunkan satu sistem yang dapat

    menyelesaikan masalah untuk mencari pakir yang kosong dan untuk menguji dan

    menilai keberkesanan sistem dengan menggunakan Schedule Algorithm. Skop projek

    ini adalah, pengguna boleh menyemak kekosongan pakir dan boleh membuat pilihan

    menggunakan laman web. Hubung kait antara laman web dan Arduino bertujuan

    untuk menghantar data dari segi kekosongan pakir. Hasil dari sistem ini adalah

    memberikan sistem yang sistematik dan efisen kepada pengguna.

  • vii

    CONTENTS

    PAGE

    DECLARATION ii

    CONFIRMATION iii

    DEDICATION iv

    ABSTRACT v

    ABSTRAK vi

    CONTENTS vii

    LIST OF TABLES ix

    LIST OF FIGURES x

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xi

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background 1

    1.2 Problem statement 2

    1.3 Objectives 3

    1.4

    1.5

    Scopes

    Limitation of Work

    3

    4

    1.6 Thesis Structure 4

    1.7 Summary 5

    CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Introduction 6

    2.2 Intelligent Parking Space Detection System Based

    On Image Processing

    6

    2.3 Automatic Smart Car Parking System 11

    2.4 Street Parking System 13

    2.5 Summary Of The Journal 15

    2.5.1 Intelligent Parking Space Detection System

    Based On Image Processing

    15

    2.5.2 Street Parking System 16

    2.5.3 Automatic Smart Car Parking System 16

    2.6 Summary 17

  • viii

    CHAPTER 3

    METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Introduction 18

    3.2 System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) 18

    3.3 System Development Life Cycle (Incremental

    Model).

    19

    3.3.1 Planning Phase 20

    3.3.2 Analysis Phase 20

    3.3.3 Design Phase 21

    3.3.4 Implementation Phase 21

    3.3.5 Testing Phase 22

    3.3.5 Evaluation Phase 22

    3.3.7 Deployment Phase 22

    3.4 Software And Hardware Requirement 22

    3.4.1 Software Requirement 22

    3.4.2 Hardware Requirement 24

    3.5 Summary 25

    CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM DESIGN AND MODELLING

    4.1 Introduction 26

    4.2 System Design And Modelling 27

    4.2.1 System Design 27

    4.2.2 Context Diagram 27

    4.2.3 Data Flow Diagram 28

    4.2.3.1 Data Flow Diagram (Level 0) 28

    4.2.4 Entity Relation Ship Diagram (ERD) 30

    4.3 Database Design 31

    4.4 Summary 34

  • ix

    CHAPTER 5 RESULT, IMPLEMENTATION AND

    TESTING

    5.1 Introduction 35

    5.2 Hardware 35

    5.2.1 Overview 36

    5.2.2 Arduino Setup 37

    5.2.3 Arduino Circuit 39

    5.2.4 List of Hardware Required 41

    5.3 Interface Of System 42

    5.4 Summary 53

    CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION

    6.1 Introduction 54

    6.2 Project Constraint 54

    6.3 Expected Result 55

    6.4 Conclusion 55

    6.5 Future Works 56

    REFERENCES 57

  • x

    LIST OF TABLES

    TABLE TITLE PAGE

    1 List of Software 23

    2 List of Hardware 24

  • xi

    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURE TITLE PAGE

    2.1 Step for Detecting the Space 6

    2.2 Rounded Brown Image 7

    2.3 Image Acquisition Module 8

    2.5 RGB Image Acquired 10

    2.6 RGB Image Acquired 10

    2.7 Parking Lot Result 11

    2.8 Illustrate of parking lot 13

    2.9 a Sensor Node 14

    2.9 b Router 14

    2.10 Location Field Setup 15

    3.1 System Development Life Cycle 19

    3.2 Incremental Model 19

    4.1 Framework for Smart Entry Parking System. 27

    4.2 Context Diagram of Smart Entry Parking System 28

    4.3 Data Flow Diagram of Smart Entry Parking System 29

    4.4 Entity Relationship Diagram 30

    4.5 Smart Entry Parking System table structure 31

  • xii

    4.6 Admin table structure 31

    4.7 Admin table data 32

    4.8 User table structure 32

    4.9 User table data 32

    4.10 Parking History table structure 33

    4.11 Parking History table data 33

    4.12 Parking Lot table structure 33

    4.13 Parking Lot table data 34

    5.1 Arduino UNO 328 board. 36

    5.2 Ethernet Shield board 37

    5.3 Arduino UNO 328 board connected with Ethernet Shield 38

    5.4 Arduino UNO 328 board connected with Ultrasonic

    Sensor and LED light.

