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Page 1: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Russian Edition

Page 2: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

TONTENTSEr**n': skilts ar:d task in the lessons are higi 't l iEhted in btue

Grammar focus

Warm-up (p.5)Listening: (matching)Vocabulary: PersonaLity

1 Autobiography 1p.o t1

Reading Strategies: Revision

Vocabulary: WordbuiLding

2 Who Are You? 1p.s-r;Revis ion of a l l tenses (gap f i t l inq,

ru l t i r le-choice, nta l :chi nq)

3 National ldentity (p.10'11)

Listening Strategies: RevisionListening: (T/F, qap fittine)Vocabutary: lvlulti-part VerbsFunction: Preferences

Language Awareness 1 Determiners (p.14)

Warm-up (p. i5)Listening: (matching)Vocabu[ary: Laughter

5 A Comic Novel 1p.lo' lz;

Fi*ai! i n g S trat*gier;:

A.lsLoicring nt-i q uesilcrs

Vocabulary: CoLLocations

6 Crazy But True (p.t8-1e)

Past tenses, Past Perfect Continuous(matching, gap f i l l inq)

7 What's So Funny? (p.20-21)

Vocabutary: Multi-part VerbsListening Strategies: Ansrlering nl-cquesrioirsListening: (n-c quesl ions)Function: TelLing jokes

Language Awareness 2 Continuous and Simple Tenses (p.25)

Review ModuLes 1 and 2 (p.26-27) €ulture Corner 1 The History of EngLish (p'28)

Warm-up (p.29)Listening: (matching)Reading:Vocabutary: 0pi nion adjectives

9 Street Art 1p.so-st1i ' : , iai ; ;t, j 5xlia{.49i*5:

: ' ' t .t i-:_l i I I l I ;+.. c: :tq,: a rrC p; i: g r.t p lt:

Vocabutary: moke, get, hove i)r '.)

10 Body Language (p.32-33)

Retative and particip[e clauses

11 Branded (p. ja-35)

Listening: (matching, gap f iL l ing, T/F)Vocabulary: MuLti-part Verbs!- i ; teni*5 : i# i :* t i r :E: 4nt"s: . lng T, /Fquesr ionsFunct ion: i l tsc i ib ing pecl le

Warm-up (p.39)Listening: (matching, categorising)Vocabulary: Descri bi ng beautY

13 Poetry @.<o-al)Reading Strategies: Reading Poetryi i ' ; /F, rnatclr ing)Vocabutary: ldiomatic [a ngua ge

14 Wrapped Up 1p.<z-ts1The Passive(matching, sentencetra nsformaiion)

15 Music @.aa-as)Listen !*g Strategiesi l',1atchi ngpeople and opi ; r ionsListening: (matching)Vocabulary: MuLti-part VerbsFunction: Aqreeing and Disaqrceing

Language Awareness 3 Pronouns (p.49) Review ModuLes 3 and 4 (p.50'51)

Culture Corner 2 Peoples ofthe Russ'an Federation (p.52)

Warm-up (p.53)Listening: (matching)Vocabulary: Science

17 Eureka! (p.5a-5s)

ill*fr di iiff Stsat*gi*s: trin:;weri r:g T/ F

t$eSlrcnsVocabu[ary: Compound words

18 Futurology (p.56-s7)

The future, Future Perfect,Future Continuous(matching, gap f i t t ing)

19 Artifi ciat Intelligence 1p.la-14Listening: (answering questions, gap filting

Listening strategies: Multiple maichlngVocabulary: Mutti-parl VerbsFunct ion: L lar i f i / i .g ancl asl , ' rg 0uer l iors

Warm-up (p.63)Listening: (matching)Reading: :Vocabulary: The body

21 Life Savers 1p.ot'-os1ii,**ri!n g st,'at* -er*s: l ai.is \,'rlih

ta ia.Jrai t r i l g i i tsVocabulary: Synonyms

22 Super Athletes (p.66-67)

ConditionaLs, Mixed ConditionaLs

23 Brain Power (p.68-6e)

! - is tening StEategies: [crnple i ing a

textListening: (gap f i t l ing, matching)

Vocabulary: Mu Lt i -part Verbs

Funct ion: Giv ingl and asking for advice

Language Awareness 4 ModaLity (p./3) Review ModuLes 5 and 6 (p.74-75)Culture Corner 3 EngLish around the WorLd (p./6)

Watm-up (p.77)Listening: (matching)Vocabutary: Describi ng pLaces

25 0n the Road 1p.ts-to1' . t: lr i 'r;r l i l ;r:: i*i i i*:;: A:rs,,r,tr I; i i

' i , ' i

'Vocabutary: WordbuiLding

26 Migrating (p.80-81)

Verb patterns; -ing form, infinitive

2 7 Trans-conti nental P.az-s.t;Listening Strategies: Idenr i 'y i rg

s i t ua t i ons and peop le

Listening: (nr-c, gap f iLLing)Vocabulary: MuLt i -part VerbsSpeaking Strategies: Being Pol i teFunct ion: PoL:te requesi-s

Page 3: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Communication Workhops Language Powerbook4 Communication Workhops(p.12-1 3)

Writing: A forma/informaI letterSpeaking: A short presentationSpeaking Strategies: Revision

Vocabulary: Persona[ity, wordbuilding Remember: ModaL verbs Grammar: Revisjon of tensesFunction: Expressing preferences Mutti-part Verbs Writing: A letter Word Power Language Awareness

Exam Pract ice 1: Use of Engl ish; Reading; Wri t ing

(p. z-15)

8 Communication Workhops\p.22-24)Writing: A book revjelvListening: A sketch (matching, m/c)Speaking: A topic presentat ionSpea kin g Strategies: Preparat'io n

Vocabulary: Laughter Remember: Past tenses Grammar: Past Perfect Continuous Function: Tetling a jokeMulti-part verbs writing: A book review word power Language Awareness check your Grammar

Exam Zone (Modutes 1-2) : Speaking; L istening; Reading; Use of Fngl ish; Wri t ing

(p.1 6-31)

12 Communication Workhops1p.36-38)Writing: A description of a ptaceListening: A song (gap f i t l ing)Speaking: Discussing a topic (p icturedescr ipt ion)Speaking Strategies: Gaining t ime

Vocabulary: 0pinion adjectives Rememben Comparison of adjectives Grammar: Relative and participle clauses (p3z-a5)Function: Describing people Mutti-part verbs writing: A description of a place word power

Exam Pract ice 2: Use of Engl ish; Reading; Wri t ing

16 Communication [email protected])Writing: A fiLm reviewIistening: A conversation (matching)Speaking: PLanning an eventSpeaking Stntegies: Taking turns ingroup discussions

vocabulary: Opinion adjectives Remember: Active, passive and causatjve Grammar: The passiveFunction: Agreeing, disagreeing, asking for opinions Mutti-part Verbs Writing: A fiLm revjer,v Word powerLanguage Awareness Check Your Grammar

Exam Zone (Modules 3-4) : Speaking; L istening; Reading; Use of Engl ish; \1/r i t inq

(p.46-63)

20 Communication Wbrkhops(p.60-62)Writing: A description of an eventListening: A song (matching)Speaking: A presentationSpeaking Strategies: Givi ngpresentations

24 Communication Workhops(p.70-72)Writing: A discursive essay (1)Listening: A TV programme (completingsentences)Speahng: A discussionSpeaking Strategies: Avoiding probLems

Vocabulary: Compound words Remember: wilt, going lo Grammar3 Future Perfect, Future ContinuousFunction: Clarifuing Multi-part Verbs Writing: A description of an event Word power

Exam Pract ice 3: Use of I lg l ish; Reading; \ l . / r i t ing

(p.64-75)

Vocabulary: Parts ofthe body Remember: Conditiona[s Grammar: Mixed Conditiona[s Function: Giving advice (p.26-91)Multi-part Verbs Writing: A discursive essay Word Power Language Awareness Check your Gnmmar

Exam Zone (ModuLes 5 6) : Speaking; L istening; Reading; Use of Engt ish; Wri t ing

28 Communication Workshops(p.84-86)Writing: A formal LetterListening: A songSpeaking: A topic presentat ion

Vocabutary: WordbuiLding Remember: -ing form, jnfinitive Grammar: Verb patternsFunction: Asking for permission Mutti-part Verbs Writing: A fornrai letter Word power

lxam Pract ice 4: Use of Enql ish; Readinq; I 'Vr i t ing

\p.92-105)

Page 4: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

CONTENTS

Warm-up (p.87)Listening: (matching)Vocabularv: GlobaI issues

29 UnnaturalDisasters (p.88-8e)Reading Strategies:Completing texts withsentence gapsVocabulary: Prefixes

30 GtobatWarming(p.e0-et)Reporting, ReportingVerbs(matching, sentencetransformation)

31 Rich andPoor 1p.ez-os1ListeningStrategies: TakingLecture notesListening: (T/F)Vocabulary: MuLti-pa rt VerbsFunct ion:J u st i fy inga rg u ments

3 [email protected])Listening: A radiointerview (gap fitlinq)Writing: A Letter ofa ppLicatio nSpeaking: Discussingphotos and textsSpeaking Strategies:Using photos and textsin d iscussions

Vocabulary: Wordbuitding (p.106-lRemember: ReportingGrammar: Reporting verbsFunction: Giving opinions, justifuingarguments Multi-part VerbsWriting: A Letter of appLicationWord Power Language AwarenessCheck Your Grammar

Language Awareness 5 Impersonal report structures (p.88-89)Review Modules 7 and 8 (p.98-99) Cutture Corner 4 Environmentaljssues in Russia (p.100)

33 Golden Ages(p.102-1a3)

Reading Strategies:SummarisinqVocabutary: Rich[a ng uage

34 ConsumerSociety$.10a-L05)

Complex sentences:

35 Utopia(p.106-107)

ListeningStrategies:U ndersta ndi ngculturaI referencesListening:(answeri ngquestions, matching)Vocabulary:Mutti-part VerbsFunction: Makingsuggestions

39 ConftictResolution(p.116-117)

Vocabulary: Mutti-

ListeningStrategies:Identifying moodListening: (T/F,m-c)Function: Arguing

3 6CommunicationWorkhops(p.108-110)

Wri t ing: A discurs iveessay t 2 )Listening: A song( matchi ng )Speaking Strategies:Prepar ing for problem

solvi ngSpeaking: Probtemsolving

40CommunicationWorkshops(p.118-120)

Writing: A letter ofcomp la i n tListening: Af i lmscr ipt (matching)Speaking: A formaIte[epho neconversatio n

Vocabulary:SociaL (p.112-1.proDLemsRemember: Expressr ' ng regret

Grammar: Persuasion

Funct ion: Suggest ionsMult i -part VerbsWri t ing: A discurs ive essayWord Power

Exam Practice 5: Use of EngLish;

Reading; Wri t ing

Vocabulary: @.132-1Conf l ic t wordsRemember: Present PerfectGrammar: EmphasisFunct ion: ArguingMult i -part VerbsWri t ing: Wri t ing under pressure

Word Power Language AwareCheck Your Grammar

Exam Zone (ModuLes 7-10):

L istening; Reading; Use of EngLish;

Writing

Mini-Grammar (p.148-1 59)

Warm-up (p.101)Listeningl (matching,tabte completion)Vocabutary: SociaI probLems

Warm-up (p .111)Listening: (matching)Vocabulary: Conftict

37 WarMemories(p.112-11i)

Reading Strategies:Questions with moreihan one type ofexamination taskVocabulary: Wordfa mi Lies

Language Awareness 6Review Modules 9 and L0

38 Neiqhboursfrom H-ett(pJ1a- l15)

Complex sentences:emphasis (sentencecomplet ion,sentencetra nsfo rnratio n)

Perfective verb forms (p.J21)

(p.122-123)

Literature Spots 1-5Grammar Summary

(p.124-133) Writing Help (p.1.37-145)

ftJa6-150) Lexicon (p.151-176)

Page 5: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

. talk about different kinds of identity and givea short presentation about yourself.

. l isten to mono[ogues, a radio programme, an'interview and a presentation.

. read extracts from an autobiography, a diaryand letters; use l istening and readingstrategies.

. write a formaI or informal letter,

. revise the main tenses in Enql" ish.

KEY W0RDS: Perso*at i tyambitious, caretess, chatty, cheerfut, chil.dish,competit ive, considerate. conventionat, easy-going, hard-work ing, idea[ is t ic , impat ient ,individualistic, kind, l. ikeabte, moody, outgoing,popular, reckless, reUable, reserved, romantic,setfish, sensibte, sensitive, sentimentat, shy,sociab[e, sympathetic

Page 6: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I Aulobiogrophy

Before you slart

1 rn in l about an important scene in your l i fethat you remember very clearly. Tetl the class.

Example A scene I remember very welL is when Iwon a competit ion at primary school ...

h l .Ke0orng

2 neaa the Strategies.

Reading Strategies: Revis ion

. Before reading, look at the t i t le , p ic turesand the f i rs t coupte of [ ines of the text .Look for c lues to help you predict what k indof text i t is and what i t is about .

o R o a d t h e t e v t t o n e t t h p n p n p r : l i d c :

Ignore words you don' t know.. Read the text again. Try to work out the

meanjng of important new words. Use adict ionary i f you can' t .

. Read any comprehension quest ions and t ryto th ink of possibte answers. Then f indanswers to the quest ions in the text .

Use the Strategies to answer these questionsabout the texts.

Text I1 What t ime of year do you th ink i t is? Why?2 Who do you th ink Peter is? How do you th ink

the d iary wr i ter feels about h im?3 How old do you th ink the wr i ter is? Give your

rea50ns.4 Wha t do you th ink i s unusua I abou t t he

wr i ter 's s i tuat ion?

Text 21 How was the g i r [ d i f ferent f rom other

chi ldren?Why was her teacher so important for her?How did she learn new words?Why did she feeI happy when she understoodthe meaning of the word 'water '?

What do you think happened later to thewriters of the texts? Check your answers onpage 135.

Text 1

&

stge@{s'@@8*rte"t?:vtetr??4,lt,e*t4".::tt':'

he weather's been wonderful since yesterdav and I,veperked up quite a bit. My writing, the best thing I have,is coming along well. I go to the attic almost every

morning to get the stale air out of my lungs. This morningwhen I went there, Peter was busy cleaning up. He finishedquickly and came over to where I was sitting on my favouritespot on the floor. The two of us looked out at the blue skv, thebare chestnut tree glistening with dew, the seagulls and otherbirds glinting with silver as they swooped through the air, andwe were so moved and entranced that we couldn,t speak. Hestood with his head against a thick beam, while I sat. Webreathed in the air, looked outside and both felt that the soellshouldn't be broken with words. We remained like this for along while, and by the time he had to go to the loft to chopwood, I knew he was a good, decent boy. He climbed the lladder to the loft and I followed: during the fifteen minutes hewas chopping wood, we didn,t say a word either. I watchedhim from where I was standing and could see he wasobviously doing his best to chop the right way and show offhis strength. But I also looked out of the open window letting 2my eyes roam over a large part of Amsterdam, over therooftops and on to the horizon, a strip of blue so pale it was walmost invisible. As long as this exists,' I thought, ,this

sunshine and this cloudless sky, and as long as I can enjoy it,how can I be sad?' )

Unless you write yourself, you can,t know how wonderful it is;I always used to bemoan the fact that I couldn,t draw, butnow I'm overjoyed that at least I can write. And if I don't havethe talent to write books or newspaper articles, I can alwayswrite for myself. But I want to achieve more than that. I can'timagine having to live like Mother, Mrs van Daan and all thewomen who go about their work and are then forgotten. Ineed to have something besides a husband and children todevote myself to! I don't want to have lived in vain likemost people, even those I've never met. I wanr to go onliving even after my deathl And that,s why I,m so gratefulto God for having given me this gift, which I can use rodevelop myself and to express all that's inside mel

.::

:,4

,3

'l&

'&

, /

234

%

&

Cry

Page 7: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ldenttfu

Texl2

THE MOST IMPORTANT DAY I remember in allmy life is the one on which my teacher, AnneSullivan, came to me. It was three months beforeI was seven years old.

On the afternoon of that day, I knew that 5

something was happening. I went outside andwaited on the steps of the house. I could feel thesun on my face and I could touch the leaves ofthe plants. Then I felt someone walking towardsme. I thought it was my mother and she picked l0me up and held me close. This was my teacherwho had come to teach all things to me and,above all, to love me.

The next morning, the teacher took me into herroom and gave me a doll. When I was playing lswith it, Miss Sullivan slowly spelled the word'd-o-l-f into my hand. I was interested and Iimitated the movements with my fingers. I learneda lot of words like this, but only after my teacherhad been with me for several weeks did I 20understand that everything has a name.

One day, I didn't understand the differencebetween'mug' and'water'. I became angry andthrew the doll on the floor. In my quiet. darkworld I didn't feel sorry for doing it. Then my 25teacher took me out into the warm sunshine. Wewalked down to the well where someone wasdrawing water. My teacher put my hand underthe water and spelled the word'w-a-t-e-r'at the same time in my other hand. Suddenly, I 30felt an understanding. The mystery of languagewas revealed to me. I knew then that'w-a-t-e-r'was the wonderful cool something flowing overmy hand. That living word awakened my soul,gave it light, hope,joy, set it free! 3b

qur@

abcdef

Ii

r5I

Vo@'

cobulury: Wordbuilding (Revision)Lexicon, page 157.

3 Us" the endings below to make adjectives from thegroup of words (a-k). Some groups can have more thanone ending.

-y, -ed, - ing, - fuL, -( i )ous, - ish, -( i /a)bl"e, - tess, -at , -( t ) ic,- ist ic, -(e/a)nt, - ive

mood, s tuf f , happiness, c loudhope, care, hetppract.ice. nature, logicideat , rea[ , ind iv iduaIdecision. create, imagination i Like, rely, senseimportance, tolerate, djfference j interest. t ire, bore

k set f . ch i td

Make adverbs from the adjectives in a, b and c. Then tryto add more adjectives and adverbs to each group.Check spetlings.

4 took at the words in Exercise 3. In which of them isthere a change in word stress?

Exampleidgal - ideallstic, Science - scienlific

Q listen and check your answers.

5 put the underlined words in the correct form.

I have some very 1 ptease memor ies of my 2 chiLd. WeLjved jn a 3 romance cot tage in the country wi th 4 loveviews of Lake Windermere. We had a 5 wonder garden wi thlots of animats. However, ] 6 11_g1uo_ry one year 7 extremewel"l". I was eight and one of my 8 f1v,o11 animals was agoose cal led Mabel . Af ter coming back f rom schoo[ . I usedto 9 food Mabel" . Wi th me, she was 10 usual very quiet and11 f r iend. Wi th everybody e lse though, Mabel was verynasty and 12 aqqression. That winter was very cotd and thesnow was near ly a metre 13 depth.0n Chr is tmas Day, wehad a 14 t radi t ion [unch - goose and Chr is tmas pudding. Iwas 15 cheer unt i I I real ised that the qoose was . . . Mabet lMy 16 h- immediateLy d isappeared-and I spent the restof the meaI in tears.

6 Choose a memory from your tife. Write notes aboutthese th ings:

your age, p lace and t ime, who you were wi th,what happened, how you fe[ t , what happened in the end

7 Wort in pairs. Tetl your partner about your memory.

guoTn,.... u?wuoTn'% love on.s"lf is the be{innin{ of a lifelon{

g mystery, ambition,da nger

h romance. sympathy,sc ience

fofhanCe. Oscar Vild.

Page 8: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

i,t,

r'' ::l.r:.it:::: .

.+rj:-,1.:'i':,. , . :

t ,

' 7 "7,' 7n, f: rrf,i *T#Hf* *i 8ffi $|;jr,LK# :::"ffi;+}i :;,:, i.,?^", ^s a nd' i:tr4#' i::' !i' i ;;: ffi : ::' :': r: "$,#ff "r: ii:::r: .r,":: ff Ii, ]j,-n';;i;" ::;: ;tYi'7:"'J^;I! *"'i"ir;':;tr" '': . r:,^i,"i,22',' vou wa^tPd'llrtf#f-^'-'i"^ (''n) we YtLb45-

Before you starl

1 took at the p ic tures. Which of the th ingscan te l l us about ourselves? Wri te youropin ions on a p iece of paper.

ExampleI think that astrology is interesting but I don'tbelieve in horoscopes.

Tel[ the class.

2 toot< at the three styles of handwriting(1-3) . Try to match them wi th thepersonal i ty descr ipt ions (a-c) .

a Thjs person is ind iv idual js t ic - someonewho Ukes do ing th ings i n t he i r own way .He/She is a [so a per fect ionis t who a Lwaysmakes sure that everyth ing is just r ight .

b This person is ambi t ious and ideaList ic -

someone who has st rong pr inc iptes andh e l i e f q H e l S h e i s a l c n r r e r r i l o n i c a l

c Th i s pe rson i s qu i t e conven t i onaL -

someone who doesn' t [ ike to be d i f ferent .He/She js atso rather shy but is a goodobserver of peopte.