    39

    5.5 Arduino Circuit of Smart Entry Parking System. (Front) 40

    5.6 Arduino Circuit of Smart Entry Parking System. (Above) 41

    5.7 Homepage of Smart Entry Parking System 42

    5.8 List of Process 43

    5.9 Booking Parking page. 44

  • xiii

    5.10 Form of booking parking. 44

    5.11 Image of available parking space. 45

    5.12 Notification box 45

    5.13 Result of parking 46

    5.14 Open gate form 46

    5.15 Notification pop up 47

    5.16 Notification pop up 47

    5.17 Location of Parking 47

    5.18 Receipt of booking 48

    5.19 Page of log in for admin 48

    5.20 List of menu in admin page 49

    5.21 Booking Information 49

    5.22 Details of booking 50

    5.23 Details of available parking 50

    5.24 Log out for admin 51

    5.25 Setup the IP Address 51

    5.26 Arduino code to connect to database 52

    5.27 Arduino code to connect to database 52

  • xiv

    5.28 Arduino code to connect to database 53

  • xv

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS / TERMS / SYMBOLS

    CD Context Diagram

    DFD Data Flow Diagram

    ERD Entity Relationship Diagram

    FYP Final year project

    GA Genetic algorithm

    HCI Human computer interface

  • 1

    CHAPTER I

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background

    In this century of modernity, there are many types of vehicles that are

    produced and used by people especially in urban area. The increasing of vehicles can

    cause much negative impact on the environment especially the increasing demand on

    parking infrastructure accessible to the general public. For an example is, find the

    vacant parking in shopping mall or hospital compound.

    In basic parking lot system is only used automatic gate and parking ticket but

    the availability of parking lot is not shown to user and they need to find it by

    themselves to park their cars. In this case, it takes times to user to find the parking

    spot and vacant parking lot. Besides, they did not know it is full or still available in

    parking areas.

    The system of parking lots must be upgrade to more systematic, efficient and

    reliable to the users. To resolve the above issues and at the same time satisfy demand

    for parking spots and better services, parking management organization are striving to

    implement solutions that work towards a more streamlined parking experience.

  • 2

    Recent technological advances are bringing forward major changes in the

    traditional parking model. In this project using Arduino, it is an open sources platform

    used for building electronic projects. Arduino consists of both a physical

    programmable circuit board and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development

    Environment) that runs on your computer, used to write and implement it in physical

    board.

    “Smart Entry Parking System” is designed in robotic system to manage

    parking lot to the user. The proposed SEPS can give benefit to the user is regarding

    the location of parking lot and available space.

    1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

    In real situation, there are a lots of problem that occur when talk about parking

    lot especially in shopping complex or hospital compound. It is difficult for user to

    find parking with so many vehicles around and it consume a lot of their current

    condition with the use of many vehicles which wasting a lot of their time. Besides,

    manual parking system is not systematic because user do not know where the exact

    the empty parking spaces are. In addition, not all the parking system display how

    many parking spaces available.

  • 3

    1.3 OBJECTIVES

    The goal of this project is basically to make the parking system is more efficient

    and systematic for the users. The objective of this project are:-

    i. To design systematic “Smart Entry Parking System” which have connection

    between devices (to display available parking lot) and system centre (user to

    choose the parking lot).

    ii. To develop the “Smart Entry parking” in order to solve the problem of finding

    available parking space.

    iii. To test and evaluate the effectiveness of “Smart Entry Parking System” by

    applying Schedule algorithm.

    1.4 SCOPE

    This project system has scope of work which is involving two of scope:-

    i. User

    a) User can see how many available parking space in that area or level.

    b) Besides, user can choose where the parking that they wanted depends

    on the available parking.

    ii. System

    a) System shows the available parking lots on LCD.

    b) Display the visualize of parking lot for user to make a choice.

    c) Then, system also gives available parking lot after they choose.

  • 4

    iii. Admin

    a) Admin can view the number available parking lot.

    b) Admin can view the detail of parking car.

    1.5 LIMITATION OF WORK

    The limitation of work is:-

    i. Disturbance of internet to make a choice for parking spot.

    ii. Can cause of malfunction on sensor.

    iii. This system is only used for car parking lot.

    1.6 THESIS STRUCTURE

    This thesis consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 is about the introduction of

    Intelligent Parking Monitoring System via LED light and the introduction part will

    include problem statement, objectives, scope and limitation. Chapter 2 of the project is

    review of the technology used in design and existing application. Chapter 3 presents

    design procedure and technique used to develop the system and software and

    hardware requirement. Then, Chapter 4 will presents about operational design

    implementation of the system.

  • 5

    This is including of framework design, context diagrams (CD), data flow

    diagram (DFD), entity relationship diagram (ERD), database design and interface

    design. Chapter 5 in this chapter, it is about Implementation and Testing of Arduino

    connected to sensors and device, Implementation and Testing In python language,

    Implementation and Testing In Web-Based System also Implementation and Testing

    In parking lot in format of demo. Chapter 6 will summarize the overall project and

    presents conclusion and some recommendations for future work.