Check your answers on page 135.

2Who Are You?

${'FgolFds$f

€B,#ffi '*{'$M*qa6' 6m+s*ud'-"''"'

T su,ppt*-T avn 4w;n ̂ 5W p-uson O X pb|toal)4aurd baalmi,nton yutu, a {rt. Cil T'm al.+o tu,rffi,1uno,fhnl/qhT'motrlAno+ va14 qnd at tt Un{fuwra;m.Tha,wh'+ gd uuhtimljo'pnhoe aq G) Tvu bui vuab1,4-.wfilt vug eya.n46. AMIrat4, wlun @ I-[@ZA"ri(s) T'vq ,4@ {o do ay1 tiltpxth,ue SLwturust Cntlxrp, thantlw4're bry ̂ ttu4g at ntg loul cl,tfu.

O* 4 tha . r -errs* eNnh--^ ,(/7) y\n ^ o \Ep t ^ a

e-xpctto,nre-6 ttl4.*( r/) naa Qxer*

mt ( r4nn 'a QNer h / .Ana^^ r - r

uLaJ

\.a-6l 1111n. T ,.-t<Y+#4 -ro

m-z uJa4T \ta6-riA:

'v tt.z- t-tJQ-

l*r*;;#ffiW^y..zk^:t)-|;;:13 w,Xff*:,^y y ;s.h|&k*.*,;___:_-". e wr uttz ntfi.t* beot2_6,T a gr-aJr\d uJa,4LDe.r'p n;^^ ,J

, verA UJet. (/9) W,W"U; i - iunurhen-"ii# i wtP pa*h

\4v/, L t>(r,t^) a rurce- 3na_ua-

,,. +4, -ddrj

Revision: Tenses

4 tooL at the undertined verbs in the three texts.What time (past/present/future) do they refer to?

5 Match the examples un{q{ iqqd in the text (1-20)wi th these tenses and verb forms (a- i ) .

rl l idi i -t i+--

3 Wort in pairs. Give your partner the piece of paperwith your handwri t ing on i t f rom Exercise 1. Use theinformation on page 135 to'analyse'your partner 'shandwri t ing. Tet l your partner your analysis. Does yourpartner agree with it? Let your partner telt the ctass.

ExamplePeter says I'm very ambitious. I don't think thqt's true!

iatui

'll . Lo,,e ': : : . '

€m,- ,a i {a Present SimpLeb Present Cont inuousc Present Perfectd Present Per fect Cont inuouse Past Simptef Pas t Con t i nuous

ghI

Past Perfectqoinq to

i"

wt tL

Page 9: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

,t ,*" t .1,

6 u"t.tt the tenses and verb tormEiromExercise 5 with the uses (1-9).

7

2345

activit ies going on at the time of speaking/personalarrangements for the future/temporary routines or habitsactivit ies that are repeated regutarty/future fuctsintentions for the futureact ' ions that happened at a speci f ic t ime in the pastact iv i t ies that form a backqround to events in thepast

6 events that happened before other past events7 act iv i t ies in the past where the t ime is not important /

s tates that s tar ted in the past and are st i [ [ t rue8 act iv i t ies that s tar ted in the past and cont inue up to

n 0 w9 predict ions based on opin ion, bet ie f or knowtedge/

decis ions about the future taken at the moment ofspea k i ng

E4 Grammar Summary 1, poge 146.

Proct ice7 Undertine the contractions in these sentences.What auxil iary verbs do they stand for?

a He's been studying a [ot recently.b We didn ' t do i t on purpose.c I 've had probtems with my computer latety.d We're going out tonight .e I ' l " i teLt you as soon as I f ind out .f She's ptanning to s tudy physics.g We'd seen the fitm before.

O 8 pronunciation Listen to the sentences and writedown the contractions you hear.

Exampte t -- 's (has)

9 Uatct t the sentences (1-7) wi th the s i tuat ions(a-s).

1 Have you been pLaying footbal l in the ra in again?2 I ptay footbatl every day.3 I 'm p lay ing a footba[ [ game on the computer .4 I 'm ptay ing in a footbat l match at 10 o 'c tock.5 I 've at ready ptayed and won 20 games.6 I was playing footba[[ when ] fel.t badLy.7 I had p iayed 40 games when I was in jured for

the f i rs t t ime.

a a professionaI footba[ [er ta tk ing about h is job

b a pat ient ta tk ing to the doctorc someone g iv ing an excuse why they can' t he[p

someone nowd someone saying how good they aree someone expta in ing why they can' t go shopping the

next dayf a ret i red footbat ter looking back on h is careerg a mother to a boy whose ctothes are muddy

,";ffffHffi5tffiffTiffithe verbs in brackets.

I suppose that , in many ways, t t hwebe*n (be) Luckysince the day I was born. I was born two monthspremature and I was very i [ [ but somehow I2 - (surv ive) . Then, when I was three, I3 - ( fuLt) in to a pond on a farm I4(stay) at. My mum 5 - (go) into hospital for anoperat ion and some f r iends 6 - ( took af ter) meat the time. Luckity, a man 7 (work) near thepond and he 8 - (put t ) me out !Now I 'm in my last year at schooI and at [ my f r iends9 - (think) I 'm very lucky. For exampte, I10 - (win) money on the lottery four or f ivet imes and I usuat ly 11 - (beat) everybody atca ro s.I can ' t say I 'm very hard-work ing but I 12

(do) wel .L at exams - the r ight quest ions a[ways come up.I 'm a lso tucky in love and ] 13 - (go out) wi than amazing g i r [ for the last s ix months. I hope my luckt4 - (cont inue) in the future.I 15 - (take) my university entrance exams inthe summer and as soon as I 16 - ( f i n i sh )them, I 17 - ( t raveL) for a coupte of months.Then, hopefutLy, I 18 (study) architecture atu nive rsity.

I 1 loot at the quest ions. In what s i tuat ions couldthey be asked? Who coutd be tatk ing?

Example 1. people who meet for the first tine

1 What do you do?2 What have you been doing recent ly?3 What are you doing tonight?4 What are you going to do when you f in ish schoo[?5 What were you doing on Sunday evening?6 What have you done today?

In pairs, ask and answer the questions.

t2 Tat<e turns to say the sentences about your tifeusing the time expressions below.

ExampteI usually play bosketball on Tuesday night.

usuatty, never, now, this weekend, last year, since,in the future, next year , in 1.999, for three weeks,at ten o'c[ock, twice a week, when, white, recenttv,for a vear now

Page 10: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

3 Nolionol ldenti

you stort

1 put the words below into the correctcategories in the Key Words box.

anima[ lovers. advanced, democrat ic ,emotiona[. friendty, [ iberat, modern, noisy,nature lovers, outgoing, powerfut, violent

KEY W0RDS: h i x * i * r : a l 5 * *n t i t y

{*e. :13try : devetoped, deve[oping, h is tor ic ,innovative, multicultura[, wealthy,wet [ -organised*s*+l* : c tass-conscious, communicat ive,conservative. excitabte, fu mily-oriented,[aw-abiding, natjona[istjc, po[ite, proud,retigious, reserved, serious, traditiona[.toterant, suspicious of foreigners

2 loot< at the photos of Britain. Chooseeight adjectives or expressions fromExercise 1 that reflect your view of Britainand the Brit ish. Te[l the class.

ExampleTo me the British seem to be auite traditionql.

[ is lening

3 neaO the Strategies.

Listening Strategies: Revision

. Before l istening, look at the task. Try to guess answers to theo uestio ns.

. The f i rs t t ime you t is ten, answer as many quest ions as you can.

. The second t ime, answer the quest ions you missed.

. Do not worry if you don't understand every word.

Q t-isten to a radio phone-in programme. Use the Strategies todecide if these statements are true (T) or fatse (F). Then tistenagain and check your answers.

1 I Great Bri tain is made up of four di f ferent nat ions: Enqtand,Northern Ire[and. Scot land and Wa[es.

2 Z

3 I

in a pot t , Br i t ish peopte descr ibed themsetves as animallovers and to[erant but suspic ious of fore igners and reserved.Eighty-seven percent of Br i t ish peop[e thought that theBr i t ish were cLass-conscious.The f i rs t cat ler th inks Br i ta jn is an ' innovat ive p[ace.She descr ibes herse[ f as Eng[ ish rather than Br i t jsh.The second ca[ [er feets European.The th i rd cat ler is of Indian or ig in.She th inks Br i ta in is mul t icut turaI but there is an in to lerantminority.The [ast cat ler th inks Br i ta in is a modern country.He is a Scot t ish nat ionat is t and doesn' t feeI Br i t ish.

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Page 11: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

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Speok

7 Uat<e a tist of good and bad things about tiving inyour country, town or region.

ExampleGood things: rock climbing, sailing, skiing

Now in pai rs , ask and answer the quest ionsbelow. Use the expressions from the Function File.

Example 1, I'm really into clubbing.

1 What k jnd of th ings do you [ ike aboutt i v i n g i n . . . ?

2 What sor t of th ings do you d is t ike aboutl " i v i n g i n . . . ?

3 Where e lse would you [ ike to [ ive? Why?

Te[[ the class.

Vocobulory: Mult i-port Verbs

EF Lexicon, pages 170-176.

8 Comptete the descript ion with these verbs in thecorrect form.

get at, ring up. get to, take off, get by, put up with,get on with, look forward to, check in

When I am abroad, I atways 7 /.oobforwaroLto getting backhome. I s tar t fee[ ing homesick as soon as the ptane2 ----=-�. when I 3 - a new place. thefirst thing I do after I have 4 at the hotet, isto 5 - my famiLy and have a chat wi th them.Unfor tunate ly , I have to t raveI a lo t on business and Ioften go to the States. I 6 the Amer icans verywe[ [ - they are a lways very f r iend[y. I speak good Engl ishtoo, so I can 7 in the States wi thout anyprob[ems. I 'm not very keen on Amer ican food but I can8 - - - i t . The probtem js that I 'm a stay-at-home.My s is ter a lways 9 - me - she says I 'm bor ingand unadventurous. But , as the saying goes. 'home sweethome'.

honpwtug hn(truesHow would you describe your country or regionand the people from it?

puoTn .... uNBuoTEAn Dn4lishn'an is never happy rrnless he is

rnisertle; a 9cotsyr,an is never at horne but whenhe is abroad.' Anonyn ous, tSth century

O 4 lirt"n to an interview with Ctaire. What does shelike and distike about Britain? Where would she [iketo live for some time?

Q 5 I-isten again and complete the Function File withthese words:

?' 'd rather, woutdn't mind. can't stand, 'd prefer. [ove,-, hate, don't think I 'd want, reatty into, reatly t ike,. don't Like. reatty keen on, just [ove, not keen on myself,'' 'd [ove, prefer

Prefe re n ces:Co l l oqu ia I Exp ress ions

I 'm 1 - ctubbing, you know.12 -do ing tha t , t oo .I m e a n , I 3 - t h e v a r i e t y .I 'm 4 - l is tening to house and garage.I 5 - r o c k c t i m b i n g .I 6 - atl the traffic we've got.I7 - s i t t ing in t raf f ic jams!Another thing I 'm 8 - is footbal.l.I 9 - a [ [ the v iotence around i t .I 10 - watching tennis myself.I 11 - t iving in Australia, for a while atleast.I t2 - � to go out there.

to live there for ever.to go just for a few months.

And I l s go in their summer.

What is the difference in meaning between 'I love ... 'and'I 'd love to ... ' , ' I prefer... 'and 'I 'd prefer to ... '?Make a tist of the expressions that are foltowed by the' - ing ' form.

6 Wtite your answers to these questions.

1 What are you into doing at weekends?2 What woutd you t ike to do th is weekend?3 What spor ts are you keen on watching?4 What spor ts s tar would you love to meet?5 What are the th ings you can' t s tand doing?6 What th ing woutd you prefer not to do tomorrow?

Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions above.

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Page 12: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Writ ingBefore you stsrt

1 Read the two letters and theemail. Choose the correct tinkingwords undertined in the letters.

2 Wtrlctr of the texts (1-3) is format?Find formal and informa[ examples ofthese th ings:

greeting . requests . punctuation. grammar . vocabulary . l ink ing words. ending the letter . signing off

Check your answers in Wri t ing Help 1,page 137 .

idi@Wsffi

Hi there Anna,D o n ' t k n o w i f y o u g o t m y f i r s t m e s s a g e . I ' v e b e e nhav ing prob lems w j th my computer so am send ing i ta g a i n .Look fo rward to hear ing a l l about you. What k indof mus ic a re you in to? l ^Jhat sor t o f th ings do youd o i n y o u r f r e e t i m e ? W h a t a b o u t s p o r t ? I ' m af o o t b a l I f a n a t i c m y s e l f !G e t i n t o u c h s o o n !

A l l t h e b e s t ,Mark

A Letter

Write a reply to one of the letters. Fotlow thestages below.

H. Writing l letp x, page 137.

Stage IWrite notes about what information you need toinc lude.

Example FamiLy - Mum, Dad, Anna and me

Stage 2Organise your letter and ptan paragraphs.

Stage 3Use your plan to write the letter.

Stoge 4Check your letter.

\

3

Dear Ms Novak,Thank you for your enquiry about our summer courses at ExmoorEnglish College. I enclose a brochure with information about thecourses we offer (6) pluslako the accommodation we provide,It lists the trips and activities we organise, (7) as well aslsuch ascanoeing and horse riding.

Exmoor English is a small school. (81 Alt[touqhlHowever, we have anexcellent teaching staff and good facilities . (9) Becauselln case ofthe small numbers of students, there is a friendly atmosphere atthe school.(10)ln additionlAnUwaU, I enclose a brochure with local touristinformation. (lll BecauselAlthough Dulverton is a small town, thereare plenty of things to do here. (12) Despitel|s well as beingsituated in the national park of Exmoor, the town is near abeautiful, wild part of the coast.

(13)lffl,lhen you are still interested in the course, I would begrateful if you could write us a letter about yourself (14) becauselsot f ta t we can judge your leve l o f Eng l ish .I look forward to hearinq from vou.

Y o u r s s j n c e r e l y ,Anne Dut ton

Talkbock

Work in pairs. Read your partner's letter andmake suggest ions for improving i t .

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€oqnt/ oqf l'w, ^ cot^sih oQ Yours!

r,wr kinA oQ iy\fevestea irn the hisfovy os oqr patwrily (l) so/\>eca^se

l've sfawte/ ioirtg sor^ae "eseawch' l've *oqhA ouf fhatf uay

qvar\A€4fhe v, fiAa'm, c^v e oveY fo flmericat iv\ the lf30s

|z;;A14** leatvurg lvelarrr'A' He wats fhe brofhev oP yorav

gvavrAaA (sarwr)' . ', - ̂ --- ̂ :.'-D^ ̂ '\^arrt- ue- I live i,1 Des l'loites'

66666) vJell/However, vle'e's sov're i\€o atborat rT e' I live irr Des l"toilres'

lowar, wifh ray wi€e fCi"'y9 aurA two kill. {Part 18 ar\A giua 19' aVeve

arve atbora! €iQ+^7 oe * ii"g"tn e' he'et'Hsve's at gictq"e oQ sowre oQ

us atf at vece\! weAAirrg' ti" tlne o\e o\-the €aw vighf'

6Q tnr adaiHo'r/A\yw;"tot^sin.(caur l5arll yora thart?)' carur yor^ Ao Ae

at Patvov? Catt yora '"ni 'n"ar thoto oP yor"v Patr"rily? lt'A be gveatf i*

vora cor^lA 6 Asad '"'^^ ^" atrry inlo yor'r harve atbor'rf you" lolLs

batck irr the'ol/ cor'uttvY"

I hoPe to hearv €vowr Yol^ soo\'

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Page 13: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

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Speoking

Before you start

1 Listen to Richard's presentation and answer thesequestions:

1 What are Richard's interests and hobbies?2 Why does he remember the singing competi t ion

so wet[?3 What kind of job would he t ike to do?

Was the presentation formaI or informat?

Vague Language

O 2 lirr"n again. Complete the sentences withthese words.

some kind, fortyish or so, that sort of,what 's i ts name? something t ike, sor t of , about

Somet imes I get up at 1

Next Saturday, we're playing at a club2 at Echoes, that's it.The compet i t ion was hetd in 3

sports centre.She was 4 and had a very k ind

wooo . . .It was made of 5

I fett 6 retaxed but excited at thesame t ime.I th ink I 'd L ike toof a sports centre.

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3 Classify the sentences below (1-7) into thefollowing categories:

a starting the tatk b introducing topicsc adding in format ion d ending the ta lk

1 I 'm also a keen basketbat[ ptayer.2 So, to finish off, my ambitions and plans for

the future.3 0K, now something else about me.4 l 've been asked to te[[ you at[ about mysetf.5 Another thing I 'm realty interested in is

music.6 Wett, that's it. Thanks for l istening to me.7 First, something about my interests and

[ifestyte.

A Short Presenlation

Give a short presentation about yourself.Foltow the stages below.

Stage IMake notes about these th ings:

. famity

. your tifestyl"e (interests, hobbies etc.)

. one of the most important exper iences in your l i feo lour ambi t ions, ptans for the future

Think of one or two false things to add.

Stage 2Read the Strategies.

Speaking Strategies: Revision

. When you don't know a word or expression, t rynot to stop comptetely.

. Use 'vague [anguage'to exptain more or lesswhat you want to say, e.g. it 's a sort of ...

. Describe things, e.g. ft's a thing you use to ...

Work in groups. Use your notes and the Strategiesto give a short presentation about yourself.

Talkhack

Try to guess the false information in thepresentation.

ExampleI don't think it 's true that ...

b e 7 - t h e m a n a g e r

Page 14: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

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1 ReaU the first part of a Shertock Hotmes story. What do you think happens next?

'Wher-r I cal led on Sherlock Holmes on thc st 'concl nrorninq after Christmas, he was lying

on the sofa next to sol-ne ne\vspapers. On a chair, there -uvas a very dirry old hat and aniaenifiring glass.' l suppose, ' I said, ' th:rt therc is a story about that hat which wil l help you solve :rnorhcr

i n l \ \ t c r i ( )us c ' r ' i n rc . ''There's no crinre,' said Sherlock Flolmes laughing.'Just a stran€le little incident.Peterson, the door attendant, found the hat.At about four o'clock in the morning,he was coming back from a parry when he saw a tall rnan carrying a goosc.Sr-rddenl_v, two thugs appeared. One pushed the rnan and thc orhcl thus rried to

10 take the goose. Peterson went to protect the m:rn but seeing someone in uniform,he dropped the goose and ran away. All the attackers disappeared so Peterson was left1rc uroPPcLr Lrrc goose:rrl0 ran away.ml lne attacKers clsappearecl so l-eterson was IeIt

with both the goose and the old hat.There was a card with the goose saying'For Mrs Henr:y Baker'and the

ini t ials 'H.l l . ' inside the hat, but there are a 1ot of Henry Bakers in London. Peterson did not know what to dorvith either the hat or the goose so he broueht both to n1e o1r Christm:rs mornins. I kept the hat and Peterson

l5 had the goose for his Christnras dinner. ''So can you find any clues abor-rt thc r-nan liom this old hat?''What c:rn you see, Watson?''Well , i t is atr orditrary black hat.The l ining is made of recl si lk and there is no elast ic.There is some dr,rst on i tand sevcral spots. Someonc has tr ied to cover al l of the spots with ink. But I can't sec any c1ues. '

20 'Well,Watson, the hat tel1s us a lot about the hat'.s owner. He used to be quite rich br-rt son'rctl-ring musr have

hrppcncd ro hinr, 1'robirbly problems r,vith drink. His wife no longer loves hint. He is rniddle-aged rvith greyhair - rvhich he has had cut receutly. He doesn't do much exercise and hc hasn't got gas in his house. ''You nrust be joking Hohlcs. How do you knorv all tlrat information?''Elementarl', r'r'ry dear'Watson...'

Find out what happens next in the storyand check your guesses to Exercise 1 onpage 134 .

Reference ( l ) : Determiners

tr 6rsffintsr Surnrnurtrt, paEe 14g.

2 Transtate the expressions in red in thetext into your language.

3 tqatch the determiners (1-3) with thesi tuat ions (a-c).

7 the second a there is a choice ofonty two peop[e orthi nq s

2 snother

3 the other

b i t doesn' t mat ter howmany peop te o r t h i ngsthere are

c t he th ings o r peop [eare c lear ty ordered

4 Ansret these quest ions.

1 Why does the text say the sofa buta chair in the descriptionof Holmes's room? ( [ ine 2)

2 Coul"d we use o instead of the in th is context? How woutd themean ing change?

3 The text f irst mentions a mqn and o goose (tine 8) and laterthe msn (L ine 9) and the goose ( [ ine 10) . Can you expta in why?