    1.7 SUMMARY

    This chapter discuss for the introduction part will include problem statement,

    objectives, scope, limitation of work and expected result.

  • 6

    CHAPTER 2

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 INTRODUCTION

    The main objective of this project is to implement Smart Entry Parking by

    using Devices Based System. Reviewing on some article and journal about parking

    system can be used in this project and can be apply in existing system.

    Based on research, there is some of technology that is implemented in parking

    lot system in different ways.

    2.2 INTELLIGENT PARKING SPACE DETECTION SYSTEM BASED ON

    IMAGE PROCESSING.

    Figure 2.1: Step for Detecting the Space

    In this system, system module contains of five step for detecting the space of

    parking. The step are system initialization, image acquisition, image segmentation,

    image enhancement, image detection.

  • 7

    i) System Initialization.

    Figure 2.2: Rounded Brown Image

    The module runs only for the first time when this system is started. A one-time

    manual drawing procedure is performed where a rounded brown image drawn at each

    park (with zero car present in the car park area), as in Figure 2.2 rounded brown image

    is drawn on each parking lot manually. The purpose of this procedure is to

    automatically identify location of every parking lot in the image. It should be noted

    that the lines separating the parking lots have to be visible, clear and unobstructed in

    the initialization process. The camera is assumed to be in a fixed position and facing a

    fixed direction all the time. The initialization process will begin with the program

    searching for the rounded brown image by detecting the shape of the image. Detected

    image are then analysis to determined available parking lot.

  • 8

    ii) Image Acquisition

    Figure 2.3: Image Acquisition Module

    After system initialization, the image will be processed in image acquisition

    module. This module involves capturing and storing digital images from the video

    cameras. The high definition camera used to acquire digital images is then connected

    to a processing unit. The software is running in real-time. The camera is positioned in

    side view of parking lots, acquiring a fixed scene all the time. The height of the

    camera must be enough to obtain a clear, unobstructed top view of the parking lots.

    Figure 3 shows the image captured by the camera. Five rounded brown image are

    shown which mean that there are five available Parking lot.

  • 9

    iii) Image Segmentation

    Figure 2.4: RGB Image Acquired

    RGB Image acquired from the camera is then converted to grey scale image

    and create the binary images in image segmentation module. From the grey scale

    image resulted, thresholding technique can be used to create the binary image. The

    binary images contain all of the essential information about the position and shape of

    the objects of interest (foreground).

  • 10

    iv) Image Enhancement.

    Figure 2.5: RGB Image Acquired

    After converting images into binary, the image has to remove the noise and

    trace the boundary of detected object. This process is done in image enhancement

    module. Images, taken by digital camera, will pick up the noise from variety of

    sources.

    v) Image Detection Module.

    Figure 2.6: RGB Image Acquired

    When tracing the boundaries of object in images, the image detection module

    is implemented. This module will determine which objects are round by estimate each

    object's area and perimeter.

  • 11

    vi) Result of Parking Lot.

    Figure 2.7: Parking Lot Result

    An intelligent parking lot detection system based on image processing have

    been tested and proposed. This results are included the sequences of the car park

    detection from empty lot (8 parking available) until the full parking lot. Figure 7

    shows the number of availability of parking lot resulted by using camera preview

    panel, GUI output display, and LCD output display.

    2.3 AUTOMATIC SMART CAR PARKING SYSTEM.

    In an automated car parking, the cars are left at the entrance and are further

    transported inside the building with mechanical structure. Similarly, they are retrieved

    by mechanical structure and placed at the exit for the owner to drive away. Our

    proposed system presents an Autonomous car parking that regulates the number of

    cars that can be parked in a given space at any given time based on the parking space

    availability. When a car arrives at the entrance, it will be stopped at the main gate and

    the driver de-boards the car. If the availability of Parking space is confirmed, the user

  • 12

    commands the car to get parked to the designated slot. The car traces its path to the

    entrance of the parking area. Here, it waits and the details required for parking of car

    at the proper slot are communicated to the Car Control Unit. On receiving the

    information, the car will further trace its path to free parking spot. On successful

    parking, the data on the LCD will be updated automatically.

    i) Hardware Description.

    The hardware component required microcontroller, LCD, LDR, relay, DC motor,

    voltage regulator.

    a) Microcontroller

    The Microcontroller AT89S52 is a low-power, high performance CMOS 8- bit

    microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable flash memory and

    data memory is 256 bytes RAM this chip is manufactured using Atmel’s high-

    density non-volatile memory technology and it is compatible with the industry-

    standard 80S52 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip flash memory allows

    the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-

    volatile memory programmer.

    b) Relay

    It is used for auto switching device.

    c) RFID Tag/Reader:

    RFID Identification. An RFID system consists of two parts .i.e., a reader, and

    one or more transponders, which are also known as tags. RFID systems have

  • 13

    evolved from barcode labels as a means to automatically identify and track

    products as well as people. In this system, the user is assigned a unique ID

    corresponding to the specific trolley. This helps in quick identification and

    movement of the same.

    ii) Software Description

    Proteus 8 is the best simulation software for various design with micro controller.it

    is mainly popular because of availability of almost all microcontroller in it. So it is a

    handy tool to test programmes and embedded designs for electronic people.