5 Cross out the examptes in the table which are incorrect .Use the examples in the text to hetp you.

Srneumn coUNTABLE UlrcouHtnsLrN O U N S N O U N S

Ptunnl uouHs

a/ a, k^qt M ffi+&ttr

toule sow*. hnt sotuo dttxt torr4.& tu.enl

aly any hat ory d^ot aNy c/ue,sftD no hat n^o e/a,stic r,tD u4-e,n,

se*,era/, seue*a./, spot se.uen/, fu.ut seuera.L spotsu&"clt mar./o spot tuuh oxercae, wtzlu spatsa, bt of a, lot of spat a,/"ot of oxe*u,re, o /"ot of spots^A (rf) ^lL (tf) ilz rpot alL (of) that ^/L (tf) th^o spats

cnforwntiott,

@. More pract ice, Language Powerbook page 12.

Page 15: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

read extracts from Lr' terature and newspaperart icLes; use reading strategies for answeringmu Ltip Le-choice q uestions.

ta lk about humour and te [ [ jokes and anecdotes

l i s ten to a TV programme, jokes , funny s to r ies

and a ske tch ; use l i s ten ing s t ra teg ies fo r

answer ing muLt ipLe-cho ice ques t ions .

revise past tenses and learn about the Past

Perfect Continuous.write a book review.

Worm-up

1 took at the photos (A-D) and quotes(1-3). Which is the funniest? Telt the class.

Q 2 f-oot at the Key Words. Listen and identifythe types of taughter. Say in what situationyou might hear each one.

KEY WORDS:burs t ou t Laugh ing , cack le , chuck le ,faLL about Laugh ing , g iggLe

Example 1" Someone might burst out laughingwhen they understand a joke,

Q 3 cnect you understand the words andexpressions (a-d) . Then l is ten to fourextracts. In which is someone:

a t e l t i ng a j oke?

b pul t ing someone's leg?c being sarcast ic?d descr ib ing an i ronic s i tuat jon?

4 work in pai rs . Ask and answer thequestions betow.

Exampte 1 I remember giggling in a mathsexqm. I was thinking about ...

1 Have you ever g iggted when everybody e lsewas se r i ous? When?

2 Do any of your f r iends make you laugh a [ot?whv?

3 Has anyone ever put led your [eg? Whathappened? How did you fee[?

4 Do you know anyone who js of ten sarcast ic?

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Page 16: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Belore you stort

I Wtrlctr of the Key Words are related tothese th ings?

having problems, being comfor ted,feet ing d isappointed

KEY WORDS:: , to be prone to something,

to buck someone up. to do someone gooo,to feel bad about something,to g ive someone a hard t ime,(someone's) hear t s inks, to tatk sense,to take someone's mind of f th ings,to wa[k out on someone

setf-pity. sitent misery,terr ib [e i rony

2 Wort in pairs. Look at the photo of Rob.Use the Key Words to ta lk about the youngman in the photos. What sor t of person doyou th ink he is? How do you th ink he 'sfeet ing?

Reoding und l istening

O S Read and listen to the extract from HighFidelity by Nick Hornby. Check your guessesfrom Exercise 2.

4 Read the Strategies.

Reading Strategies:

Answer ing mut t i p te-choice quest ions

. Read the text to get the generaI idea.Then read the quest ions and opt ions.

. Find parts of the text that are relevant tothe questions and read them carefutly.Look for synonyms of words in theq uestio ns.Be carefu[ - the answer may not bestated expticit ly in the text.

. Choose an opt ion and make sure you cane[ iminate the others.

Rob is 35 years old. He used to uork as a DJ; noube ouns a record shop. But business is bad ancl ltis long-timepartneli Laura, bas just walked out on bim.

AII my life I've hated Sundays ... but this Sunday is a corker. I getback to the flat at one; by two, things have got so bad that Idecide to go home - bome home, Mum and Dad home. It was'waking up in the middle of the night and wondering where Ibelonged that did ir: I don't belong at home, and I don't want tobelong at home, but at least home is a somewhere I know.

. . . My parents are OK, if you like that sort of thing, which I don't.My dad is a bit dim but something of a know-all,which is a prettyfatal combination;you can tell from his silly, fussy beard that he'sgoing to be the sort who doesn't talk much sense and won,tlisten to any reason. My mum is iust a mum, which is anunforgivable thing to say in any circumstances except this one.She worries, she gives me a hard time about the shop, she givesme a hard time about my childlessness. I wish I wanted to seethem more but I don't,and when I've got nothing else to feel badabout, I feel bad about that. They'll be pleased to see me,although my heart sinks when I see that Geneuieue is onTV thisafternoon.

... V{hen I get there, the joke's on me: they're not in. I,ve come amillion stops on the Metropolitan Line on a Sunday afternoon,I've waited eight years for a bus, Geneuieue is on the televisionand theyte not here.They didn't even call to let me know theywouldn't be here, not that I called to let them know I wascoming. If I was at all prone to self-pity, which I am, I would feelbad about the terrible irony of finding your parenrs our when,finally,you need them.

But just as I'm abour to head back to the bus stop, my mumopens the window of the house opposite and yells at me.'Rob! Robert! Come in!'

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Page 17: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

'Not Dad's home-made?''No.Proper wine.This afternoon it'sAustralian.W"e all chip inand a man comes and explains it all.''l didn't know you were interested in wine.''Oh, yes. And your dad loves it.'

... The room is full of people I don't recognise.I wasn't expecting this. I came for an afternoon of silent misery,not wild partying; the one thing I wanted from the afternoonwas incontrovertible proof that my life may be grim and empty,but not as grim and empty as life in Watford. Wrongagain!... Life in Watford is grim, yes;but grim and full.!7'hat rightdo parents have to go to parties on Sunday afternoons for noreason at all?'Geneuieue is on the tellv this afternoon. Mum.''l know.Ve're taping it.''Vrhen did you get a video?''Months ago.''You never told me.''You never asked.''ls that what I'm supposed to do every week?Ask you whetheryou've bought any consumer durables?'

... \\\\\7e go home and watch the rest of Geneuieue.My dad comes back maybe an hour later.'We're all going to the pictures,'he says.This is too much.'You don't approve of the pictures, Dad.''I don't approve of the rubbish you go to watch. I approve ofnice well-made films. British films.''What's on?'my mum asks him.'Howard's End.lt's the follow-up to A Room uitb a Viewl'Oh, lovely, my mum says.'Is anyone else going from across thercad?''OnlyYvonne and Brian. But get a move on. It starts in half anhour.'

1 'l'd better be going back,'I say. I have exchanged hardly a word

I with either of them all afternoon.

I 'You're going nowhere,'my dad says.'You're coming with us. My

I treat.'

| 'tt's not the money, Dad. It's the time. I'm working tomorrow.'

| 'Don't be so feeble, man.You'll still be in bed by eleven. It'll do

I you Sood. Buck you up. Take your mind off things.'

I This is the first reference to the fact that I have things off which

I my mind needs taking.

I end ary-way, he's wrong. Going to the pictures aged thirty-fiveI with your mum and dad and their insane friends does not take

I lour minO off things, I discover. lt uery much puts your mind

I on th inSs. . .

I adapted lrom Higtt Fictetity by Nick Hornby

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5 Use the Strategies to choose the best answer,a , b , c o r d .

1 Rob decides to v is i t h is parents becausea he enjoys spending Sundays there.b he hasn ' t go t any th ing e l se t o do .c he wants to go back and l ive wi th them.d everyth ing is famj l iar in thej r home.

2 Which sentence about Rob's parents is NOT t rue?a Something about h is father 's [ooks suggests

what k ind of person he is .b His mother is rather ord inary.c He worr ies because h is parents miss h im.d His parents like to watch their frvourite fitms on TV.

3 How does Rob feel when he f inds out h is oarentsare not at home?a fur ious b amused c le t down d very sad

4 Rob's reaI in tent ion in cominq to h is parents ' wasto make sure thata he was more miserab[e than them.b thei r sociaL l i fe was not as wi [d as h is .c they were as sociabLe as before.d thei r l i fe was even worse than h is .

5 Which of these statements about Rob's Darents isNOT t rue?a They enjoy themselves on Sunday af ternoons.b They no [onger care about thei r fuvour i te f i tms.c They have bought a v ideo p layer .d They have changed the i r op in ion abou t go ing to

the c inema.

l r I I r l lVocobulory : Io l locot ions

a t ime b sense c back d t i f e e bad

Ctassify the collocations above into the followingcategories:

4>

E- Lexicon, poges 160-161.

6 Uatctt the words from the text that go together.

1 tatk 2 head 3 emptv 4 hard 5 feel

60

a verb + adverbb adject ive + noun

c verb + adjectived ve rb + noun

75

7 W.it" six sentences using these coltocations.

get back. h i t back, move in. c tean out , throw out .express thanks, express an opin ion. express horror ,ra in heavi ty , sLeep heavi ty , empty space,empty st reets, empty gesture, hard t ime

t l .

)pe0Krng

8 Wort in pai rs . Ask and answer these quest ions.

. Have you ever been in a s i tuat jon l ike Rob whenyou expected one th ing to happen, but instead.somethi ng comptetety d j f ferent happened?

. Wha t happened and how d id you feeL?

Page 18: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

6 Crozy Bul True!Before you stort

I match the headtines withthe pictures (1-3) and thenewspaper extracts (A-C).

rica Glendale , at 2O years old, is one of the oldest cows inBritain. Erica has delivered 238,000 pints of milk in herlife and used to be a champion dairy cow. 'She won prizes

every year when she was in her prime and we would alwayscelebrate together,' said farmer Bob Maxwell. Erica has retiredfrom competitions but last week, after he had finished work,Bob took Erica for a birthday treat to the Red Lion Inn for a sliceof cake and a drink. 'If you work with an animal for 20 years,you get pretty attached to it,' said Bob. 'All the regulars loveErica,' said one customer. 'But I think the Red Lion ought tothink about getting a new carpet.'

2 Headtines in Brit ish newspapers often 'ptay'with

words. Match the headtines with these references(a-c) .

a an expression meaning to be in a dangerous posi t ionb saying you are sorry or wrongc an expression meaning to be retired

Which of the stories did you like most? Why?

Revision: Post Tenses

3 ReaU sentences 1-5 from extracts A and B.Match the tenses and verb forms with their uses (a-e).

1 We woutd atways celebrate together.2 She used to be a champ ion .3 He took Erica for a birthday treat.4 Peop[e were waving at her.5 She had taken a wrong turn.

a a s i tuat ion that cont inued for some t ime in the nastbut is no [onger t rue

b a regular ty repeated act ion in the pastc an event that occurred before other past eventsd a s ingte event in the paste a longer act iv i ty around an event in the past

Eating llrrnrble Pie--,-., -'''" ""'iii#-Sf'

"

ffi# w,g -',ili* -ifhiti ,$H, ,r ii{ fir lt {:, {i yji

Mrs Janet Williams' of Wrexham' had

;;;Y shock last weekend' she was

;ili; rt". "u' in chester' when she

;;;t;"; peoPle were waving at her- as

;;;;;JJiv' she. started to set the

i""iirrg that something was ***^l'^

*^"iirt" had taken a wrong turn anct

*l; ;;;c on a frozen canal! she

-.".g"a tJ get out of the car just

f"f"t" lt ,"t'k thtoogh the ice'

Mrs Merrick, 70, had just come back from Bodmin,where she had been shopping, when she wasattacked by Billy, a runaway bull. When MrsMerrick bravely tried to defend herself, Billylcrocked her over and started eating the contents ofher shopping bag. The pensioner was finallyrescued by a man who had been working in anearby garage. 'The farmer sent her a lovely steakand kidney pie,' said one neighbour. ,But he didn'tsay whether Billy was in it.'

4 put these events from extract B in the order inwhich they actually happened. Some events may havehappened at the same t ime.

Janet got out of the car .People waved at Janet .Janet took a wrong turn.Janet not iced the peopLe.The ca r sank .Janet drove on a f rozen cana[ .Janet fe l t something was wrong.

abcdefg

Out to Grass

Page 19: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

i

I

I? ' )

Presentol ion: Post Perfect Cont inuous

5 ReaU the sentence below from extract C.

Mrs Merrick, 70, had just come back from Bodmin,where she hSd h99!L!9ppi!5, when she was attackedby BilLy.

Does the underlined verb form describe:

a an event before other events in the past?b a [onger act iv i ty that happened before the

main event?

6 Match the sentences ( r -2) wi th the t imet ines(A -B ) .

Past

B Past

1 Af ter he had f in ished work, Bob took Er icafor a birthday treat.

2 The pensioner was rescued by a man whohad been work ing in a nearby garage.

EU Grammor Summary 2, page 146.

Proctice

7 Use the cues in brackets and the Past PerfectContinuous to explain the situations.

Exampte 1" His arms were sunburnt becausehe had been sitting in the sun aLL day.

t '*.e

12

345

678

Hjs arms were sunburnt . (s i t in the sun at t day)She was very t i red. (work for hours wi thout abrea k)Their clothes were muddy. (ptay footbatl")She was f i red. (not come to work on t ime)She was very angry. (wait for her boyfriend forha t f an hou r )Hjs ear ached. ( ta l "k on the phone for hours)He was covered in o i t . ( repai r h is car at t day)She was scared stiff. (watch a thri[[er on TV)

8 Write two explanations for each situation(1-5) , one in the Past Per fect , and one in thePast Perfect Continuous.

Example I She had been eating too many sweets.She had dropped her keep-fit cLqsses.

1 Sharon put on f ive pounds.2 Steve was feeting down.3 Jack 's shi r t was torn.4 Ann fa i ted her f inaI exam.5 EmiLy and Tessa were very excjted.

[aryhtu

9 put the verbs in brackets in the Past Perfect or the pastPerfect Continuous.

1 We couldn ' t open the door because i t _- - (snow)heavily al.L night.

2 She looked shocked and she said she (see) a UFO.3 Bi l " ty had a b lack eye and Joe's l ip was cut - they

(fis ht).J o h n d e c j d e d t o c o m p [ a i n a s h i s n e i g h b o u r s - ( h a v e )parties every day for two weeks.JiLl. Looked great - she ___ (l.ose) a few pounds and

(put on) a smart evening dress.S h e i [ a ' s e y e s W e r e r e d a n d s w o [ [ e n a s i f s h e - ( c r y )aL t n iqh t .

10 Complete the text with appropriatepast tenses of the verbs in brackets.

Ken Coates 7 was eniovinq (enjoy) his 52nd birthday at theKing 's Arms jn Aston. He 2 ___ (ptay) in a [oca[ poolchampionship in a room at the back of the pub. Ken3 - - - (ptay) wel . t for hat f an hour and 4

( w i n ) t h r e e o f t h e f i r s t f i v e g a m e s . H e 5 - ( p u t ) d o w nthe g lass he 6 _ (dr ink) f rom and 7 _ (Set)ready to pot the b lack to win the f ina[ game when h js fu lseteeth 8 (drop out). Unfortunately, instead ofpotting the bat[, he 9 ---- (pot) his own fatse teeth!Ken's wjfe, ALice, who 10 _ (watch) the game atln ight , immediatety 11 ( rush) to hetp her husband.She 12 (put) her hand in the pocket to f ish out thef a [ s e t e e t h w h e n d i s a s t e r 1 3 - ( s t r i k e ) . A [ i c e , s h a n dg o t s t u c k i n t h e p o c k e t a n d s h e | 4 - ( c a n n o t ) g e t i tout again. F inat ty , af ter Ken 15 _ (make) ane m e r g e n c y p h o n e c a t [ . t h e f i r e o f f i c e r s 1 6 - ( a r r i v e )on the scene. With the hel"p of a power saw and some washing-up L iquid. they 17 ( f ree) ALice 's hand. 'Poor Ken, he18 - - - - ( t ry) to win the championship for years i sa id afriend. 'In the reptay, Ken 19 (pLay) terribl.y. I thinkhe 20 -_-- (worry) about his teeth again.'

1 1 Wort in pairs. Use the cues and the past tenses to writeabout a disastrous day trip.

. Mr and Mrs Smith never (be) abroad so (decide) to go on a 'no

passport' day trip to France. they (go) through the ChanneI Tunnel and (arr ive) in Boulogne -

f i rs t (go) shopping then s ightseeing - in the af ternoon they(decide) to v is i t some f r iends in L i t te - they (go) to the stat ion

. (not learn) French at schooI so (not understand) theannouncements at the stat ion - (Set) on the wrong t ra in

. whi [e they (have) a nap on the t ra in, i t (cross) the border wi thGermany

. German pot ice (ask) for thei r passports - they (say) they ( teave)them at home - the pol ice (put) them on a t ra jn back toBoutoqne

Page 20: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

7 Whott So Funny?Before you start

Vocohulury:Mult i-port Verbs

ffi Lexicon, pages 17T-tr76.

1 look at the quiz. Try towork out the meaning ofthe under l ine{ verbs. Thenanswer the quiz.

Work in pai rs and compareyour answers.

# &,:

[ i s len ing

2 Reaa the Strategies.

Listening Strategies:

Answeri ng mult iple-choice quest ions

. Before you l is ten, read the quest ions ando ptio ns.

. Use your own knowledge to predict the mostl ikeLy answers.

. Look a t t he op t i ons and th ink o f poss ib [esynonyms, e.g. [oud = noisy; in works j tuat jons = at work / when work ing.

. The f i rs t t ime you l is ten, t ry to get the generaIidea and c i rcLe possib le opt ions.

. The second t ime you l is ten, t ry to answer a[ [f h p n r r p c t i n n c

. Even i f you don' t know an answer, a lways guessl

4;"e- goes in for imitating famous people?

+! puts on different voices?',fiif gets into trouble and then gets out of it?t t makes out that he/she is not very bright?

:!# dresses up as different people?

l+.'-.{ makes up good original sketches

and jokes?',,fi.F has got on because he/she is so witty?

''F-e really cracks you up?

.! really turns you aff?!,F- you used to like but you?ve gone off him/her?

O g Listen to a TV programme. Use the Strategies to choosethe correct answers according to the presenter: a, b or c.

1 How do many fore igners see Br i t ish peopte?a loud b quiet c bad[y behaved

2 Foreigners might f ind i t s t range that Br i t ish peopLeu s e n u m o u ra in s iL l ,y s i tuat ions. b jn work s i tuat jons.c i n i n fo rma l s i t ua t i ons .

Many jokes i n EngL i sh a re ha rd t o unde rs tand becausea they conta in cul turaI references.b they are pol i t ica[ . c they are about h is tory.

Jokes j n EngL i sh o f t en depend ona knowledge of grammar. b being d i f f icut t for fore igners.c wo rds w i th doub te mean ings .

PeopLe L i ke Cha r t i e Chap t i n and Mr Bean have beensuccessfuI in ternat jonaLty becausea they have funny exp ress ions .b t he j r humour i s v j sua l . c t hey a re f amous .

ffan you tk'ink of a-camsd'ia,n wh{)

{ , t lI i t , r : I

t l : _ i i i! \ #,#

oo

u

lr

z

F

z

lr

I(C

Page 21: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

hlq

4 Wort in pairs. Look at the drawings above anddecide what the joke is about . Te[ [ another pai r .

ExampleWe think the parents go away for the weekend and ...

\ / ) Listen to the joke and compare it with your version.

O 6 l i t t "n to the joke again and complete the Funct ionFite with these words.

And then, guess what , there are, just can ' t ,just before. Have you heard the one about. LuckiLy,right, or somewhere Like that, So, eventualtv, Wett

When they get back home i t 's about f ive in them o r n i n g . 7 - . . .When they get up, they go to the garage, and8

Pronunciot ion

O Z Listen to the sentences. Write down the wordswhich are emphasised to make the story moreinteresting. Then listen again and repeat thesentences.

Example 1, promise / not

a l .)pe0Ktng

8 Wort in pai rs . Student A turns to page 134 andStudent B to page 136. Pract ise te[ [ ing the joke toyourself. Add words (e.9. articles and pronouns) andexpressions from the Function File. You can addmore information to make it more interesting.

9 farc turns to te[[ your joke to your partner. Listento your partner's joke actively.

ExampleA This oLd couple go into a cafe, rightT They sit down

near the window and quess who wall<s in.B Who?

honpurng hntnresWork in pairs. Discuss these questions.

1 Do Russian jokes somet imes 'p tay wi th words '? Canyou th ink of an exampte?

In what s i tuat ions do peopte use humour in yourcountry? Are they the same as in Br i ta in?

Do you have simitar express'ions for tetting jokes?

What do people tet l jokes about?

Do peopte where you l ive te l t jokes about othernationatit ies or regions? Why? Is it fair?

5 l re l t ing Jokesttl 1 - the two brothers and their dad's car?3l Wett, 2 these two brothers.El 0ne'sjust passed his dr iv ing test and the other 's a( J l 2t l b i t vounqer, r ?l r, i l And one weekend. thei r parents decide to go away

to London,5 , the parents go of f to the a i rpor t . . .6 -, they meet some friends and go outto a ctub.