    Simulation can be done using protest 8 software.

    2.4 STREET PARKING SYSTEM

    Figure 2.8: Illustrate of parking lot.

    i) System Introduction.

    The proposed SPS consists of a base station, routers, sensor nodes, and a

    remote server. The diagram of SPS is shown in Figure 1. Sensor nodes are

    deployed alongside the roadside and each node is mounted on the centre floor

  • 14

    of a parking space. Each sensor node detects the earth’s magnetic field

    periodically. When a node detected a car entering or leaving, it transmits a

    message to the router. The router forwards the packet to a base station that is

    one or more hops away. In the base station, information from different nodes

    will be merged, and parking guidance information will be transmitted to LED

    board and remote server.

    Figure 2.9(a) Figure 2.9(b)

    ii) Hardware Design.

    We adopt ZigBee as the wireless communication stack. Sensor node consists

    of magnetic sensor. When deploying the sensor nodes in the complicated

    realistic environment, we faced several problems. One is the crush-resistant

    issue. Using high-strength PVC-steel material as node shell is a good choice

    for resisting the crush of the parking vehicles. Figure 9(a) shows the nodes

    with high-strength PVC-steel material. As shown in Figure 9(b), considering

    the power issue, routers are equipped with solar panel for frequent data

    forwarding.

  • 15

    Figure 2.10 : Location Field Setup

    iii) Test Field Setup.

    In the experiments, we place the sensor node in the middle of the parking

    space. The sensor is a 3- axis magnetic sensor. Figure 10 describes the

    deployment of sensor nodes: the 𝑍-axis is vertical, the 𝑌-axis is parallel with

    the direction of vehicle entering, and the 𝑋-axis is pointing to adjacent space.

    The sensor has temperature drift, and the method of temperature compensation

    refers to its datasheet.

    2.5 SUMMARY OF THE JOURNAL

    2.5.1 Intelligent Parking Space Detection System Based on Image Processing.

    In this system it is consists of five modules which are system initialization,

    image acquisition, image segmentation, image detection and image enhancement. In

    system initialization, its identify location of every parking lot in the image. Second,

    storing digital image taken from video camera. Third, separate the objects from the

    background. Fourth, remove noise from the image. Lastly, determine the rounded

    brown image drawn at each the parking lot.

  • 16

    2.5.2 Street Parking System

    Street parking System consists of a base station, routers, sensor nodes, and a

    remote server. The sensor nodes is placed on each of parking space. Each nodes detect

    magnetic field. When a node detected a car movement (entering or leaving), it

    transmits a message to the router. LED board will change when the information is

    successfully achieved.

    2.5.3 Automatic Smart Car Parking System.

    This system is using building with mechanical structure which is automatically

    parking the car that left at the entrance. When a car arrives at the entrance, it will

    stopped at the main gate and the driver de-boards the car. This system need to

    confirmation on availability of parking space. If there is more space, the car will park

    to free parking spot. The data on the LCD will be updated automatically.

    Based on the research, the Scheduler algorithm is the best choices that can be apply in

    “Smart Entry Parking”. This is because concept of scheduling algorithm is First Come

    First Serve, or known as (FCFS). Related to the SEPS is when cars enter in parking

    entrance, the number of available parking will decrease. While, when exit it will

    increase back.

  • 17

    2.6 SUMMARY

    This chapter provide an overview regarding the concept of the system. Based

    on the study that has been made it shows that literature review is one of the important

    part in research of study of new. Literature review will help in determining the idea

    and technology has been studied before or not. The technique is chosen based on

    previous research articles and journals. Every journal and article will be compared to

    decide which will be selected.

  • 18

    CHAPTER 3

    METHODOLOGY

    3.1 INTRODUCTION

    In this chapter is about process of developing project from the beginning until

    the end of this project. The flow of the project will discuss briefly to give more

    understanding of design and develop of this project. There are many method that can

    be used for developing this project. The methodology that can be decide in this project

    is System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). In this methodology is based on phases

    for each development process. Every phases of this methodology will be explained.

    3.2 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)

    In this project, the most suitable methodology that can be apply is (SDLC).

    SDLC is a structure followed by a development team within the software

    organization. It contain of detailed plan describing to develop system, maintain and

    replace specific software. This methodology is for improving the quality of software

    and the overall development process. Which have a beginning of the operation and

    end of the operation. SDLC consists of six activities which is Planning,

  • 19

    Implementation, Testing, Documentation, Deployment and Maintenance, and

    Maintaining.

    3.3 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (INCREMENTAL MODEL).

    This life cycle model includes multiple development cycles. The cycles are

    divided up into smaller repetitions. These repetitions can be easily managed and go

    through a set of phases including requirements, design, implementation and testing. A

    working version of the software is produced during the first repetition, so working

    software is created early in the development process.

    Figure 3.1: System Development Life Cycle

    Figure 3.2: Incremental Model

  • 20

    3.3.1 Planning Phase

    The project starts with brainstorming an idea what problem to be solved.

    Objective of these papers is constructed based on what want to be achieved. The

    problem that needs to be solved in this paper is determined. Objective of this paper is

    constructed based on what will be achieved in this paper. The scope of this system in

    the aspect of system scope, user scope and functional scope is determined to identify

    important functions that need to be included in the system to fulfil the objective

    planned.

    3.3.2 Analysis Phase

    Analysis phase is to analyses the existing parking lot system and all

    requirement that are needed to design and develop the new system. In this phase, the

    information regarding parking lot system using embedded device either journal,

    articles, books or research paper are collected and gathered. Based on the collection of

    information, method and technique that is suitable been decided. Embedded

    programming are the best method that can be used to develop as automated system

    with sensor devices monitored by web based system.

  • 21

    3.3.3 Design Phase

    Identify design of the system and developed prototype based on the

    functionalities that will be build. The data or requirement obtained during planning

    and analysis phase was transform into the design. In this project, Framework Design

    to show the flow of the system, Context Diagram (CD), Data Flow Diagram (DFD),

    Entity Relation Diagram (ERD) and this chapter. These diagrams are designed as a

    guide line flow of the system and Interface Design to help in developing system.

    3.3.4 Implementation Phase

    Implement the design is implemented process for Arduino UNO and related

    Ultrasonic sensor to detection car and LED display on the parking lot. It is

    implemented into coding. The system is divided into several sub-modules and the

    actual coding for each sub-module is started according to the user and system

    requirements. To develop the system, there are programming tools are used such as

    Notepad++ and Arduino UNO to do the embedded programming part, PHP

    programming and database MYSQL. Besides that, XAMPP server is used for

    localhost server and web-based programming to create a graphical user interface.

    3.3.5 Testing Phase

    In this phase, system testing is conducted to test for error and ensure the

    module function well as whole system. Any errors or bug will be fixed and repeated

    testing the system until all the module fully function.

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    3.3.6 Evaluation Phase

    The system is evaluated before it is deploy to end-user. In this phase determine

    whether the tools related or not with the objective.

    3.3.7 Deployment Phase

    In this phase, when the system has achieved the objective and passed the

    testing, the system can be deployed and user can use the system. Once the system is in

    steady state, it is reviewed that the system met all the objectives and goals.

    3.4 SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENT

    This section will show the list of all software and hardware requirement that

    involve in the development process.

    3.4.1 Software Requirement

    To develop this project it can be many choices to choose the best software, this

    is because the selection of software depends on requirement needed in this project.

    The software to develop this project is shown as below.

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    Table 1: List of Software

    Name of Software Description

    Microsoft Office Word 2013

    Microsoft Power Point 2013

    As a platform for documentation and

    presentation of project

    Google Chrome Surfing and searching for example of

    system and research about the system.

    Arduino Source Code Used to program the Arduino. This

    software used for write and implement the

    coding to the Arduino UNO.

    XAMPP Server Act as local server to run and test the

    system

    MYSQL Database Storing the data of the system by using

    Query Language

    Notepad ++ Write code for develop a system for

    parking lot in virtual version.

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    3.4.2 Hardware Requirement

    Hardware is important in ensuring the research of this project is success. Each

    hardware has its own function in order to do this research. The hardware to develop

    this project is shown as below.

    Table 2: List of Hardware

    Name of Hardware Description

    Laptop

    Processor: Intel Core i3

    Printer

    EPSON

    Arduino

    Arduino UNO

    Sensor

    Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor

    LED Display

    Display number of parking available

    Devices - USB B-Type Cable

    - Resistor

    - Male to Male Jumper Wire

    - Breadboard (Small)

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    3.5 SUMMARY

    This chapter discussed the methodology used is to complete this project. The

    Iterative and Incremental method from System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is

    used because every phase during the system development follows the project

    methodology that is mentioned in this chapter. The hardware and software

    requirement also had been discussed.