9

garage.He 1o1 l

. ;--r t z

one of thei r f r iends works in a

comes and does the car,thei r parents come back home.

believe it!

What tenses do we use to tet l jokes? What is thedifference between the meaning of just in numbersand t2?

3

45

t 7

Page 22: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I#

I Communicolion Workshops

Reuieu)fl witt itr the genre of the 1 -, thestoryline often 2 a young person insearch of his or her identity and place inthe adult world. One of the best examplesof this is the novel Billy Liar by Keith

Waterhouse. Having been first 3 - in

1959, the book has been recently 4

This raises the question if a text writtenalmost half a century ago still hassomething to 5 - today's reader.

[l rne 6 - of the book, Billy Fisher, is also tt'e 7 - of the story.He's a rebellious youth who lives with his parents in Stradhoughton, a smalltown in Yorkshire, and works in a funeral parlour. However, Billy lives much ofhis life through his imagination: he invents identities and experiences forhimself in order to make up for the monotony of his real life. Billy is engaged totwo girls at the same time and wants to escape. After meeting another girl,calted Liz, he decides to go to London with her and become a scriptwriter.However, having got on the London train, he changes his mind and gets offagain. He slowly walks back home - he is happier in his dreams.

[l fftu book's greatest 8 - are its humour and the personality of itsnarrator. Billy's adventures and mishaps are hilarious. And although he rebelsagainst the England of the late 1950s, the reasons for his rebellion are relevant

today. The book has a strong 9 -message: Billy lies and misleads peoplebut his lies are exposed and in the end, he learns to respect the values of hiscommunity. To a contemporary reader, this might be the book's10 -, as nowadays many readers don't enjoy novels with such strongmoral' lessons'.

I aU in all, Bitly Liar is certainly still 11 I believe Billy Fisher gains

today's readers' sympathy and understanding, and the book's 12

it one of my favourite comic novels.

&,'-@&,9tc?-,r...,.s,,$ry "'u' ..-,.,,,rr,,,, -,,"t'*..' *..;e&'. .*,,&/,{' -...aEYt', *91&zlt*,*t* -

4 Read the sentences (1-2) . Then f ind examples inthe text with these structures.

1 After getting off the train I bought a

2 Having got off the train, newspaper'

Use the structures to l ink these sentences.

1 f in ish my Engt ish homework - watk to the post of f iceto post a letter

2 post the letter - meet a friend in the street and go fora coffee

3 have coffee - go to the cinema together4 watch a reat ly bad f i tm - go to our c lub to p lay table

ten n is5 lose three games - I go back home again

WritingBelore you slarl

1 Read the text and match theheadings (1-8) wi th theparagraphs (A-D). There are twoheadings for each paragraph.

1 summary of the p l "ot2 recommendat ion of the book3 reason why the review iswritten4 presentat ion of the main

character(s)5 answer to the reason why the

review is written6 presentation of the book's

di sa dva nta ges7 basic in format ion about the

boo k8 d iscussion of the book 's

strong points

2 Comptete the text with the words below.

narrator, strengths, comic nove[, worth reading, humour,pub[ished, mora[, re-issued, offer, features, hero, weakness

3 finA words and expressions in the text which meanthe same as the words below.

Paragraph A: looking for, an understanding of who you areParagraph B: makes up, so that i t 's possib[e to,comoensate forParagraph C: untucky events, modernParagraph D: definitely, gets

makes

Page 23: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

/atghtu

A Book ReviewWrite a book review. Follow the stages.

S Writing help 2, page 138

Stoge IDecide what book you are going towrite about. Here are some suggestions.

1 a book or ig inal ty wr j t ten in your[anguage that you woutd L ike torecommend to an Engt ish reader

2 a book tha t young peop [e shou tdrea0

3 a book that has in f luenced your l i fe4 a book that can teach the reader

important in format ion

Think about the book's strong and weakpoints. Is it educational, entertaining,motivating? Is it sometimes slow ordiff i cutt to understand?

Stage 2Use the headings in Exercise 1 onpage 22 to make notes about the book.

Stoge 3Write your review in four paragraphs,tike the text about Billy Liar,

Stoge 4

Check your review for mistakes.

lolkhockIn groups, read each others'reviews.Choose the most interesting one andte[[ the class.

[ islening

Before you stort

1723456

Match the words (1-6) with their meanings (a-f).

s heLLtickmanua lscrewdrivercoinwire

a a book of inst ruct ionsb a bomb or exptos ivec a tool used to put in or take out screwsd metal cable used for electricaI connectionse to make a noise l ike a watch or c tockf a piece of money made of metal

2 Wtri.tt word can atso mean 'the hard covering of a sea animal, - thesort of thing you find on the beach?

An American Conedisn

Listen to a comedy sketch and answer the questions.

f) ltsten and choose the best answer for the questions, a, b or c.

a makes an excuse not to leave the office.b offers to bring the manual down. l=c asks Witlard to bring the bomb to the office l=lWiLl .ard opens the bomb wi tha a screwdriver. b a p[ate. c a coin.

When Wi[ [ard turns the wheel , the bomba ticks more stowly. b stops ticking.c ticks faster.

The l ieutenant can' t speak to the smattboy becausea the bomb exptodes. b the boy runs away.c it 's too noisy.

The l ieutenant is ret ieved in the endbecause the bomba was only a toy.b exptoded wi thout causing damage.c is the coastguard's responsibil. i ty.

when pot ice of f icer wi t tard tetephones to say that he has found a bomo,the l ieutenanta is f r ightened. b misunderstands h im. c ignores h im.

When the l ieutenant tetl"s Witl"ard the bomb is ,[ ive,. WiLtarda hangs up. b panics. c laughs.

When Wi l tard asks the l ieutenant to come down, the l ieutenant

Page 24: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

qjF

Communiculion WorkshopsSpeokingBefore you stort

1 Wort in pairs and tatk about thephotos. What do you knowabout the actors/characters/ films?

O 2 lirt"n to the presentation about comedy filmsand choose the right answer, a, b or c.

Do you agree with the speake/s opinions?

1 The speaker th inks analys ing what makes a f i [m funny is r isky becausea peopte th ink i t is very bor ing. b each comedy is d i f ferent .c i t may no longer be funny.The speaker betieves thata audiences these days don't enjoy slapstick comedy.b stapstick comedy has never been popular.c stapstick comedy is funnier than situationaI comedy.According to the speaker, what makes Iootsfe different from a slapstickcomedy?a the type of humour b a logical p lot c a happy endingWhich feature of comedy fi[m characters is NOT mentioned by the speaker?a having a compt icated love L i fe b showing human weaknessc having unexpected adventures

,ffiffi *rt.afwtnMaking a formal presentation and giving opinions

3 Comptete the sentences below with these expressions from thepresentation in Exercise 2.

the same is true for, based on, the f i rst is, on the one hand,persona[ty, to my mind, depends on, both in. . . and in, thesecond, on the other hand, as in, I wonder

1 TV soaps are - the experiences of typical fumity tife but Idon't f ind them interestinq to watch.

Let's f irst consider this paradox. viewers comptain aboutthe lack of quaLity television programmes; viewing figuresfor 'reatity shows' t ike Big Brother are the highest on TV!Stapstick comedy has a [ot of fans, and - situational comedy;but - funny in a s imple way, and has a moreso phisticated structu re.Do you reaLty th ink that a sense of humour is inborn? I 'm sure i tdevelops in our l i fetime because it -_- the abiLity to laugh atyoursetf.Yevgeny Leonov is, -, a great comic actor. He is funtastic

Gentlemen of Fortune Ta Kill the Dragon.if crit ics betieve Dustin Hoffman's performances these days

are as impressive _ fiLms Like Tootsie.

Snge IRead the Strategies.

Speaking Strategies: Preparation

Before a speaking activity, thinkabout what you are going to say.Write notes but do not write outwhat you are going to say in fut t .Use the Key Words from themodute and the Lexicon to hetoyou .Look at the Function Fite andChatroom sections from the modutefor usefuI expressions.Practise saying usefuI expressionson you r own .

Stage 2Decide on your favourite comedyactor or actress. Think of 3-4 reasonswhy you like him/her.

ExampteRobin Witl. iams. appeared in many different f i[ms, not

onty comedies. usual ty ptays warm, sensi t ive peopte. i s handsome

Stoge 3Prepare your presentation. Decidehow you're going to begin and end it.Use the expressions from theChatroom.

Stage 4Work in pairs. Give your presentationsto each other.

TolkhackWhich presentation did you find mostconvincing? Telt the ctass and giveyour reasons.

Page 25: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I*f nfrf# ,4warf ft###'r=+a;'rl'

I Reaa the story and answerthese quest ions.

1 What k jnd of probLemshad the man been hav ing?

2 How had he beenfeeti ng ?

3 What physicat problemsdid the man have?

4 Why was the

suggestion not .i,ir,*$,,.\ 'Well, I 'veleen havinga bit.of a crisis..You know, lots of problems,' replied

u. iu t1. , . . totr l l / ; r" ' ! i - \ lhe rnan. " l -he nranager hasn' l been paying me. '/ 'il6l::v' ."'- \

'Mmm, you're looking very pale.'The doctor started to examine him. 'Well,

eveq4hing is working OK,' she announced afterwards. 'You have slightlyhigh blood pressure and you are breathing quite heavily, but other-wise

. '@', - R everyrhing'st ine. '#l

Yff #, :il#:'JiliTol'u.t"a the man. 'I'm going on a trip soon. I'm working

, ,\]or.s'*-*-

.rt\ * "

Y,$li '5o what can I doi' asked the man. 'I'm goln{J on a trlp soon. l'm worklngb I in the States for three months. This time next week, I'll be arriving in'/

Ncw York.'

fff - 'fhe doctor thought for a while. 'I think what you need is a good

/ F.***t>, laugh. That would do you a lot of good. A circus is per-forming in

tl:':@)',' town this week. \44-ry._don'tyou go along to it? I_hear there's an.iA ,*-\j:' "F-' - ff,rg"u amazing clown, who'll really make you laugh. His name's' ';;1

r^ u -\ r7 ,W- t Grock..' ' . ' '1,

, , , , , , , : \ ' ' r"-

' l ) ' l arn ( irot 'k, 'repl ied the man sadly." ' \ " r

[on l inuOuS Ond Simple TenseS 5 wtr ic t ' sentence in each pai r be low descr ibes a protonged orrepeated activity and which describes a singte event?

# $rrrmn"r+r $nrzurrru:r"5,i ,r-:mgr .itdff, a The man next to hjm was looking at his watch nervously.b The man next to h im tooked at h is watch nervously.

2 f ina at t the examples of cont inuous tenses a The manager hasn' t been paying me.in the text . Ident i fy the tenses. b The manager hasn' t paid me.

3 Wtt ic t t sentence in each pai r betow 6 Uut . t t the act iv i t ies (a- f ) wi th the correct tense type:descr ibes a f in ished act ion and which cont inuous (C) or s imple (S) .descr ibes an unf in ished act ion?

a temporary act iv i ty d unf in ished act iv i tya The doctor was wr i t ing a note at her desk. b permanent act iv i ty e s ingle eventb The doctor wrote a note at her desk. c f in ished act iv i ty f repeated or pro longed event

a I 've been having a b i t o f a cr is js .b I ,ve had a b i t o f a cr js js . 7 nead the two sentences. Can you change the verbs in botd

into cont inuous forms?

4 Wn icn sen tence i n each pa i r be tow I t h i nk wha t you need i s a good l augh .suggests something permanent and which I hear there 's an amazing ctown in town.suggests somethi ng temporary?

a you are breath ing qui te heaviLy. B wtr ic t r o f the verbs below cannot be used in cont inuous

b you breathe qui te heaviLy enses and which can' but wi th a d i f ferent meaning?

a Evervthing is workins 0K. [T.:",::*]1?"f

'"., see. understand, thinr<, berons, resembre,

b Everyth ing works 0K.

;L-,"' More practice, Language Powerbook, page 26.

docto r's

-fhis story is about a middle-aged man who was feeling very down. trverything

had been going wrong for him. He had had problems at work and his wife had lefthim to go off with a lion tamer. He had been feeling depressed for over a month,so he decided to go to the doctor.

He had to wait for what seemed ages in the doctor's surgery. The man next tohim was looking at his walch nervously, a woman was coughing badly and a babywas screaming. Finally, after he had been waiting for about half an hour, he wascalled in.

The doctor was writing a note at her desk when he came in. Just a moment,I'm just finishing something. I'm afraid we've been very busy this morning.'

She then turned to the man. 'So what's the problern?'

Page 26: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ReviewGrommor

1 Comptete the prof i te of RowanAtk inson wi th the verbs in brackets in thecorrect past tense.

*arv@

2 Choose the correct form of the verbs: s imple orcont i n u ous.

7 I have read/have been reading a Lot recentty. I haveread/been reading ten books jn the [ast week.

2 A lorry went past/was going past and spLashed mewhen I s tood/was standing on the s jde of the road.

3 I have/am having a lo t of prob[ems wi th my computerbecause o f a p rog ramme I i ns ta t l ed recen t l y . I t h j nk j thas/ is having some k jnd of computer v i rus.

4 His cLothes got /were get t ing very d i r ty because he hadworked/had been working in the garden.

5 The birds sang/were singing and the sun shone/wasshining. It was a LoveLy day.

6 I had worked/had been working for a few mjnutes whenI Looked/was looking out of the window and saw thetwo men. They broke/were breaking into my carl

7 I stay/an staying with my brother because my ftat

6 -r.

KOWan t u.redto be (be) shi, rrith arubbery face, just like the one he has now' says his formerheadmaster. 'The

other boy-t 2 - (make) him pullfunny faces. I'm sure tirey 3 -_.---*.- (be) lmitations of meand my colleagues,' adds headmaster Grove.

Rowan was born in 1955, the youngest of three sons. By the timehe was thirteen, h" 4 - (win) a scholarship to apr iva teschoo1.Af te rhe5- (s tudy) there forawhi ie ,

he got involved in acting. By tire time he was seventeen, heu- (a i readyac t ) inap1ayat theEd inburghFest iva i .

His teachers (predict) a furure in acting, butdespite this, Rowan still 8 - (not plan) a career inentertainment.

He eventually 9 -- (go) to oxford ro do a sciencedegree. H" 10 **- (previously study) electronicengineering at Newcastle University and 11

(believe) that that was where his future lay. But while he72 - (study) at oxford, he met a group of friendswho are his partners to this day.

i

.3=;

A happy accident finally unlocked Rowan's talents while he13 - (practise) a scripr in 1976.He74(p1ay) around pulling faces for ren minures in front of a mirrorwhen he realised what he 15 _ (do).'I discovered myface,' he said later. John Lloyd, a BBC producer, says,

'Ir was one of

those things which happen very rarely in your life, when yourea l i se you are in the presence o fgen iur . I 16

(convince) he wouid be more famous than Chaplin

3 Rewrite the sentences using the wor..; in brackets.

Example 1. After leaving the ffice, I bought a newspaper.

1 I te f t the of f ice, and then bought a newspaper. (af ter)

2 Jan star ted wr i t ing a d iary jn 2000, and she st j t l wr j tesi t . (s ince)

3 We en joyed ou r hoL iday aL though i t r a j ned a t l t he t ime .(despi te)

4 My best f r jend Jan and I a[ways went to the c jnematogether to ce[ebrate our b i r thdays. (woutd)

5 We had a cup of cof fee and went to the theatre. (having)

6 He was runn ing so he was ou t o f b rea th . ( because )

F{

q\,.+re ', .\

il]8w tr\*.at'

ji t

-"W 1

is painted/is being painted.

Page 27: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

1 '

g

Vocohulury \

4 Comptete the story with a suitabte word ineach gap.

Exampte 1, nasty / terrible

I had a 1 - shock the other day. I wasr id ing my 2 - new motorb ike and I wasin a very 3 - mood. The n ight beforethere had been 4 ra in, so the roadswere s l ippery and I was rather 5

n r r c t i c p T t n o k e 6

down a very steep road.

6 Comptete the sentences with mutti-part verbs using theverbs in brackets in the correct form.

1 I don' t (get) one of the peopte in myctass. She's atways being sarcast ic and - (get) me.

2 I am reatly --_ ([ook) the end of term party.It 's going to be great and I just love ------ (dress) inmy best clothes.

3 She ( take) her mother . Not only do they bothlook very s imi lar but they both - - - - (So) the samekind of ctothes.

4 He _ (make) that he d idn ' t understand whatthey were saying to h im, but I know he speaks French we[ [ .

5 A bomb (go) in the shopping centre but l "uck iLyno one was hur t .

6 I don' t know how you can (put) i t . I coutdn ' ts tand l iv ing on such a busy road.

Pronunriot ion7 Say the words betow to yourself. Then classify themaccording to the word stress, as shown in the table.

1st syttable 2nd syttabte

scient ist pedestr ian

3rdsyttabte penutt imatefrom the end syttabte

responsibi t i tv sent ' imental

.,1 Very neany '

turn and went

into a parked car anda tree. Luckjty, I was 9

but my b ike was badty 10

Unfortunatety, I [eft my bike in the middl,e of theroad. A van came down the road. t r ied to avoidthe b jke and near ly went 11

controt. The van driver, who was fortyish or7 2 . - ^ ^ , r 1 3. was very angry. I 1

terr ib [e. In the end. the dr iver 14

sorry for me and took me and my b ike back home.

5 N.k" adjectives from these words.

Exampte affectionate

affection, sympathy, sense, setf, fun, nerve,reserve. convent jon. pract ice, decis ion. sent iment ,chiLd, ambi t ion

Now use the words to write sentences aboutsomebody you know.

ExampleMy cousin is very affectionate - she's got a worm

i nstitutio n, tem peratu re, i ma gi native, i nformatio n. co nservative,practica[, scientif ic, abiLity. spectator, nationatistic.co m mu nicative, em barrassment, detiberate, a rtic[e, enthusiastic,comfor tabte, democracy, i n terest i ng, organisat ion, nat io na[ ,affectionate. business, restaurant. nationa[ity. democratic,e [ectricity

In which four words are some letters'silent'?

Example vegetableof

Q titt"n and check your answers.

Tronslul ion

7 Transtate the fottowing sentences into English.

1 C orslmquBblMl4 r.{ rryrrfl4Ml4 .ilrl,ttbMl4 BCeI'ra .itet'Ko.,lalll41'l).

2 fl o6sr,ruo cl:rx) I(aK )'6r4rbll{ roc.lre roro. I(aKc,itillt )K:la,\lell.

3 3,ropcno, Ko'na po.u4TeJl..{ no}ltl\4ax)T TBot4rrpo5. revnr n coqyBc'l'IJynr re6e.

4 Mr,r e. re ,{},nuilru.r, rro'roMy trro ilpo6exa. u4 uorhtt{Kr4. rOMcrp.

S Nion M.lnI[Il4r.1 6lraT correv o'l' pyK or6l4ilufl: ollcra-r laKol4 rcanplr.rHltu 14 ul)erHuqaer 6e; IJCIKoRI Il)t{rt14ilt,l.

personality.

Page 28: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

r.r':Sffiffii

.,=:;

'{rl{@,

wThe Histpry o{.English

Iabcdetg

' i ' r ' s & i " _ r l ' : '

Laxton t ,in t roduces ' i {

the printipress

Try to put these events in orden

Caxton introduces the printing press.Norman invasion of Engtand.SamueI Joh nson's d ic t ionary.Germanic invasions of Roman Br i ta in.Vik ing ra ids and Danish invasions.Engt ish is used at cour t again.St Augustine i ntroduces Ch ristia nity.

\ J Z Listen to the lecture and check your answers.Write down the dates.

Example Germanic invasions - around 449 AD

\ / 5 Listen again and choose the best answer.

1 Why are there so few Cettic words in Eng[ish?a the Saxon invasion took a long t imeb the Cet ts and Saxons d id not mixc the two [anguages were too s imi lar

2 What impact d id Chr is t ian i ty have on Engt ish?a i t changed the g rammarb i t in t roduced new wordsc i t in f luenced pronunciat ion

3 Why is it diff icul,t to understand otd Anglo-Saxon?a most of the words were differentb the spelting was differentc t he g rammar was unusua I

4 How did the Danish invasions in f luence Enq[ ishgrammar?a Danish grammar was d i f ferent f rom Angto-Saxonb the two [anguages were s imj lar so they mixed and

simolif iedc new Danish endings appeared on some words

5 What happened af ter the Norman Conquest?a Engt ish d isappeared for a long t imeb French became the most important [anguagec Engl ish was the [anguage of cu l ture

SamuelJohnson

ngtish become the officia[ languageagain in the 15th century?a because of great writers [ike Chaucerb because of the pr int ing pressc because i t was used by the rut ing c lasses

What changed in the 16th and 17th centur ies?a Engl ish pronunciat ionb EngLish grammarc Eng[ ish vocabu[ary

In which way is English different from otherEuropean [anguages?a it was standardised a lot laterb it has a lot of scientif ic wordsc i t does not have an of f ic ia l academy

9 What has been the most important in f luence onEngl.ish in the [ast few years?a the otd empire (e.9. India/Austrat ia)b the United Statesc Europe (e.9. France)

h / rl Listen to eight people tatking. Try to identifytheir accents. Use the clues in the text to helpyou.