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    CHAPTER 4

    SYSTEM DESIGN AND MODELLING

    4.1 INTRODUCTION

    This chapter will review design phase in project development. Design is the

    process of resulting product and it proposed framework of thinking. It represent a

    model on how to achieve a specific goal in project. Whereas, model represent set of

    strategy on which to achieved design goals. Modelling process involved a graphical

    representation of the functions and process for the development of a system before the

    system was developed. In this project, framework design, context diagram (CD), data

    flow diagram (DFD), entity relationship diagram (ERD), database design and interface

    design were produced before the system was developed so that the system will be

    developed successfully.

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    4.2 SYSTEM DESIGN AND MODELLING

    Figure 4.1: Framework for Smart Entry Parking System.

    4.2.1 System Design

    System design is the process of defining the architecture, components,

    modules, interfaces and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. System

    design involves Context Diagram, data Flow Diagram and Entity Relation Diagram.

    4.2.2 Context Diagram

    A context diagram is a data flow diagram, with only one massive central

    process that subsumes everything inside the scope of the system. It shows how the

    system will receive and send data flows to the external entities involved. Such as

    system, organizational groups, external data stores. Since a context diagram is a

    specialized version of the Data Flow Diagram, understanding a bit Data Flow

    Diagram can be helpful.

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    Figure 4.2: Context Diagram of Smart Entry Parking System

    4.2.3 Data Flow Diagram

    Data Flow Diagram (DFD) provide a visual representation of the flow of

    information within a system. By drawing a data Flow Diagram, you can tell the

    information provided by and delivered to someone who takes part in system process,

    the information needed in order to complete the processes, the information needed in

    order to complete the processes and the information needed to be stored and accessed.

    4.2.3.1 Data Flow Diagram (Level 0)

    Figure show the flow in this system starting with user inserting information

    parking, choose parking, and make confirmation of parking lot. Admin can log in into

    the system and manage parking lot.

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    Figure 4.3: Data Flow Diagram of Smart Entry Parking System

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    4.2.4 Entity Relation Ship Diagram (ERD)

    Entity Relationship Diagram in software engineering is an abstract to describe

    a database. It is typically used in computing in regard to the organization of data

    within database or information systems. An entity is a piece of data-an object or

    concept about which data is stored. A relationship is how the data is shared between

    entities.

    Figure 4.3 show the ERD if Smart Entry parking System. That show this

    system uses the derive table. Derive table is used to make a relationship between two

    or more main tables. It contains the primary key, foreign key from other tables.

    Figure 4.4: Entity Relationship Diagram

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    4.3 DATABASE DESIGN

    A database is collection of information that is organization so that ut can easily

    be accessed, managed and updated. It generally is looked at as being a collection of

    records, each of with its own structure and data type of input. The list of tables

    involved in the system is as follow:

    Figure 4.5 show all tables used in system including admin, parking lot, parking

    history, and user.

    Figure 4.5: Smart Entry Parking System table structure.

    Figure 4.6: Admin table structure

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    Figure 4.7 : Admin table data

    Figure 4.8: User table structure

    Figure 4.9: User table data

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    Figure 4.10: Parking History table structure

    Figure 4.11: Parking History table data

    Figure 4.12: Parking Lot table structure

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    Figure 4.13: Parking Lot table data

    4.4 SUMMARY

    This chapter discussed the methodology used is to complete this project. The

    Iterative and Incremental Method from System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is

    used because every phase during the system development follows the project

    methodology that is mentioned in this chapter. The hardware and software

    requirement also had been discussed.

    Besides, this chapter also discuss on the Context Diagram, Data Flow Diagram

    and Entity Relationship Diagram of the system which are essential as a guideline for

    the system development.

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    CHAPTER 5

    RESULT, IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING

    5.1 INTRODUCTION

    Implementation method is a systematic structured approach to integrate

    software based service or component into the workflow of an organizational structure

    or an individual end user. It is a part of user testing that important phase in system

    development. The system will be test to know the efficiency of the operational system

    meets the quality standards. This chapter will explain detail about implementation and

    testing in web-based system using Arduino.

    5.2 HARDWARE

    The main hardware that been used in this project are Arduino UNO 328 board.

    Ultrasonic sensor, LED light and Ethernet Shield are connected to send and receive

    data. The data will transfer to server in database provides in the web-based system. On

    board, Ethernet Shield is clip to the Arduino UNO 328 to make a connection between

    Arduino and web-based. For detect car used Ultrasonic sensor, display on LED light,

    resister connected to Arduino UNO 328 using jumpers wire. Arduino UNO328 is

    connected to the computer using USB port.

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    5.2.1 Overview

    Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P. It has 14

    digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a

    16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset

    button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it

    to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get

    started.

    The Arduino Ethernet Shield connects Arduino to the internet in mere minutes.

    It need to plug this module onto Arduino Board, connect it to the network with an

    RJ45 cable and setup it with IP Address to make a connection between web-based and

    Arduino.

    Figure 5.1: Arduino UNO 328 board.