Accents: Standard EngLish, Scot t ish, Wetsh, I r ish,London (cockney) , Manchester , B i rmingham,West Country (SW Engtand)

5 Wort in pairs. Answer these questions.

1 How has your [anguage changed in the lastfew years?

2 What differences are there between thedialects of different cit jes and regions?

3 How do you th ink your [anguage wi t [ change inthe future?

Discuss your answers with the class.

Page 29: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

KEY W0RDS: &pininn Adj*ctivescheap, chic, ctassy, contemporary, dated, deticate,elegant, exquisite, fashionab[e, otd-fushioned,smart, sophisticated, stylish, tacky, tastetess.trendy, unfushionabte, up-to-date

Page 30: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Before you starl

1 Read the Key Words.sort of street art do youTetl the class.

KEY WORDS

Which'.lprefer?'

ia

Until relatively recently, graffitiwas considered to be an example of anti-social behaviour, the work of vandals. Nowadays, many of those'vandals'are treated as respected artists, and some of them have madeit in the world of business. Sue Clarke reports.

New Yorkers used to see the graffiti on the walls of poor neighbourhoods andsubway trains as something menacing and an example of urban decay. Thescrawled names and slogans were seen as unsightly and aggressive, the work ofvandals seeking to express their identit ies or even make a polit ical point. Up tothe 197Os, most New Yorkers hated graffiti, considering it as an eyesore that wasil legal and punishable by fines.

Since those days, graffit i has changed a lot and it is no longer found only inthe subway and the poor ghetto areas of the city. Nowadays, it has the status of'street art' and you get graffiti in places where you wouldn't expect to - inadvertisements, on clothes, on toys, and even on the Wall Street Journal's officialwebsite! In the early 1980s, there was a real craze for graffiti art and thesophisticated Manhattan art world had displays of street art in its galleries. Thetrend was shori-l ived - unti l the arrival of hip-hop music in the late 80s.

ln her book, Subway Art, Martha Cooper says "Craffiti came back with hip-hop music and people are now appreciating it for its style, which they couldn'tback then, because they couldn't get beyond the vandalism thing." Hip-hop wasoriginally black ghetto music, sung by young African Americans from the poor,run-down districts of American cit ies. When it suddenly got to the top of theAmerican music charts, hip-hop culture was spread, bringing graffit i with it.

Today, companies are starting to realise the appeal of graffiti in advertising.Kel Rodriguez, who used to spray New York subway trains, was the artist chosento design the Wall Street Journal's website and it is obviously done in graffit i-style. "Some of that graffiti feeling, that energy, sort of got in there," Rodriguezexpla ined.

Many of this new wave of artists give lectures on developments in their ad.Lee Quinones is having a lot of success in Europe and feels that Europeangalleries and museums are more open to his art form. "They want to support anartist as he develops," comments Quinones, who can get up to $10,O00 for hispaintings. Indeed, the Croninger Museum in Holland is one of the few museumsin the world that displays and recognises graffiti as an art form.

Another artist, Blade, has his own website devoted only to the world ofgraffit i . This website has a 'merchandise page' where Blade sells things withhis own original designs all over the world - everything from baseball caps toyoyos! Leonard McCurr, a street artist for 25 years, went from painting subwaytrains to designing and marketing graffit i- inspired clothes for young people." Grafliti has been a story of survival, " he says. "There's a way to benefit fromyour work without spoil ing public property."

&fuz/"4r!

. l l.{ ",i. 9 '

; t t . ,

'rliliti' 3

d

4:4

.{E

{},: ' "q ; 4

:ilrV

O 2 Listen to the music.

advertising bittboards, buskers,ctowns, drama groups, f ireworks,graf f i t i , ' l ive statues ' , music ians,open-air concerts, pavementartjsts, scutptures, statues

What style is it?

. rock and roll" . jazz

. hip-hop/rap . folk

Which of these things do youassociate with the music?

. young or middte-agedpeopte?

. Europe or the USA?

. btack or white culture?

. ruraI or urban cutture?

Reoding

3 neaU the articte and checkyour answers to Exercise 2.

Page 31: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

5 finU qfnonyms in the text for these words andexpressions. Paragraph numbers are in brackets.

6 from a depressed area (3)7 receptive (5)8 acknowledges (5)9 products (6)

10 advertising and setting (6)

a pu t onb f ind

succeedentersee further thandemonstratereceivereach

--{' t-:e.

jtl ' tr[i,,

";::i.1- ,

.4

,jtFo'',1.:"

€.:,4

"#

,'iffi+{i,.r.!r.1.,

@"i'kii*d^,kk*"'"

1 threatening (1)2 usty (1)3 fad (2)4 cl.assy (2)5 damage to property (3)

. , ' : . ' " i

3-#

4 ReaO the Strategies.

Reading Strategies:

Matching headings and paragraphs

. Read each paragraph carefu[[y. Undertine3-5 of the most jmportant words.

. Be careful - the first sentence in aparagraph of ten in t roduces the main idea- but not atwaysl

. Read the headings and match them wi ththe paragraphs. They often contain aword or a synonym of a word from theparagraph.

. Check that the extra heading does notmatch any of the paragraphs.

Use the Strategies to match the headings (a-g)with paragraphs 1-6. There is one extraheading.

a Spoiled Citiesb Transatlantic Successc Wa[[ Street Art!d Ghetto Culture

e Tasteless Comicsf Graffiti Productsg Big Change

6 Answer these questions about the text. Use words fromExercise 5.

1 Why did New Yorkers consider graffit i the work of vandats?2 Why did graffit i artists suddenty become respectabte in

New York?3 What influence did music have on the popu[arity of graffit i

artists?4 In what way does Europe take graffit i art more seriously

than the USA?5 How do some graffit i artists make money?

Vocabulotyi moke, gef, hove

@, Lexicon, page 162.

7 finU these expressions (1-8) in the text. Then match theundertined parts of the expressions with their meanings (a-h).

7 make i t in business ( t ine 3)2 make a point (8)3 qq! graffiti (13) c4 have a d ispLay (16) d5 get bevond something (20) e6 qet to the top (22) f7 qet in somewhere (27) gI gq up to $10,000 (32) h

8 U"t.t the verbs make, get and have with the wordsbelow. Add your own examples.

a dream, an effect, fed up, an inftuence, in touch, a [ook, [ost,a mess/ a mistake, money, a phone ca[t, promotion

9 Use the words in Exercise 8 to write as many sentences asyou can in five minutes.

Example I made a lot of mistakes in my Last English essay.

Work in groups. Take turns to read out your sentences.

honpurry hn(tnresWhat 's t reet ar t 'do you see or hear in your townor area? Give examptes.

.,1,;*" l

i"ti*

fr. . , ! l

:--.

Page 32: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I 0 Body LunguogeBefore you stort

I Wtrat can peopte have done to theirbody? Match the Key Words with theseparts of the body.

arm, ears. eyebrows, hair , naj ts, nave[,nose, tongue

KEY WORDSdy.d. p*r*d. shaved, tat tooed, varn jshed

Woutd you consider having any of theseth ings done? Tet t the ctass.

ExampleI night have my hair dyed one day. But IwouLd never have my eyebrows pierced.

2 ReaU the text and answer thesequest ions.

1 Why do some body p iercers g ivethe profession a 'bad name'?

2 How can body p ierc ing 'go wrong'?3 Is body p ierc ing expensive?

Presentql ion: Relof ive ondn , . ' I a l

r0r i lc rp te Lt0uSes

3 ReaO these sentences from the text.

a Mick Shannon, who is a quolif iedbody piercer, took me to his sa[on.

b I 've a lso known peopte who havegot diseases.

What word(s) in the sentences above dothe ctauses (in ifa{ics) refer to?

Which clause in italics, a or b, gives:

. in format ion that we need toident i fy the person/object we' retatk ing about? (def in ing c lause)

. ext ra in format ion which is notnecessary to identify theperson/object we' re tatk ing aboutand can be le f t out?(non-def in ing c lause)

Which type of c lause uses commas?

Page 33: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

4 ReaO these sentences and comptete thetabte with the retative pronouns: who,whose, which, that and where.

1 You can see peopte that have got r ings.2 Mick pointed out his certif icate, which was

on the wat [ .3 I 've a lso known people who have got

diseases.4 I onty p ierce young people whose parent or

guardian is wj th them.5 He marked the area where he had

dis infected the sk in.6 lt ' l . t be a [ittte secret that I won't share

with anyone.

Rrurrvr PRoNouNs

people

th i ng sp [acespossessive

5 Read the sentences (1-2) . Whichparticipte clause in italics tetLs us:

a what the person/thing gndq(inggl is doing?b what is done to the person /thing

q!_d_ef,trne!?

1 I was Looking at the yuqll.S covered withphotos of cLients.

2 You can see rinqs hanging from ears.

What verb form is used for a and b?

6 ReaU sentences 1 and 2 from the text.What is the funct ion of the c lauses initalics, a, b or c?

a help to ident i fy a person or th ingb give extra jnformation about a person or

th i ngc comment on the s i tuat ion descr ibed in the

first part of the sentence, before the comma

1 They don't clean their equipment, whichshows they don't knaw what they're doing.

2 He f in ished by g iv ing the g i r l . advice on howto help the skin get better, which was q niceprofessional touch.

T.tr Grammar Summary j, page 146"

tftk

Pructire7 Undertine the relative clauses in these sentences and decide ifthey are defining (D) or non-defining (N-D). Add commas wherenecessary.

Example1. Barbara, who is a hairdresser, has her own beauty saLon. (N-D)

1 Barbara who is a hai rdresser has her own beauty salon.2 Body p ierc ing which has become very poputar is not a very

expensive fashion.3 Most people l ike wear ing th ings that make them look sUm.4 People who have a degree in architecture have numerous career

opportu nit ies.5 We stayed in a hoteI whose windows overlooked the sea.6 St Petersburg which is sometimes calted the 'Paris of the north'

has been extensivety renovated.7 I need a suntan lo t ion that wi t [ protect me f rom the t ropicaI sun.

8 loin the sentences using a suitable relative pronoun to formdefining and non-defining clauses.

ExampleL He put the ring, which was made of gold, through her nose.

1 He put the r ing through her nose. I t was made of gol .d.2 I know somebody. Her futher has got a tat too on h is back.3 I read a [eaf[et. It said body piercing was dangerous.4 I went to a salon. They d id body p ierc ing there.5 My sister dyed her hair pink. I f ind it an attractive colour.6 I saw a g i r [ . She had each par t of her face p ierced.7 They opened a beauty salon in St George's Square. There used

to be a per fume shop there.

9 fxpand the sentences by adding participte ctauses after thenouns in italics.

Example 1. The csr tp_egdi7-S-d9WJ!9 !9!n ron over o bike Leftin the middle of the rqgS!.

7 The car ran over o bike.2 The portrait shows my grandmother.3 The committee accepted the solution.4 The singer has already recorded six CDs.5 The shark had attacked two surfers.

1 0 nOO a comment to each of these statements. Then tett thectass.

Example Some men would prefer to wear skirts, which isu n dersto n da ble especi a lly i n su m mer.

1 A tot of young people have tat toos on thei r bodies, which . . .2 Young peop[e [ ike wear ing expensive designer c tothes. which . . .3 Some people spend a lo t of money on cosmet ics, which . . .4 The computer is becoming an essent ia l par t of every househotd,

wh i ch . . .5 Some schoots ins is t on thei r s tudents wear ing uni forms, which . . .6 There is more and more v io lence on TV. which . . .

Page 34: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

l l

Before you stort

Work in pairs and answer the questions.

What is the connect ion between photos A and B and thet i t le of th is lesson?How many designer labels or brands (e.9. Nike) can youth ink of?Why do some peopte th ink designer [abels areimportant? Are they important for you?

2 Work in pairs. Take turns to describe the man inphoto A.

[ istening

Q 3 litt"n to a conversation. Find differences betweenthe photo and the g i r t 's descr ipt ion of the man.

O 4 Urt"n to the description again. Complete theFunction Fite with these words.

ancient, attractive, dark, different, good (x2), nice,quick, scatty, seriousty, shy, tatt, thin, usetess, younger

Preferences : Descr ib ing Peop le

Wett, he's very 1 - .He's a bit too 2 - maybe! And he'sa bit on the 3 side.But he's got a rather 4And he's quite 5

George Ctooney? He's absolutely 6 -t0f course, Ben's much 7 - .He comes across as stightly 8 - andserious at first.He takes his studies fairty 9He's completety 1oHe's got a reatly 11 - sense of humour.He's got pretty 72 ---�taste in clothes, too.No, he's just extremety 13 - and witty.He's totatty 74 -when it comes toremembering times and dates.And he's a b i t 15 and tends to loseth inqs a[ [ the t ime!

Pronunrial ion

5 St.ess and intonation can change the meaning of asentence.

ExampteAlice is quite nice = she is nice but not very niceAlice is quite nice = she is very nice

Q Now listen to the description of a girt. ,Undertine thewords in italics that are stressed.

Alice is (1) quite nice. She's (2) rather fall and she's got(3) fairly long hair. She's got a (4) rather nice smile and she's(5) quite ftiendiy. She's (6) pretty good at telling jokes andshe's (7) quite witty. She's (8)/afrly bright and the school shegoes to is (9) quite good. But she's (10) pretty scatty andabsent-mindedl

In the description, which modifiers (quite, rather, fairly,pretty) could you replace with very?

6 toot at the modifying expressions in botd in theFunction Fite. Which of them make a comment:

Bronded

I7

trl

l!

zo

z

lr

. : . ' t

1 stronger? 2 weaker? 3

Page 35: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

a znq* J -

E:

7 Imagine you have just met someone. Write notes abouthim/her. Use the expressions from the Function Fite. Thinkabout these things:

?ft{(e

Lisf ening

1 2 neaA the Strategies.

Listening Strategies:

Answering true/false questions

. Read the statements. Use your knowtedgeof the wor ld to quess i f thev are t rue orfa [s e.

. Look for important words in thestatements, e.g. 1 = protest ,multinationals. Try to thjnk of theirsynonyms, e.g. protest - compLaint,muLtinationaL - big gLobaL company.

. L is ten the f i rs t t ime to qet the o€n€rdLidea .

. L is ten the second t jme for the importantwords in the statements or svnonvms forthem.

. Decide which statements are t rue andwhich are fatse.

. Af ter L is tening. make guesses about thestatements you are st j | " [ not sure about .

O 13 Now l is ten to the radio programmeabout a book by Naomi Kle in. Use theStrategies to decide if these statements aret rue (T) or fa lse (F) . You wi l t hear therecording twice.

f I tne book is a sor t of protest againstm u lt i natio na [s.

2 E 'Logos ' are words jn a new jnternat ional"

[ang uage.3 E Most peopLe jn the wortd can recognise

the most famous logos.4 ! r - There wi t [ never be adver t isements in

s pa ce.S ! f ne workers, who work in brand name

factor ies. have good work ing condi t jons.6 - A company once paid one spor ts s tar

more than a[ [ i ts workers ' satar ies put

together.Z E t t re number of protests against the

pot ic ies of g | -obaI companies is faLt ing.g L fhe author th inks we shou[d worry

about who we ore and not about whatwe have got .

Do you agree with Naomi Ktein's ideas?Why/Why not?

appearance . personal i ty . in terests . abi l i t ies

Lexican, pages 151 and X52.

8 Wort in pairs. Have a conversation about the people youhave met.

ExampleA So what is she Like?B WelL, she's very outgoing and ...

Vocobulory: Mult i-port Verbs

Er Lexicon, pages lvo*176.

9 mrtctr the sentences (r-S) with the repl ies (a-h).

TelL us about th is new guy you' re going out wi th.He's getting on a bit.I 've gone of f h im.We get on reatly wett.He comes across as st ightLy shy.I don' t go for guys wi th earr ings.He goes in for te t l ing lo ts of jokes.He takes af ter h is mum.

Yes, he must be in his fift ies.We t [ . you have a l o t i n common .I do. I think they're reatty attractive.He's quite shy, reaL[y.Yes, they're both a bit scatty!Me too. I don' t l " ike h im anymore.But apparent ly he 's reat ty funny when you get to know him.Yes, and he's atways pul"ting my leg!

10 write sentences about yoursetf and peopte you know.Use the multi-part verbs in Exercise 9.

Examp[eI'd like to go out with Jennifer Lopez!

11 Wort< in pairs. Say your sentences and repLy to them.

ExampleA I really go for guys with short hair.

, but not guys with shaved heads.

Page 36: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ffiry" #

hct ,t's or'abab/v t for lne persok. But tt suitsI ' I / I I

Pa m e /a's p e rs o n a/tty a n / /tfes ty /e.

B

fhe horse s on the edge of o vtllay' lt is Tutte o/c{ a'd has 11ot

three spaclous be'{roo''ns' a/l wtth4 - r'ews t'f the

counttyst/e. lt's a real/y relaxtnq place to be' There t's also an

ek0r,710Lts k|tcher, whrch ;s 5 _ for a bg old'

fashnner/ sto,te. The livtnll room is ako hu-1e' wtth wooden

'

1on* onrl on optt' f"pLu' Pamela ts outqotnl d'd soctable -

fortunatelf it |s 6

- house that she has lots of room

for tntertatninl'

H Reaa the text again and match the paragraphs(A-D) wi th these headings.

. f ocus on one impor tan t roomo i n i r n d r r r t i n n t n t h o r- - - , . - r l e r s o n a n o p L a c e. n e n e r a l d e s c r i n t i o n o f t h e h o u s e. c o m m e n f o n L h e D e r s o n

C

Fa,uela writes fi,r ksh,r,n maadztnes 7 ,oour.I I - / - - / '

an/ *or/rs m anothrr fatr-stzed room u,htch she cal/s her'oJffce'.

/t /tns lot a rery re/axcd atmosp/tere, tht,^y/t t'.s not

B t/re otlter n,t,,us. Sl.te warks at a masstv,e lesk

near the wrrr{ou, f she /tas hk of /ght, anl ttls

"s"a/f c/"ttered wtt/t a// sorts of th,rgs /t/<e papers a"d o[/

coffee cups, wth ltoo/<s eterT*here as s/re /otes rea/tn.q. t/er

r r / O4e5K t5 //r,t/ she .,JQrn co','/ lno{ /tcr r.,mpulcr

mouse/ /t'.s a coy r00n4, ard Ptt*e/a often /tstens f,, wnsrc

here, sihn.q ,,, hcr /anorrrte cotaft'rfab/r, corch.

D

/ thtnk all the feelures of Pd'ue lai huuse refect her

Versaral,t1 dnd tlnterests, d'd thtls l's what makes it an

idea/ pkce forco^ebod1 ll<e her to worl< an'/ relax'

ffiffiffi. i , i{*"-Y:

t--j {ffi

@I

ffitr-,

12 (ommunicqlion Workshops

I . . ' ' i . . : : ' ' ' i ' l ' t : ; i f l i ' . ]

Read the text and complete the gaps (1-10) wi ththe fot towing:

such Lovety, such as, too b ig, so that . a lo t b igger ,s o u n t i d y . a s b i g a s , b i g g e s l , s u c h a b i g , b i g e n o u g h

AMy cuustn Pawela ts alaurnaLst. Ore of her /

tnterest-s rc qardentnj, u,/ttc/t ts one reason why she *oved

house.S/te hasiust mored mto a /arle /torse m the ct,untrT wth

i / , , ' 2tr nulc

.lardch. lr s t/tan her prevtous hottse. /n

Page 37: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

3 f inU s ix synonyms of the word 'b ig ' in the text .

4 Comptete the second sentence so that i t has a s imi tarmeaning to the f i rs t sentence, us ing the word g iven.

Exam pleShe is so hard-work ing that she even works at weekends.suchShe is sqch q laftlwq$ing pery9n thqt she even works qt

weeKen0s.

1 I t 's such a b ig house that she has lo ts of room for par t ies.soThe house is _ that she has lo ts of room forpa rties.

2 Her desk is so unt idy that she of ten can' t f ind her computermouse :suchI t 's _ desk that she of ten can' t f ind her computerm0u5e .

3 The walLpaper is so tastetess that she wants to change i t .su chI t js ______ wat tpaper that she wants to change i t .

4 She [ is tens to Romant ic com0osers [ ike Chooin.suchShe L is tens to Romant ic composers Chopin.

5 She works near the window to get a tot of l ight .so thatShe works near the window a lo t of l iqht .

A Description of o Place

Write a description of a place that would match yourpersonatity and interests. Follow the stages.

E= Writing tlelp 3 (useful vocabulnry), puge 1i9.

Stage IThink of your personatity and interests. Write downadjectives that describe your character and examples of yourbehaviour that show i t . In the next co lumn, add a feature ofthe p lace that would sui t you.

Exa m ple

Pgnsonnuw AND INTERESTS

. 0utgoing - [ ike par t ies and enter ta in ing

. Musica[ - p lay the gui tar and v io l in and enjoy [ is tening tomusic

. Keen on heal thy t iv ing - [ ike to grow vegetables andfru'it

Frrrunrs oF THE PLAcE

. A big sitt ing room

. Big storage room for inst ruments and CDs

. A huge garden

like a

2 wticn of the fottowing words andexpressions woutd you use to describe theman in the song?

convent jonat, fashionabte. hard-working,pteasure-seeki ng, reserved, vai n

3 Crn you imagine where this person coutdtive? What woutd his place be [ike?

1

2

3

4

5

6

His c lothes arebut neverEager ly pursuing at [ the la test

and t rends.He thinks he is a _**- tobe looked at.There 's one th ing that he lovesand that is --- .His wor ld is bui t t rounda n o _ .He f t i ts f rom shop to shop just

|tqk

Stage 2

Write notes for four paragraphs.

Stoge 3Use your notes to write your composition.Try to include:

. words from the Funct ion Fi le in Lesson 11.e n n hi f nt r i fp rnfher

. examples of retat ive ctauses (see Lesson L0) ,e.g. She work in a room which she caLIs heroffice.

. structures using so or such (see Exercise 1)

Stage 4Check your work.

TqlkbockWork in groups. Read the descriptions. Apartfrom the place you described, which ptacewoutd you tike to tive in? Why?

Listening: A SongDediceLed Follc,wer of Fashion

f) 1 listen to a song about aman in London in the 1960sand comptete these [ines.

Page 38: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

IEli

I

I1

'

Hrb--: %.r*, , i

t.-. ' '-It:r+:_:

| '". ' ' i -i ',- ---;:- .--:a-"- :

lii::.:ji.'j-:nff"

o

Comm

il$.""ffi,"*;;?3,1;

SpeokBefore

lristen*" -4'ffffiiiffi

room in Photo A in the WritingWorkhop. What sort of person do theythink lives there? Does it match thedescription of Pamela?

lffiffi thatrwwCotloquial Expressions

2 f;na words in Paragraph C of the text inthe Writing Workshop to match thesecottoquiaI words from the conversation.

Examptereloxed = laid-back

1 must be a big reader2 books a[ [ over the ptace3 reatly taid-back4 a bit too messy for me5 loads of t ight6 that couch looks really comfy

Dkcussing o Topic

Discuss the changing attitudes to homesuggested by the prompts. Fottow thestages.

Stage ILook at Photos A (page 36) and B (above)and quickly write down nouns andadjectives you coutd use to describe thesetwo rooms. What makes them different?

s"i ! h

s - f i

"i"1"

Stage 2Read the prompts (headtines and intervibwrelate to rooms A and B? What do the interviewabout people's attitudes to their homes? What are your

"What does my home mean to me? Wet[, it 's a refuge from cotlege.I Like to keep it clean and clutter free.""My own home is my f i rs t s tep towards independence."

"I 've worked from home for a year. It kind of changes your viewof home but you get used to i t . "

Modern design leaves many cold "l Christmas calls forcosv and traditional

Feng Shui brings calrn to city living

Stage 3Read the Strategies.

Speaking Strategies: Gaining Time

When you' re speaking, you need t ime to th ink:. Try not to leave [ong pauses without saying anything.. Use hesitation words, e.g. right, weLL, you know.. Use'vague' language, e.g. kind of, sort of.. Use fixed expressions, e.g. Iet me think for a second,

I know what you meon, that's very true.

Work in pairs and discuss your ideas from Stage 2. Use theStrategies above.

TolkhsckTett the class about what you decided. Did the others have similarideas.

Page 39: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

tf\i' \/'

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'J"i.:sio-, -$

s'L'"*

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K E Y W O R D S : , : , , . , : : : , : i : : . : , : : '

attractive, beautifu[, breathtaking, bri lt iant.ef for t less. etegant , g[amorous. good-tooking,gorgeous. gracefut , handsome, impressive,love[y. magnificent, a reaI masterpiece.perfect, picturesque, powerfut, pretty, scenic.s t r ik ing, s tunning, a th ing of great beauty

Page 40: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

tlI

r3Poetr

Before you slsrt

I took at the pictures of different wa[[s.Use the Key Words to describe them anddiscuss their different uses. Decide whichof the walts is most/least usefu[.

KEY WORDSadjacent to, admirab[e, d i l "apidated,

huge, ins igni f icant . magnj f icent , sot id , sot i tary,t iny, typ icaL, unique, unremarkab[e

to decorate, to defend, to give shetter,to give shade, to mark territory, to protect privacy,to surround

Reoding2 nead the poem. What are the uses of the wat lmen t i oned i n t he poem?

3 Reaa the Strategies

Reading Strategies: Reading poetry

. Read a poem f i rs t to get the generalfee[ ing. Don' t worry i f you on[y understanda tittte.

. Read the poem again more s l "owty. Thinkabout the subject and the feet ings evokedby the descr ipt ion.

. Ident i fy par ts of the poem you st i [ [ don' tunderstand. Read them again us ing adict ionary to hetp you. Remember wordorder and sentence pat terns are of tendifferent in poems. e.g. in a field in theCounty of Glamorgan. It Iies..-

. Th ink abou t t he images i n t he poem e .g .butterflies in their obstacle race to thewinning posf = butterfl. ies fLying here andthere, as i f they are t ry ing to win a race.

4 Use the Strategies. Decide i f thesestatements about the poem are t rue (T) orfatse (F) .

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

The waLi is a poputar tour is t dest inat ion.

I t js on the top of the h j t t .

I t js less than two metres h igh.

I t is par t of a [arger s t ructure.

I t is bui t t o f d ' i f ferent k inds of s tone.

I t doesn' t o f fer any shade.

I t is covered wi th f lowers.

I t i s used by an ima ts .

in a f ie ld iYou won'tI t l ies, p loforty-fouri t beginsNo otherSeeminglystones of d

leS ,

Don't say this wall is useless, that the grass

on the shadow s ide is much l ike the other .It exists for golden lichens to settle,for butterfl ies in their obstacle racechasing each other to the winning post ,for huddl ing sheep in a s lant ing ra infa l l ,for you to say, This wall is beautiful.

sv DaNNIT Assr

ffiilE

Page 41: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

S;* '''c -s* .- ; ] . - ' { l " - -ri.. i -

i:--tkat these ways of describing the same thing.

M g n r n o R , , i :

butterfties chase each other in their obstacle race.The tatt grass sings with sadness-

SIttI lr

The butterftjes move as if they are in an obstacle race.The tatL grass makes a sound

-like sad singing.

Match the sentence beginnings (1-6) wi th theendings (a-f) to comptete the images. Are the imagesmetaphors (M) or s imi tes (S)?

ExampleThe child turned and flew into her mother's arms. (ltl)

1 The chi td turned and f tew2 The sea was3 The oLd man's hand shook4 Steep buiLds5 The dog i s6 His voice sounded

a tjke a dry leaf on a bent tree.b a l ion in h ' is own house.c a bridge of dreams across the river of night.d in to her mother 's armse as i f he was i n pa in .f t ike a smooth btue jewe[ in the sun.

6 Matct t the s i tuat ions (1-5) wi th the images (a-e) .Do you th ink they are good images?

1 a firework dispLay2 an astronaut on a space watk3 a young man on a motorb ike4 an otd man watk ing5 a crowd enter ing a stadium

a a buzzing beeb a multi-co[oured spider's webc a dot l on a st r ingd ants marching in to thei r neste a tortoise

7 Wort in pairs. Write suitable images for thesesituations.

[xamplea ship in a storm = a leaf in the wind

. a sh ip i n a s to rm

. a baby t ry ing to watk

. a fashion parade

. t rees in winter

. peopte at a par ty

Tet t the c lass your images. Choose the best ones.

Eeant'q

Vocohulory: ld iomotic Longuoge

8 matct't the expressions with the pictures. Try towork out the meaning of each. Then complete thesentences below with the expressions.

bee i n he r bonne t ,fish out of water,le t the cat out of the bag,b [ack sheep ,f ly on the wat [ ,bookworm, . .

ral race e'-:..-..-7|

She's a lways got her head ina novel - she 's a realI can ' t get used to th iss i tuat ion. I fee l t ike a

3 I 'd love to be a -- whenthose two have an argument l

4 We tried to keep the party a secret.But then someone

5 Modern l ife is such a __ - it 's socompetit ive and stressfut.

6 She's got a ____ about l i tter -

she's obsessed bv i t .7 Atl" the brothers were respectable, except James

he was the _ of the famity.

9 Write five of your own sentences using theexpressions.

honpurng hn(fnresWork in pairs. Discuss these questions.

. Who are the most fumous poets in your [anguage?Who is your favourite?

. Are there any simitar id iomatic expressions in your[anguage Like the ones in Exercise 8?

BUoTn.... ONBUOTT,'Most people i4nor€ rhost poetry t.crrrs.rnost poetry i{nores rnost people.'

Adrian Mitch.ll, british poet

1);,

Page 42: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Before you

1 toot at the photos. Whatis your reaction to theseworks of art?

2 Guess the answers tothese quest ions about thephotos.

1 How long do you th ink i tt ook t o make them?

2 What mater iats are theymade of?

3 How poputar were they?4 Why do you th ink t hey

were made?

3 ReaO the ar t ic le and checkyour guesses in Exerc ise 2.

Revision: The Possive

4 Comptete the tabte withexamptes of passives fromthe text.

People, bridges, buildings, llvers, vafleys' even entire

coastfines and islands, hAYe all been wrapped uP by the

Bulgarian artist, Christo, lris French wife, Jeanne'Claude,

and their teem of hefpers. Stephen lleasule lePorts.

5 aL ne of their most spectacular proiects was called Surrounded

1I lslands. Eleven islands on the coast near Miami were surrounded by

- over six thousand square metres of pink plastic! Another projectwas wrapping up the German Parliament building which couldnt have beendone before the fall of the Berlin Wall. Many people thought that permission

t0 wouldnt be given, and some thought the project should never have beenallowed. However, when the wrapping of the Reichstag in silver fabric hadfinally been completed, the glowing building received international acclaim, andChristo loved being appreciated.Their most recent project was called'TheGates'. ln 2005,7,503 gates were put up in Central Park, NewYork.The gates

l5 were made of saffron-coloured nylon and were nearly five metres high.Two or three new prolects are currently being developed by Christo and his

team. One of them is in Colorado in the USA where the Arkansas River will

be covered by l0 lcilometres of luminous, translucent fabric.The fabric isgoing to be suspended above the river so that the work of art can be seen

?o from both above and below.Thousands of people will be needed to completethis feat of engineering. Christo manages to do all this without being given anymoney - his projects are financed completely by the sale of his drawingsthrough galleries and over the Internet.Christo's works of art are dismantled after only two or three weeks but

2s hundreds of visitors manage to see them.When the Reichstag was beingdisplayed it attracted huge numbers of visitors from around the world.However, his work still tends to be criticised."What! the point of it all?Whybother when it takes so long?" Christo replies that their work is a kind ofarchitecture and they use space, light and texture to make beautiful things.

.i:..+!: :

Presentqt ion

5 mat.h the under l ined verb forms in thesentences (1-3) betow wi th the names(a-c) .

1 The pro ject should never have been a l lo ,wed.2 Chr is to loved beinq appreciated.3 His work st i [ [ tends to be cr i t ic ised.

a passive gerundb passive in f in i t ivec passive per fect in f in i t ive

Find one more example of each verb form inthe text.

I

' i I

d

#tf ""r4

"q

Present Simpl"e Worb of a.rt aro dixvumtbd'

Present Conti nuous

Past Cont inuous

Past Perfect

be going fo + infinit ive

moda[ + in f in i t ive

moda[ + oer fect in f in i t ive

Page 43: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

THr PnsslvEt =. ,,,-

6 M.t.lt the reasons for using the passive (a-c) withthe sentences (f-3) from the text.

a to focus on the act ion rather than the doerb to put speciaI emphasis on the doerc to avoid having a long subject jn an act jve sentence

1 Peop[e, br idges, bui td ings, r ivers and val teys, have at [been wrapped up by the Bulgar ian ar t is t , Chr is to.

2 The fabr jc is going to be suspended above the r iver .3 His pro jects are f inanced complete[y by the sa[e of h is

drawings through gal ter ies and over the Internet .

7 Where are you more tikety to see or hear passivesentences?

. newsDaDers . informa[ letters . scientif ic articles

. conversat ions

Grommar Summary 4, page 147.

Prsclice

8 Rewrite the diatogue and the newspaper storybelow so that they sound naturat. Change the passiveinto active in the dialogue and the active into passivein the newspaper story.

A How was your weekend?B 0K. Footbat l was ptayed by me and the game was [ost

by ou r t eam. Wha t abou t you?A I was met by a f r iend in the st reet and a f i lm was

seen by us at the c inema.B Was i t enjoyed by you?A Yes. the ending was real ly loved by me and my f r iend.

The police arrested three men today. Thepolice chased them for twenty minutes andthe police caught them when a lorry hittheir car. The police took the men toScotland Yard for questioning.

Eeatfq

9 Ch"ng" the sentences in to passive. Use'by . . . ' on lyif necessary.

1 Gustav Eiffet designed the EiffeL Towelin Paris.2 Athens wi t [ organise the next European year of

cu [tu re.3 People expected Ted Hughes to win the Nobel Pr ize

for l i terature.4 The pol ice were t ransport ing a Van Gogh paint ing

from Amsterdam to London when the ra in damaged i t .5 Someone has stoten a Picasso f rom the Louvre.6 United Artists are making a new Harry Potter f itm.7 An ar t is t is going to cover the Kremt in in red fabr ic .8 Someone should have supported Mozart f inanciat ly so

that he cou[d wr i te more music.

1 0 Cnange the verb in brackets in to the passiveinfinit ive, passive perfect infinit ive or passive gerund.

ExampleL I hate being treated like a child.

1 I hate (treat) t ike a chitd.2 lt 's nice (give) something you've atways

wanted to have.3 J.F. Kennedy may __ (assassinate) by a

madman .4 lt 's hard to play footbatl wjthout (kick) by

other p layers.5 Everybody wants _ ( t ike) and

(respect) .Seat belts must _ (fasten) during take-off and[a ndi ng.

(pra ise) in publ ic can be qui te embarrassing.The re j s a susp i c i on tha t t he 'Mona L j sa ' may no t

(paint ) by Leonardo da Vinc i .

I I Rewrite this newspaper report using passivestructures when they are more suitable.

78

6#'d

$&,d

YT"II:-*edtobe*u-man ca,Jed Frank Gehrv I and dustyplaces. Then along came a311

cattea.rlank Gehry

ilT:::*:11.,{ i:n**e archjtect of rhe Grroo",h-;*y.:i:1;"'Ji.:;""1:Hlr,:dy'il:T:ifr ,il,?lyi#il,week. People h;;ilili't uoro 1\4edal for Architecrure lasr

rr ue 2tsr centurv. His ,","1i.llj! ce.ntTy Barogue ..rrii..tof the 2 I st cen';"d i'j :::ifi :l; |;::il::,lti dins is ; J'ffi li JJ'^l[:

Lnat someone had melr"a*Jl: j:j: J:" ljkt anLlectricguitarthat someone hra "t.r,.iloil; 1t

to t39t< tlke an electric guitarr h e b uirdins,, ";;onl','# :: :itjlT'

",tlt wh en th ey 6.,.drhebuirdins,,o,'.on.-r-ui ji;il'jT:ltlJ,1T,*_J#",;:,,

Page 44: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Ht,I i

.:.:i .II

.jli

l5 M[sic

Befare yau stafi .-

Q 1 I-isten to the extracts from fitm turi. ,nimatch them to the photos. Which music doyou tike most? Why?

O 2 listen again. Which of the Key Words woutdyou use to describe the music?

K E Y W 0 R D S : r : , , , : . - : : : , . ; . : , . . ; :catchy, dramatic, exciting, haunting, [ivel.y,monotonous, moving, romantic. sad. scary,sentimentat, sinister, soothing, soppy. tear-jerking.tedious, terrifying, thoug htfuL

[ islening

3 ReaA the Strategies.

Listening Strategies:

Matching people and opin ions

. Undert ine the ' top ic 'word in each opin ion andimportant opi n ion words (usua l ty adject ives) .

. Decide if the opinions are positive or negative.

. As you listen, identify the 'topic' words andwrite down any opinion words you hear.

. Decide i f the opin ion words are synonyms oropposi tes of the words you undert ined.

. Pay attention to the intonation used whenagreeing and d isagreeing.

( y' 4 tisten to two people tatking about music Use theStrategies to decide who had these opinions - writeM (man), W (woman) or B (both).

topic opinion topic. t . . t . tY Y T

1 tr Franz Ferdinand are a very good band.

Franz Ferdinand are [ ike many other groups.

Rap music is bor ing and the words aren ' t very n ice.

Rap is strong stuff.

Techno music is qui te good.

Some of the new rock bands are not bad.

CoLdpLay put on exciting '[ ive' shows.

Some of the oLd rock bands are not bad at al"[.

Led Zeppetin were a great heavy metaI group.

The Beatles were better than the Roltinq Stones.

2 l l3 T4 a )s f l6 f l7 , 48 f l9 T1 0 !

Do you agree or disagree with the opinions above?

Page 45: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

6:FI 5 took at the Function File. Which expressions are

used:

. to in t roduce an opin ion?

. to ask for agreement?

. to show disagreement?

. to ask another person's opin ion?

. to show agreement?

G i v i n g 0 p i n i o n s : A g r e e i n g a n dD i s a g r e e i n g

I th ink i t 's reat ly great . don' t you?Persona[[y, I 'm not that keen on that sortof music.It 's not realty my thing. Don't you think theycopy a lo t of other bands?I don' t th ink that 's fa i r lWeLl", if you ask me. rap's horrible.And, to be honest , the music 's just bor ing.I t 's near ly atways the same, isn ' t i t?

7 That's not the point.8 Do you l ike techno musjc?9 Me too. I [ ike the faster stuff.10 So do I .11 That 's t rue. Co[dptay are pret ty good. And thei r

concerts are supposed to be [oud and [ ive[y.Do you th ink they ' re good?

72 l 'm not sure.13 But don't you tike the Rol.l, ing Stones?14 I have to admit they're good.15 But wouldn ' t you agree that the Beat les

were better?16 No, I wouldn ' t !

O 6 l itt"n to the conversation again and check youranswers.

7 tutatch these questions (1-4) with their meanings(a-d) .

1 Don' t you [ ike the Stones?2 Do you th ink thei r concer ts are good?3 Do you l"ike the Stones?4 Don' t you th ink thei r concer ts are good?

a Are the Stones one of your favour i te groups?b I t jke the Stones, don' tyou?c Are thei r concer ts any good?d Their concer ts are great , aren ' t they?

abc

I

| I lz

z i- l

| r I

12

45

t f

" : , " ' - . . , . 1LF+: s* *:F

Eeanfil

Ptonunciof ion

O A Listen to the sounds, words, expressions and theintonation. Which of these do they express? Thenlisten again and repeat the expressions.

strong agreementagreemenrhesi tant agreement

d indecis ione hesi tantd isagreementf strong disagreement

a l .)pe0Krng

9 Wort in pairs. Tetl your partner about your tastes inmusic. Agree or disagree with your partner.

ExampteA I think U2 are really greot!B Do you? If you ask me, they're ancient. I Like rap

groups.A I'm not keen on rap music.B Don't you like Eminem?A No, not really.

O f O Work in groups. Listen to some musical extracts.After each piece of music, take turns to give youropinions about i t .

Vocqbulory: Multi-port Verbs with turn

f f i Lexicsn, pages 170-176

1 1 Comptete the sentences with the particles down,up, off, or on.

He turned an hour la te for the meet ing!The dog suddenty turned me and b i t me onthe leg.She turned the job of fer because she wantedmore money.He turned h is cot lar to keep h is neck warm.Just af ter the t ights, turn _ the main road intoour street.I qui te t iked h im, but I was turned _ by ther ing through h is nose.

?uoTE .... uN?uoTn'Xusic can narhe the rtnnartatle anJ cortrnrunicatethe unLnovatle.'