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    Figure 5.2: Ethernet Shield board

    5.2.2 Arduino Setup

    The generic sensors are connected to the Arduino UNO 328 board such as

    Ultrasonic Sensor, LED light and also Ethernet Shield to sens data and receive data.

    Arduino works as microcontrollers gives instruction to the generic sensors.

    The Ultrasonic Module has 4 pin, ground, VCC, Trig, and Echo. The Ground

    and the VCC pins of the module needs to be connected to the Ground and the 5 volts

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    pins on the Arduino UNO 328 board respectively and the trig and echo pins to any

    Digital I/O pins on the Arduino UNO 328 board.

    The LED light contains of two type which are green colour and red colour. Its

    contain cathode and anode. This LED light to be connected to the pins on the Arduino

    UNO 328 board by using the breadboard.

    Figure 5.3: Arduino UNO 328 board connected with Ethernet Shield

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    Figure 5.4: Arduino UNO 328 board connected with Ultrasonic Sensor and LED light.

    5.2.3 Arduino Circuit

    In order to generate the ultrasound need to set the Trig on a high State for 10

    µs. That will send out an 8 cycle sonic burst which will travel at the speed sound and

    it will be received in the Echo pin. The Echo pin will output the time in microseconds

    the sound wave travelled.

    This project will use just 4 digital inputs from the Arduino UNO 328 board.

    The red LED light use pin number 10, and for green LED light use pin number 6. For

    both LED light, cathode will connected to the ground and anode will connected to pin

    number 10 and 6 through 220 Ohms resistors on the Arduino UNO 328 board that can

    provide PWM signal.

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    The Ethernet Shield will connected to TP-Link 3220 Router through the RJ45

    cable. The router need to setup through the IP Address. The IP Address is

    192.168.1.101 used to connect to database and Arduino. The type of IP Address in this

    project is static which is the IP Address will be a static IP Address.

    Figure 5.5: Arduino Circuit of Smart Entry Parking System. (Front)

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    Figure 5.6: Arduino Circuit of Smart Entry Parking System. (Above)

    5.2.4 List Of Hardware Required

    I. Arduino UNO 328.

    II. Breadboard

    III. LED light

    IV. 2 X 220 Ohms Resistors

    V. Jump wires

    VI. Ultrasonic Sensor

    VII. Ethernet Shield

    VIII. RJ45 cable

    IX. TP-Link 3220 Router

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    5.3 INTERFACE OF SYSTEM.

    Figure 5.7: Homepage of Smart Entry Parking System.

    This is the Homepage of Smart Entry Parking System. In this page, all

    information already shown. User need to click each of image to know the flow of

    booking. Beside it also show the availability of parking in the top right system.

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    Figure 5.8: List of Process.

    In this menu list it contains of Home Page, Booking Parking (Roof Top,

    Ground), Contact, and Log In for Admin. User can click each of the menu list.

    Booking Parking contain of two page which is Roof Top and Ground. User can

    choose which one that they want to park their car. Contact page is for information

    about the Smart Entry Parking System. Log in page is for admin use to manage the

    system.

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    Figure 5.9: Booking Parking page.

    In booking page user need to click the image of the floor that they want. It

    contains of Ground Floor and Roof Top Floor.

    Figure 5.10: Form of booking parking.

    When user click on the image, it will pop up of booking form. It contains of

    number of car plat, time booking, time arrival, and date. User need to fill in number of

    car plat only.

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    Figure 5.11: Image of available parking space.

    After user click Submit button, the system will show the image of parking

    space that available. In this page, user need to choose the available parking. The green

    colour is available. The yellow colour is for reserve and for red colour means is not

    available or already occupied.

    Figure 5.12: Notification box

    This face box will pop up when user click on the available parking that they

    want. Its mean, process of booking is already made by user.

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    Figure 5.13: Result of parking.

    Then, the system will show the result of parking that made by the user. The

    green colour will change to the yellow based on the user choose. Its mean user already

    reserve the parking space. But user have only 1 hour to reserve the parking lot. If not

    the parking will change to available. For walk in, it will change directly to red colour.

    Figure 5.14: Open gate form.

    This form is used to open the gate at the parking lot. User need to put the plat

    number in the form to open the gate. Beside it contains of Location and Report.

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    Figure 5.15: Notification pop up

    The notification will pop up when user put the correct plat number. “Gate is

    Open. Thank You.” The gate will open and user can enter the parking lot.

    Figure 5.16: Notification pop up

    The notification will pop up when user put the wrong plat number. “Wrong No

    Plat”. The gate will not open.

    Figure 5.17: Location of Parking

    This is the location of parking lot. It easy for user to know the place of parking

    lot. User can directly to the place and it not waste time for user to find the place.

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    Figure 5.18: Receipt of booking.

    User also can get their receipt, as a proof of booking process.

    Figure 5.19: Page of log in for admin.