Leonard bernslein, Arr.rerican cothposer

Page 46: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I 6 Communicqlion Workshops

Wtit ing

Before you start

1 Read the fitm reviewand match paragraphsA-D with the fo[lowingdescriptions.

good and bad pointsbasic in format ionabout the f i [mconctusion andrecommendat ionbr ief summary ofthe pl.ot

2 l inlring. Comptete thegaps in the text withthese words.

at [ th ings considered,at though, however,i n t he end , a t so , because ,one day, such as, which,who

Amdlie (zoor)& Amdlie was directed by Jean-Paul Jeunet. lt had its first showing on z5th April zoor

and it stars Audrev Tautou.

# Am6tie is a young woman who l ives in Paris. 1 she comes across a box fullof things 2 -belonged to her apartment 's previous tenant. Am6tie decides tof ind the man 3 - owns the box and give i t back to him. Throughout the f i lm,she spends a lot of t ime trying to make other people happy but, 4 _ ,discovers that she has to take care of her own happiness f i rst (which she f inds at theside of Nino).

{ The f i tm deals with problems s - lonel iness in a ci ty and the conf l ict betweendreams and the real world. l t 6 - raises a moral issue: how much we caninf luence other people's l ives. Most important ly, 7 _, i t is a f i tm about humankindness and being good to other people. The f i lm is neither a romantic comedy nora fairy tate. l t is a modern story with a happy ending, f i tmed in strong, warm colourswith br i l t iant music bv Yann Tiersen. 8 the f i tm has got i ts cr i t ics, I fel t thatonly one or two scenes were weak.

& 9 -, Amdlie is a very special fitm that either touches you deepty or at leastmakes you think. 1o Amdlie is not a big Holtywood production, I believe itcan speak more int imately to each of us about truth and beauty. I would recommendit to anyone who enjoys artistic films.

Page 47: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

3 lool at these examples from the textfor tatking about two alternatives.. . . . ne i ther a romant ic comedy nor a fu i ry

ta [e. . . . e i ther touches you deepty or at least

makes you th ink

Now use the cues to write sentences usingeither ... or and neither ... nor.

Example1 The fiLm was set in either the 1920s or the1930s.

1 f iLn / set in i .920s (?) / r930s (?)2 directed / Steven SpieLberg (?) / George

Lucas (?)3 fitm / romantic (X) / funny (X)4 star / Jut ia Roberts (?) / Sandra But tock

(?)5 fitn / good special effects (X) / good

music (X)

A Film Review

4 Write a film review about one of yourfavourite films. Fottow the stages.

Writing Help 4, page 139.

Stoge IUse the headings in Exercise 1 to makenotes about the fitm.

Stoge 2Write your review in four paragraphs.

Stage 3Check your writing.

TalkhsckWork in groups. Read each other,s fitmreviews. Which sounds tike the best fitm?

Beatft1

[ istening

',:.:a:a/.att ..,r,aattaaa1f..raaat:7,alrt:t:.:a,:.,,..a\.gta::r,tt:.e:?.::,|.t a,tria1t:a,ayL..,aa1,aat::

Before you start

I took at the photo. What do you think they,re tatking about?which of the peopte do you think is doing most of thelatking?

A Conversotion

O 2 lirt"n and find out the subject of the conversation. Whointerrupts other people most: Richard, Sue or Kate?

O S .Listen again. Answer the questions by writing R (Richard),S (Sue) or K (Kate) in the boxes.

1 f l Who suggests having a disco?2 l l Who doesn't t ike the idea of a disco?3 I Who Likes the suggest ion of having a foLk group?4 a Who reluctantty accepts the suggestion of a foLk group?5 I Whose idea for the art exhibi t ion is accepted?6 fl Who wou[d [ike to have two fitms about the same subject?7 aa Who can't stand spy fi[ms?S tr Who reatty loves old black and white sitent fitms?9 I Who is in charge of Looking for f i tms?

10 tr Who suggests ending the conversat ion?

,,t.,::ll,,f:,:.

{

iitr:i..:

i:i ,i.l.t::

i't

Page 48: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

o

Communiculion WorkshorSpeoking

Before you stort

I tisten to extracts from theconversation in the Listening Workshop.Ctassify the way in which the peopteinterrupt each other.

a a pol i te in terrupt ionb a rude/abrupt interruptionc a failed interruotion

ireFffi &ftNrwrwC o l l o q u i a I E x p r e s s i o n s

2 u"tctt these cottoquiat expressions(1-8) with their meanings (a-h).

1 I'm sick and tired of discos.2 We're aI bored to death with

schooI discos.We've had loads and loads of them.I won' t make a song and danceabout i t .Hang on a second.No, they're reatly corny.They're right up your street.Just a few bits and pieces.

a great dealwai t a momentfed upexactty what you [ikeold-fu shioned and unjnterestinqextremety boredsmat[ i temsa fuss

'ir"n,,]

Plonning An Event

Plan an 'Arts Week'for your schooI or university.Fo[[ow the stages.

Stage IIndividuatly, decide what sort of events you would [ike to have.Choose from this l ist or think of others.

. a ptaV . a poetry reading . a classical concert

. a photo competit ion . old 'si[ent' f i lms

Stage 2Work in pairs. Discuss your ideas. Try to use expressions from theFunct ion Fi le in Lesson 15 and the Chatroom.

ExampleA Don't you think we should have ...B No, I don't. They're really corny!

Stoge 3Read the Strategies.

Speaking Strategies:

Taking turns in group discussions

. Don' t dominate a d iscussion. Give your opin ions and ask theothers what they th ink.

. Show interest in what the others are saying. Use words [ike' i g h t',' a bso Lute ly' and' exa ctly' and so u nds Like, m m'.

. If you reatty need to interrupt, interrupt poLiteLyl Wait for theother person to pause f i rs t .

Stage 4Work in groups of three or four. Decide the events for your ArtsWeek and finatty choose a cetebrity to open it.

TdlkhockTett the class what your group decided.

34

5678

abcdef

sh

Page 49: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

, - llilt

. : " ;

1 fnint of a ptace in your country that you knowthink is beautiful. Say why.

2 ReaU the information about an area of Engtand.tike to visit it? Why/Why not? What things woutddo there?

7

ooking for somewhere 10 go away for a long weekend? Atthis time oI year, there is nowhere better than the unspoiltcountryside of South Shropshire. On the borders of

England and Wales, it is full of beauty, with high hills, woodedcountryside and picturesque towns and villages, all of whichmeans that it is an ideal place to visit.

It is probably sensible to base yourselves in Ludklw, which is thebiggest town in the district. As the well-known iocal historian,David Lloyd, has said, 'there are few towns like ours in Britainwith such fine architecture.' It has a breathtaking castle and achurch tower that one can see from miles and miles away. Crossthe medieval bridge over the River Teme and enter the townthrough a gate in the old town walis. You will find yourself inBroad Street with its impressive lSth cenlury houses.Architectr-rrally, this is one of the most famous streets in England.Other places worth a visit are the castle, which delcnded the townagainst the Welsh, and St Laurence's, a spectacular medievalchurch. These arc just some of the things that make Ludlow avery special town.

As well as seeing these sights, there are plenty ol others to visit inthe area such as the historic towns ol Cleobury Mortimer andBishops Castle. If you likc castles, it's a good idea to visitpicturesque Stokesay Caslle or the ruins of Wigmore Castle, theseat of the powerful M<trtimer Iamily. They are amongst thescores of castles in the area.

There are also plenty of things to do for those who lil<e theoutdoor life. Go canoeing on the river Tcme or hang gliding fromClee Hill. South Shropshire is also a walkers' paradise, withMortimer's Trail that goes from Ludlow through Monimer's F(xestto thc Welsh border. II yor-r have children, drop in to The SecretHills Discovery Centre in Craven Arms where they can learn allabor.rt the area and enjoy themselves at the same time.

There are plenty of good hotels and restaurants in Ludlow andtheir food has an excellent reputation. Three restaurants hold the{anous Michelin star, which is really quite surprising when you

think that there are only several of them in the whole country. Inaddition, Ludlow is only 150 milcs lrom London, which makes it agreat p lace lor a wcckcnd.

t ' t , . , , . 1

5abcdefg

F{8##

wetl and

Would youyou like to

Reference (2): Pronouns

Grammsr Summary, page 149.

3 toot at the words in red and qnllellne theparts of the text that they refer to.

4 Undertine the parts of the sentences thatwhich refers to in each case.

1 . . . i t is fu tL of beauty, wi th h igh h i t ls . woodedcountrys'ide and picturesque towns andvi [ [ages, a l [ o f which makes i t an ideaI p[aceto visit.

2 . . . base yoursel f in Ludtow. which is thebiggest town in the area.

3 0ther ptaces worth a visit are the castle,which defended the town against the Welsh.

4 Ludlow is on[y L50 mi tes f rom London,which makes i t a great ptace for a weekend.

Among the words in botd in the text f ind:

two personat pronouns (subject and object)two reflexive pronounstwo indef in i te Dronounsa possessive pronouna possessive adjectivethree relative pronounsa demonstrative pronoun

6 Wtrictr of these words do not express thesame meaning as one in the sentence betow?

a you b everyone c anyone d this person

Ludlow has o church tower that one can see frommtLes ano mtLes awqy.

@ More practice, Language Powerbook, page 56.

Page 50: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Review Mmffimffi*m ru #mru# 4

showl;:;:;b,y"i:,:lX{oreisn'""Tifl ':l::*t"IJ:"""*:,Among the VlPs '" ---:iY: "",:

^-^-i^ ir better,"European editor ot viity futr' "lt could

ffi"til:n delays and the pushing' howrever' served only to

heiqhten trte otama anl !*tn"*"nt72 --the biggest

Lon-Oon Fashion Week'

1 a) expressing2 a ) who3 a) showing4 a) being hur t5 a) trying6 a) Left7 a) recognised8 a) at tow9 a) t rapped

10 a) Left11 a) have been organised12 a) to surround

II

Grommor1 Comptete each gap with the best answer: a, b, cor d .

LoNDON Fashion Week clo:e1]a:::isht with concernr-vr\sv''oti'

"'o*o control and safetyn ^ ' r n n i l '1 over crowd conrrol i'r re osrvl'-

""il..o "i fi " ;;i.i; ;;;;" 9 lll L' r- ":3::';:;

Yesterday the t ' r l r rs r r f4 r " ' v " - - - a .secur i tyi;;;i, appeared ror more l1T:::^: --. "ont;ol*""

-'the event, apPeateu '"'";

*;; struggled to controlguards faced *

- +^ ^ar into the show iguards Tace: -::5 io o"iinto the show free'

hundreds of PeoPtehunoreo!; ur vEvl"'- ,==oon tf," famous hairdresser,

At one Point Vidal Se in *ra r:rowd.i'j:jrui'."'"!'i""1"" p n'=:::l'^: ;; T:*"f#l"**",lt#'?n " "l'5u :''"*Il *;'f. *'""fl=.::1?:

Eventually ne ' - uv * " '- 8 to see the

:;;*; n"ards that 'the top man' ousht

b) being expressedb ) wha tb) being shownb) hurtingb) triedb) was leavingb) be recognisedb) to al,towb) was t rappedb) was Leftb) be organisedb) being surrounded

c) was expressedc) whichc) to be shownc) hur tc) to tryc) was leftc) was recognis ingc) be at lowedc) were trappedc) leavingc) organisec) surrounding

d) to expressd) thatd) shownd) to be hur td) to have triedd) Leavingd) was recognisedd) to be allowedd) to be t rappedd) was leavingd) was organisedd) have been surrounded

2 :oin these sentences using defining and non-defining relative clauses.

ExampleL Street ortists, who are respected more in Europe, can get thousands of dollars for their pointings.

i t

t 'l,i ,

1 Street artists are respected more in Europe. Theycan get thousands of dot lars for thei r paint ings.

2 My s is ter is s ix teen. She had her eyebrows p iercedyesterday.

3 Peop[e spray paint on wa[ [s . They are spoi t ing theenvi ron ment .

4 Merchandise is sotd on the Internet . I t has anenormous market .

5 Pameta bought a b ig desk. She put i t near thewindow.

I went to an ar t gat lery. There was an avant-gardeexhib i t ion there.Jeans used to be considered work ing ctothes. Theybecame fashionable among young peopte.Tom's father p lays the ce[ [o. Tom wants to be am usic ian.Some graf f i t i ar t is ts have moved into designingproducts. They can make a [ot of money.He marked the area near her navet . He haddis infected her there.

1 0

Page 51: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

3 fxpand the sentences by adding participle clausesafter the lltdeflircd nouns.

Exampte7 'Blade' designs T-shirts, using speciaL computer software.

I23456

'Btade' designs T-shirts.'Surrounded Is tands ' was a work of ar t .The iaquar s tared st ra ight ahead.I th jnk qraf f i t i is an eyesore.The music was very moving.IXe pqq$ totd Beauty he loved her.

4 Comptete the text with the verbs in brackets in asuitable form, active or passive.

Virtual Reality ArtExamples of the new 'virtual reality ar1' 1

Ghow) at the Inter Communication Centre in Tokyo."The Cave" 2 _ (build) ^t a cost of over$t million. The viewer 3 _ (put on) specialglasses and 4 - (confront) by a woodenpuppet. If the puppet 5 - (move), the threedimensional world 6 (tu'ist) and7 - (turn). This moving world8 - (accompany) by music and sounds.A similar exhibit e - (build) in the USA.Computer graphics 10 - (combine) with3-D images which 11 (project) on the wallsand ceiling, and the viewer 12 (take) on atour of what seems like another dimension. As one expert13 - (point out) recently, the rise of the'Nintendo generation' 74 -(cause) artandgame cultures 15 _ (merge).

5 Rewrite the sentences using the words given inbrackets.

1 In the end. they told me to wait for another hatf anhour. ( I )In thz, eni,, I utat to//,to unttfor aruther hnlf an h"our.

2 These days many peopte have got tat toos. (you)

My s is ter l ives in Spain now and she's coming to v is i tme in Warsaw. (who)

I t worr ies me that there is more and more v io lence inthe med ja . (wh i ch )

You d idn ' t do the r ight th ing in miss ing the c lassyesterday! (shouLd)

They had to c tose down the museum short ly af ter i tsopen ing . (be )

Eeantq

Vocobulory6 Comptete the text with the correct form of get, haveor moke.

Yesterday, we 1 - a meeting and 2

a look at the f igures. SaLly 3 a good point . Shethought that the Internet 4 _ a big effect onsales. She thought we were 5 _ a b ig mistake i fwe d idn ' t 6 - - our own websi te. She th inks thati f you want to 7 ___ i t in business ano8 - to the top these days, you need one. Mindyou, she's only in terested jn 9 money ano

promot ion.

Complete the sentences with down, from, off, or up.

You can't get away graffit i nowadays.She turned [ate. as usuai lHe turned the of fer of a job abroad.He turned the majn road just before the stat ion.Foreign p layers make _____ about hal f the team.

Pronuncial ion

8 put these verbs into two groups according to howyou pronounce the le t ter 's ' -

/s / or /z / .

advertise, advise, compose. design, discover. disptay.escape, inspi re, pract ise, recognise, suspend, v is i t

Group 1 /s/ discover,... Group 2 /z/ advertise, ...

Q listen and check your answers. Repeat the words.

O 9 r-lrt"n and repeat these sentences.

1 She st rode atong the catwa[k in a s tunning dress.2 Modern [ifestytes can be stressfu[.3 That s t r ik ing design was inspi red by graf f i t i .4 I th jnk stogans sprayed on wat ts are an eyesore.5 We stared at the breathtak inq sunset .

Tronslotion

I 0 translate the following sentences into Engtish.

Ilaaoe-ro MHe c.lyua'rl .)ry 3ayHbrBHyo My3bu(y.Mrre yxacro HpaBr4T'cl uoBpeMeHHar{ rtorr-My3bil(4.Xealnr MeHl lla:tbrfpbrBa'lbl Tr,l ue uorr{apr4coBarb .lT.y r(aprr.lHy caM. K'r'o-]'o Qle-ta.].lro 3a rc6fl.OaraH u.; \4or4x rlll4flTe.rleu lorue.l u orrta. OHorleHb qecTorrxt6henrn qeJloBet( 14 BCet'rIa XOqeT6urr urrepenr4 BCex.Erl Haaoera ee crapoN4ollHarr flpr4qecKa, r.{ orraperril4na rrocTpl4ril,cfl 14 noKpacr4Tb Bo.ltocbr.OH ucer,'la qyBclBoBan ce6fl He rj cBoet 'fapeJu(e

rJ r(o\lflalll4r.r ntt],reil, 6opnruurcl :la rcllJtoeMECTEIIKO IIOrl CO., IIUCM.

1 0

7t2345

Page 52: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

effiWfupwwW

145.2 million people living "r': rr .r'i'in the Russian Federation.rT1L^- , - - ^ ^^ -+ ^ { - } " , -rrley dle IJdr r. or d rrugfecommunity of more than 160nationalities and ethrric crroups.Although the official language spoken across theterritory is Russian, local langnrages are very importanttoo. Lingnrists have named about i50 differentIanguages spoken in Russia.

Each nation or ethnlc group observes its oumtraditions and customs, and the five main religrons areOrthodoxy Catholiclsm, Islam, Judaism or Buddtsm.Peoples speal<ng Fimo-Ugorian languages (e.gKarelians, Mordovians, Maris, Komis, ICtanty andMansi) live mostly rn the European part of Russia andare mainly Orthodox believers.

1 Read the article and say what these figuresstand for.

5, 70, 78, 40, 80, 750, 760, 2002, 300,000,745,200,000

Exampte5 - the number of main religions in the RussianFederation

O Z Listen to five peopte tatking. Match the speakers(1-5) with the pictures (A-D). There is one extraspeaker.

3 uatctr these words and phrases with theirdefinit ions.

merry-making, to observe a rituat, etiquette,housewarmjng, cuisine, to propose a toast

1 to ask peopte to dr ink something in order to thanksomeone

2 fun and enjoyment3 a particutar style of cooking4 a party that you give to celebrate moving into a new

home5 to perform a ceremony in order to mark an important

religious or sociaI event6 the format rules for polite behaviour in society

tr#

PeoDles of theRusbmnu FeneRArIoN

A ccording to the

A censusL l-conducted in2002, Russian peoplennmnriqa Rno/^ ^f fho

Thrkic and Mongolian peoples inhabit huge territoriesCentral Asia and Eastern Europe, Though the physicalfeatures of these neoples are verv dilferent, theirIanguages are a-Like. Within tlus group, Tatars andare mainly Muslim, and TUvimals and Buryats areBuddhist. TheYakuts, who live the largest republic in theFederation, were converted to Orthodox Christiality inl Bth century but strong elements of their animist beliefssurvived.

The Caucasian neooles who live rr the republics ofAdygeya, hrgnrshetia, Chechnya, and Dagestan areMuslims, whereas most Ossetians are Orthodox. Theyspeak about forty different languages and have theirtraditions and customs, which are sometimes very si

Slightly fewer than one third of a million people live inNorth East and Far East, but they represent aroi:nd tenlangmage groups, Though they were converted toChristianity long ago, their traditional religdon survived,The Koryaks and Chukchis of this region have much incommon with the inhabitants of Alaska.

Q +1

Listen again and comptete the sentences.

Exchanging is a very important r i tua l of'Saba ntui'.Wetcoming guests with bread symbotisesThese peoples of Siberia have their own way of

4 These Caucasian peopte have lengthy -, duringwhich they sing and tetl stories.

5 The crowing symbotises a lucky housewarming.

5 Work in pairs. Talk about traditions with yourpartner.

. What old traditions does your fumil.y keep?

. Do you have your own famity traditions? What arethey?

23

Page 53: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ly

nr.

KEY WORDS: Scienceantibiotics, artif iciaI inte[[igence, atom,bacteria, black ho[e, dataprocessing, deep space,DNA molecute, electric current, energy, equation,galaxy, gene, gravity, human genome, l ight year,mass, microchip, microscope, ontine,ndioactivity, radio telescope, search engine,sotar system

Page 54: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I

17 Eureku!

-1 t,']" l l l il*ntu rjl

I

Before you stsrt

1 try to match the discoveries(1-5) wi th how they werediscovered (a-e) .

1 the equat ion e = mc'2 the maser3 penic i lL in4 the f i rs t computer5 t he mode l o f DNA

a sc jent is ts worked together as area m

b there was a lucky accidentc sc jent is ts were inspi red by

a nother sc ient is t 's idead a sc ient is t had a moment of

i ns pi ratio ne sc ient is ts were compet ing to

m : k p e d i c r n v p r r i

h l o

Ke00rng

2 Read the text and check yourguesses from Exercise 1.

3 ReaA the Strategies.

Reading Strategies:

Answer ing True/False quest ions

. First, read the text to get thegeneraI idea.

. Then read the quest ions/statements and ident i fyimportant words.

. Fjnd the relevant part of thetext and ident i fy theimportant words.

. Decide i f the important wordsin the quest ion/statement andtext exnress the same jdeas.