    Admin need to log in first before enter the system. It contains of admin id, and

    password.

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    Figure 5.20: List of menu in admin page.

    In admin menu, it contains of Homepage, Booking Information, and Report.

    Booking Information is details of parking history. Report is the details of available

    parking.

    Figure 5.21: Booking Information

    Admin fill the form with date to look the details of booking. The details will

    show depend on the date.

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    Figure 5.22: Details of booking.

    Then, it will show details of the booking depends on the date. The details

    contains of Number Plat, Time Booking, Time Arrival, Date and ID Parking.

    Figure 5.23: Details of available parking.

    Details of available parking will show to the admin. Admin can know the total

    of car enter the parking space. According to the Figure 5.22, there are 3 parking

    already reserve.

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    Figure 5.24: Log out for admin.

    Admin can log out when finish. The log out button is at the top right of the

    system in admin page.

    Figure 5.25: Setup the IP Address.

    This is the process of setup the IP Address that need to connect to the Ethernet

    Shield. The router read the Ethernet Shield IP Address which is assign to

    192.168.1.101.

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    Figure 5.26: Arduino code to connect to database.

    Figure 5.27: Arduino code to connect to database.

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    Figure 5.28:Arduino code to connect to database.

    This is the Arduino code to connect between Arduino UNO 328 and database

    server. According to this code, 192.168.1.101 is used as address to send the data from

    Arduino UNO 328 to the database server through the Ethernet Shield. This code will

    loop every time to read all the parking area and directly update the data to the database

    server. If there is a walk in customer parking in the parking lot, Arduino UNO 328

    will read and update the date in the database server. In web-based also will change the

    data. For example, it change from green colour to red colour.

    5.4 SUMMARY

    In this chapter, it is about Implementation and Testing of Arduino connected to

    sensors and device, Implementation and Testing in Arduino language, Implementation

    and Testing in web-based.

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    CHAPTER 6

    CONCLUSION

    6.1 INTRODUCTION

    This chapter discuss on the conclusion. The conclusion of system is discussing

    about the conclusion of the system for users that use the system.

    6.2 PROJECT CONSTRAINT

    There are several problem and limitations that occurred throughout the

    development of the project in order to achieve the objectives. These problems and

    limitations in conducting this study are:

    This system is can be used only for car. It is not suitable for others vehicles.

    Besides, this system only can be applied for Ground and Rooftop Parking only. This is

    because, this system need a network connection in Arduino to check the availability of

    parking space. Disturbance of internet to book the parking lot is one of the constraint

    in this system and can cause of malfunction on Ultrasonic Sensor.

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    6.3 EXPECTED RESULT

    Combination between Arduino and web-based system is to make a connection

    between it. With this combination the web-based system will be more systematic and

    efficient. Web-based system is used for user to make a booking. All process in the

    web-based will keep in database server. Interface in the website show the availability

    of parking lot. There are three type of colour which are green (available), yellow

    (reserve) and red (not available).Easy for user to make a booking. Then, function of

    Arduino is to check the parking space and it will update the data in the database server

    and it always loop the process.

    6.4 CONCLUSION

    The increasing of cars usage is growing rapidly, and also the system of the

    parking lots must upgrade to be more systematic and reliable to the users. The Smart

    Entry Parking System is develop to perform the effectiveness of system and minimize

    the time and energy of users in order to find the parking space. The system can

    identify quantity available of parking and location of available area in a car park. The

    system will be an intelligent system which help the user to make a booking.

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    6.5 FUTURE WORKS

    For future work, there is a little suggestion that can be made to upgrade the

    system to be more efficient and look more interesting. Some suggestion that need to

    be:

    I. Parking fee can be add in the system features by every hour user park their car.

    II. User can search place near by to park their car.

    III. Can use in smart phone based on Android and IOS.

    IV. Add on for motocycle parking.

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    REFERENCES

    [1] R. Yusnita, Fariza Norbaya, and Norazwinawati Basharuddin, International

    Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2012

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    Networks Volume 2013,

    [3] International Journal of Advances in Electronics and Computer Science, Volume-

    3, Issue-3, Mar.-2016.

    [4] My SQL Connector, Chuck Bell ,Git Hub 2015.

    [5] M.A.R. Sarkar, A.A. Rokoni, M.O. Reza, M.F. Ismail, "Smart Parking system with

    image processing facility", I.J. Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2012, vol. 3.

    [6] Zhang, B., Jiang, D.L., Wang, F. and Wan, T.T. (2009) A Design of Parking Space

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    [7] Barton, J., Buckley, J., O’Flynn, B., O’Mathuna, S.C., Benson, J.P., O’Donovan,

    T., Roedig, U. and Sreenan, C. (2007) The D-Systems Project—Wireless Sensor

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    [8] Hamada R.H.AI-Absi,Patrick Sebastian ,”Vision-Based Automated Parking

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