L n n d m n r k s0 f

%,ffi-?ff i f f i f f i f f ig t r thm ttth

In the summer of 1905, a young man was sitt ing at home after a day's work.While rocking his one-year-old baby, he thought something over. Suddenly, itcame to him! The equation 'e = mC'was born, an equation which would

change our understanding of the universe but would help to create the nuclear bomb.Albert Einstein was aware of recent developments, such as Marie Curie's research intoradioactivity, but he had been working on his own. His ground-breaking equationshowed how a small piece of mass could produce an unbelievable amount of energy.Einstein then demonstrated in his 'theory of relativity' that not even time, mass orlength are constant * they vary according to our perspective of them. For example, ifwe could see people moving at the speed of l ight, they would appear much heavierand larger and would seem to move in slow motion.

By the time the first atom bombs had explodedduring the Second World War, two youngRussian scientists were developing an applicationbased on Einstein's idea of a stimulated emission.Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolay Basov used theirl<nowledge of optics and radio engineering todevelop the maser (Microwave AmplificationStimulated by Emissions of Radiation) in the early1950s. This soon led to the invention of the laser,

, which has since become a key instrument in manyindustries. Lasers are very valuable in medicalsurgery because they stop the bleeding as they cut.Lasers are also used to cut and weld metal and tomeasure long distances. Many of us use lasers daily

when we play CDs. Masers sti l l play a very important role inastronomy and space research

Another far-reaching find which changed the world ofmedicine was made by the son of a Scottish shepherd.Before going on holiday one day in 1928, he left a petridish with bacteria near the window of his laboratory.When he came back, he was just about to throw the dishaway when he noticed something out of the ordinary. Hedouble-checl<ed and saw a blue mould in the dish aroundwhich the bacteria had been destroyed. This blue mouldwas in fact the natural form of penicil l in which Flemingrealised was an effective way of killing bacteria. A few yearslater, penicil l in was being mass-produced and helping tosave the l ives of mill ions. Despite the outcome of his discovery, Fleming remainedmodest and unassuming. 'Nature makes penicil l in, ' he said, ' l just found it.

During the Second World War when penicil l in was first being used, the US Navy werelooking for ways of improving the accuracy of their arti l lery shells, but this involvedincredibly complex calculations. The navy turned to Ecl<ert, an engineer, and Mauchly,aphysicist, to produce a machine to do the job. Although they and their team did not

Page 55: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

f inish the machine unti l after the war,in February 1946, it did not matter.They had produced the world's f irstcomputer. Eniac (Electronic NumericalIntegrator and Computer) was huge,measuring 1OO feet long by over 1Ofeet high and weighing over 30tons. lt contained 18,000 tubes andhad more than 5,OOO switches. Itconsumed so much energy that when it was turned on, the l ightsin the local town went dim. However, it worked and it was thef irst programmable computer.

The computer arrived too late to helpin the next breakthrough. From themid 1940s, biologists knew about amolecule thai had an important role inpassing on genetic information for alll iving things. However, ihey did notknow how it worked and the race tofind this out had begun. Then, twoyoung scientists at CambridgeUniversity saw the results of some

studies by Rosalind Franklin. The lastpiece of the j igsaw puzzle had fallen into place.ln 1953, Watson and Crick published their model of the DNA moleculeAs a result, in 2OOO, after years of t ime-consuming and expensiveresearch using computerised data processing and despite manysetbacks, the so-called 'genome' for human beings was discovered.The four chemicals in our DNA combine to produce a code that wouldfi l l over 500,000 pages of a telephone directory and that containsinformation about our 1OO,OO0 genes. Already, this has helped doctorsto cure some hereditary i l lnesses and the outlook for the future seemspromising.

4 Are these statements (1-12) t rue (T) or fa lse (F)according to the text? Use the Strategies to help you.

1 I E ins te in was a t wo rk when he thouqh t o f t he f o rmu [a'e = mc'.

2 Einste in was the f i rs t man to th ink of the nuclear bomb.

3 E ins te in obse rved changes i n t jme , s i ze and mass .

4 -

Prokhorov and Basov deve[oped the maser beforeWorLd War I I .

5 i l Masers and [asers were far- reaching d iscover ies.

6 ! - t F leming had been studying bacter ia in h is [aboratorywhen the d i scove ry happened .

7 The re was a bLue mouLd a round the bac te r i a i n t he d i sh .

8 Fteming deveLoped the process for manufactur ing

oe nici ILi n .g L l fne Eniac pro ject fa i l "ed to meet j ts or jo inal object jve.

f O L l f f r e En iac was too b ig t o p rog ramme.

11 -

The code fo r t he DNA mo lecu le has ove r haL f a m i t l i on

let ters in i t .12 The p rocess o f decod ing the human genome was Long

and costtv.

Vocobulary:Compound Words

ab

6 0 cde

1

345

7 5

Effii Lexicon, page 159.

5 Uatctt the categories (a-e) withthe examples f rom the text (1-5) .Then add examptes of your own.

compound noun (noun + noun )compound noun (verb + preposi t ion)compound noun (adject ive + noun)r n m n n r r n d r r o r h

compound adject ive

o ne-year-old; ground-brea ki ng; t i me-consuming; far- reaching; h igh-poweredtetephone d i rectory; human being; dataprocessi ng; j igsaw puzzle; CD players low mot ion; nuclear bombbreakthrough; setback; outcome; out lookmass-produce; doubte-check

6 M"k" the ptural of the compound nounsin Exercise 5 (e.g. humon beings). Whichtwo nouns can you not make pturat? Whynot?

Speuking

7 Work in pai rs . Discuss these quest ionswith your partner.

1 Which of the d iscover ies ment ioned in thetext has been the most important so far?whv?

2 Whjch d iscovery wi [ [ have the mostimportant consequences in the future?whv?

3 Which of the sc jent js ts in the text do youadmjre most? Why?

4 Which of the d iscover ies is the mostdiff icul"t to understand?

8 A Science Quiz. Work in pairs. Student Aturns to page 134 and Student B to page136. Ask and answer the quest ions.

PUoTn .... UNBiioTn'CreativitT- in science cor-,ld be JescribeJ as the actof prrttin{ two rn.l two tc,{ether to rr.aLe five.'

Arthrrr Kciestler (raor- ra8 i), british author

Page 56: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I I

llt li l I I Fufuro

Before you start

1 loot at the headLines betow. What do youth ink t hey mean?

. From Astro[ogy to Futuro[ogy

. The Fu tu re Bus iness

. To morrow's Wor ld

. A Perfect Future?

Read the ar t ic le and choose the best t i t te fori t .

2 Wnicn of the predict ions would you L ike ornot L ike to come t rue? Why?

Revis ion: The Fulure

3 l l " t .h the sentences f rom the text(1 -8 ) w i t h t he uses (a -S ) .

7 I might get a p leasant surpr ise one day.2 This weekend hundreds of fu turoLogists ore

meet ing at Newcast te Univers i ty .3 The conference star ts on Thursday.4 ALL of us are going to use our voices to g ive

jns t ruc t j ons t o compu te rs .5 Tiny robots may be sent around our bodies.6 I 'm sure you' lL agree.7 I 'm going to give up astrotogy.8 I 'LL be there in Newcast le th is weekend.

a an arrangement for the futureb a future factc a f i rm predict ion based on speaker 's /wr i ter 's

o p i n i o nd a weak p red i c t i on ( x2 )e an i n ten t i onf a sponLaneous dec j s j ong a p red i c t i on based on obse rvabLe ev idence

4 Wnlcn of the predict ions expressed in thetext:

a a re de f i n j t e t y go ing to happen (we can seeevidence now)?

b w i t t p robabLy happen ( t h i s i s you r op in ion )?c may happen i n you r L i f e t ime ( t he re i s a

chance they w iL l happen )?d m igh t happen i n you r L j f e t ime ( t he re i s a

smaLL chance tha t t hey w i t l " happen )?

t]tiiiI--fl;-

I

IrlHannah fones gajzes into thefuture of futurology.

one. Over the centuries, people have used the stars, cards,crystal balls and even tea-leaves to look into the future. I stiil

read my horoscope every day: '\\lhen you get home on Friday,you will receive some very good news.' or At the weekend, afteryou've done the shopping, you will have a pleasant surprise., Inever do have a pleasant surprise in the supermarket car park,but who knows? One day I mightl

This weekend, however, we will get a surprise because hunclredsof futurologists are meeting at Newcastle University. Theconference starts on Thursday and the experts will be discussingthe impact of technology on the future. The future is now bigbusiness. I logged on to the websites of some professionalfuturologists and fbund these predictions:

. The technology already exists, so very soon all of us are goingto use our voices to give instructions to computers.

. In the next few years, we will be communicating with ourfriends around the world using life-sized video images on largescreens in our living rooms.

. By the year 2020, computers will already have become moreefficient and powerful than the human brain, both in terms ofintelligence and the amount of information they can store.

. By the year 2030, genetic engineering and nanotechnology willenable us to live for at least 150 years. Using nanotechnology,tiny, insect-like robots may be sent around our bodies to carryout repairs and keep us healthy.

. By the middle of the century, computers, millions of timessmarter than us, will have been developed. By this time, we r,r,illbe linking our brains with'ultra-stnart' computers. A newspecies might have developed -'Homo Cyberneticus,.

. By the end of the century, we will have colonised our solarsystem and will be looking for ways to colonise deep space.

Much more interesting than horoscopes, I am sure you will agreelI've decided I'm going to give up astrology and take up futurology- I'll be there in Newcastle this weekend. At nine o'clock onSaturday morning, I'll be sitting in the front row ancl listening tothe great Duke Willard talking about the future of my brain.If you can't beat the future, ioin itl

I

F

Page 57: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

a

U Comptete these predictions about the world in 2020 by puttingthe verbs in brackets either in the Future Perfect or the FutureCont inuous.

1 peop[e (use) sotar energy extensive[y2 peopte (use) up a[ [ natura l resources of o i I3 peopte ( t ravel" ) in to space on a regutar basis4 peopte (eat) onl"y geneticatly engineered food5 t radi t ionaI farms (d isappear)6 many new galax ies (d iscover)7 Mars and Venus ( invest igate) and (descr ibe) in deta i t8 sc ient is ts (s tudy) chances of people set t t ing down in other

ga [axies

9 look at the programme of the futurologists' conference and thecues (1-7)betow . Write fu[[ sentences using the Future Perfect orthe Future Cont inuous.

Exampte 7 p.m. on Fr iday - the par t ic ipants at tend a paneI d iscussionAt 7 p.n. on Fridoy the participants wiLl be attending o panel discussion.

Friday

't "-Y

4 - 530 p.m. Prof Howard Green: Alternative Sources of Energy -

Future Perfect, Future Confinuous5 In which of these sentences do weemphasise that the underlined activitymust be f in ished before the other onehappens?

1 When you qet home on Fr iday, you' [ [receive good news.

2 Af ter you've done the shoppinq. you' t lhave a p leasant surpr ise.

6 Whictt of the tenses below refers to:

a something that wi t l . f in ish before acer ta in t ime in the future?

b something that wi t l . be in progressat a certain time in the future?

Future PerfectBy the end of the century, we witl havecotonised our so[ar system.

Future ContinuousAt n ine o 'c lock on Saturday morning,I 'tt be sitt ing jn the front row andlistening to the great Duke Wiltard.

Find more examples of the tenses inthe text.

tr Grammar Summary 5, poge 147.

Proct ice

7 Comptete the sentences using thePresent Perfect.

I 'LL hel .p you as soon as IShe can' t buy a computer unt i I she

3 You can leave the exam room on[vafter you

4 I'1.1. phone you when I5 We' tL le t you know as soon as

Your te lephone [ ine wi t [ be act ivatedonly after

New perspectives il ,.

6 - 7 .30 p.m. Panel d iscussion: Love and Fr iendship in thepldt '

century j;,,5:8 p.m.

Saturday9 - 1 1 . 3 0 a . m .

1 2 * 1 . 3 0 p . m .

2 - 3.00 p.m.

4 - 5.30 p.m.

6 - 7.30 p.m.

8 p.m.

Sunday9 - 1 ' 1 . 3 0 a . m .12 .00 a .m .

Reception ':,- ' : r,

t" 't

Prof Duke Willard; The Future of the Human Brain

Dr B. A. Lorry: Vehicles of the Future

Lunch

Prof Stella Spacek: Exploration of Mars and Venus

Dr D.N.A. Gene: Genetics - Hope or Threat? '

Reception

Panel d iscussion: Ear th in 2050Closing ceremony

12

1 5 p.m. on Friday - Prof Howard Green gives a lecture on alternativesources of energy

2 Saturday [unchtime - the participants [isten to three lectures3 2.30 p.m. on Saturday - everyone has [unch4 Saturday night - the participants have a reception5 Sunday morning - the participants attend two receptions6 Sunday noon - they identify a few prob[ems of the future7 the end of the conference - the futuro logis ts d iscuss many important

i ssues

1 0 Wort in pairs. Make predictions about each other in ten years't ime. Say what you think about your partner's predictions.

ExampleA I think that in ten yeors' time you'll be working qs a vet.B I hope so!

1 Wit l " he/she be l iv ing here or abroad? Where?2 How many jobs wi l .L he/she have had by that t ime?3 What wiLL he/she have achieved?4 WiLL he/she be marr ied? For how [ong?

Wi l . l . he/she have any chi [dren?

Page 58: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I I Ai'ii fi cicrl

Before you slorl

1 lool at the pictures. Work in pairs anddiscuss these questions.

1 What sc ience f ic t ion f i lms have you seen thathave intelt igent robots or androids?

2 How did the robots behave towards humans?3 Which of these th ings can robots and computers

do now?

work in factories, pLay footbaLl,, controI cars andp[anes, beat us at chess, compose music. g ive usthe news, speak to us, have a reaI conversat ionwith us, have feetings

Check your answers to number 3 on page 135.

I islening

Q 2 Listen to the interview with Ananova and answerthe questions.

Cta r i f y i ng and Ask ing Ques t i ons

And tonight she's in the studio for an interviewwith us, we[t, 1 , she's here onscreen, of course. because she's not rea[, she's av i r tuaI character - just an image. 2 -It 's not a real interview. 3 is that wesent the questions to her programmers beforehand.4 -your creators decided what youshoutd Look t ike?5 - , they onLy receive what they wantto know.6 - - , I have no chi l .dhood.7 - , is how you are so quick.

is how do you gather the news soquickl.y?I atso have a 'Web Spider '- 9

searches the Internet .10 - they tet l . you whether to smi te orread in a serious voice?5o what next? 11

for Ananova?what are the plans

is I witL deliver the latest storiesthat vou're interested in wherever vou are.

trt

lrz,o

z

l!

12345

Where can you see and hear her? What does she do?Does Ananova realty exist? Can she reatly ta[k?Why are there no photos of her as a chi l "d?How does she find news stories?What are her ptans for the future?

Do you think Ananova is intell igent? Why/Why not?

O 3 l itt"n to the interview again. Comptete the FunctionFite with these expressions.

In other words, Is that c tear?,What I don' t qui te understand, To put i t another way,what I mean is , What that means, So does that mean,Could you explain how, What I 'm trying to say,What I 'm get t ing at , that 's a programme which, I mean

iL

Page 59: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Speoking

4 Wort< in pai rs . Student A turns to page 134 andStudent B to page 136. Read the notes about the robots.Add your own informat ion.

5 Exptain your robot to your partner using expressionsfrom the Funct ion Fi te. Ask quest ions about yourpartner's robot.

ExampleA lt 's quite fast. What thqt meqns is that it goes at about

40 kph.B What I don't quite understqnd is how it moves.A WeLL, it's got wheels.B So couLd you expLain how it goes up stairs?

[ istening6 ReaA the Strategies.

Listening Strategies:

Mul t ip le Matching (s tatements and opin ions)

. Before you [ is ten. read the statements. Undert ine theKey Words.

. Use the ctues ( t i t [e , p ic tures. headt ines, etc) topredict what the text wi [ [ be about .

. L is ten for important words. Don' t worry i f you don' tu nderstand everyth ing.

. L is ten carefut ly for the opin ions in the text . TheyusuatLy conta jn adject ives that show what a personth jnks about something (e.9. popuLar, fosc inat ing) .

. Check that the extra statements do not match thetext.

A Listen to two peopte tatking about their favourite fi lm,I t

2001: A Spoce 0dyssey. Who makes the statements below,the woman (W) or the man (M)? There is one extrastatement.

f

G lf

f zF* g

T

l

I

The f iLm was made qui te a long t ime ago, but you

can sti[[ learn a lot from it.People 's opin ion of the f i [m hasn' t changed s ince

i t was f i rs t shown.The f i l .m is not s imi [ar to others of th is k ind

because l i t t le happens in i t .The fi[m uses a [ot of music especia[[y classicalp ieces.

The fiLm telts the story of how a simitar object is

found at two different points in time.Whi [e t ravet l ing to another p lanet , on[y one'member ' o f the crew knows the t ruth.The fi l"m provokes deeper reflection on the

meaning and or ig ins of human [ i fe .The f i tm makes you consider possib le futureprobtems with robots.

? ' 4 f l

f F s r

,New fi'ontlers

Vocobulory: Mult i-port Verbs7 Match these verbs wi th the bold words in thetext.

take over, watked out, get across, give away,get on we[ [ , is to do wi th, makes up for , came out ,make out , got a lo t out of

The woman (1) enjoyed the f i tm, even though i t(2) was re leased a [ong t ime ago. She expta ins thatwhen i t was f i rs t shown, some peopte cou[dn ' t(3) understand what i t was about and (a) le f t . Inher opin ion. the d j rector (5) compensates for thelack of ptot by us ing v isuaI ef fects and employsmusic to (6) communicate the mood of the f i [m.The woman ta lks about the ptot of the f iLm but shedoes not (7) reveat the ending. Among otherth ings, the f i [m (8) is about in te[ [ igent machjnes.In the story, some astronauts and a computer(9) have a good retat ionship but then thecomputer t r ies to (10) take contro l .

[ isteningO g L is ten to the story of HAL and answer the

quest ions.

1 How many astronauts are there on the ship? Howmany are in 'h jbernat ion '?

2 Why do Frank and Dave tatk about d isconnect ingHAL?

3 Why does HAL star t k i [ [ ing the astronauts?4 Why does HAL refuse to [et Dave back in to the

spa ces h i p?5 What emot ions does HAL feel when he is being

discon nected?6 Why does HAL s ing a song before he 'd ies '?

?6

7

F 7

F 8

FF

tr

L]

hffi#honpairy hn(tnresWork in pairs. Discuss these questions.

1 Do you th ink technology and the media havemade cul tures around the wortd more s imi [ar?How?

2 WitL d i f ferent cut tures and [anguages d isappearin the future? How can cul tures and [anguagesbe protected?

guoTr,.... uN?uoTn,'X.n hav. Lecorte the tools of their tools.'

ll.D. Thor.au, Atuerican rr'riter (rErZ-r0Gt)fi:'r";'.,";'r1i1';'o

Page 60: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

WritingBefore you start

I Read the text and match theheadings (1-5) betow wi th theparagraphs (A-E).

1 How the event devetoped2 Basic in format ion about the event3 0pin ion and recommendat ion4 How the event started5 The most important part of the event

2 Find words in the text that meanthe same as these more colloquialstatements.

1 The thing kicked off with a ta[k.2 I t had p lenty of maps and

sig n posts.3 The music got us a l l in the r ight

moocl .4 Because there was so much to see. . .5 We were abte to get a rea[ feel for

what l i fe is l ike on a space station

3 Match the expressions (1-a) inbold from the text with these phrases.

just beginning, a model ,the possibit it ies are end[ess,shown we've been there

1 We have left our mark2 is stitt in its infancy.3 The sky's the l imit.4 The best thing was a replica of the

I nternationaI Space Station.

Yesterday I went to the opening of a new exhibi t ion on the exploratof space. ( t) In order to make our vis i t more interest ing andworthwhi le, the event was organised in a very exci t ing way.

I t al l started rather formal ly, with a speech by one of the organisers,Paul Bowles, who explained the aims of the show. As he put i t ,a l though we have lef t our mark on the Moon and on Mars, spaceexplorat ion from Earth is real ly st i l l in i ts infancy. The exhibi t ion hadtherefore been designed (2) to increase awareness, and to offer v is ian exci t ing gl impse into the future. He went on to explain that theexhibi t ion was arranged (3) so that everybody could wander throughindependent ly and enjoy i t at their own pace. He assured us thatal though i t was a vast exhibi t ion i t was wel l provided with maps andsignposts, (+) in case anyone got lost or confused.

We set off into a huge, dark room - this represented the solar system.We looked up at the cei l ing where the planets were shown whi le somrgent le music played in the background (5)so as to create a sui tableatmosphere. Then our guides, dressed up as robots, took us to the nexlroom where we could see the f i rst spaceships and the probes used(6) for col lect ing samples and other information. (7) Because of thenumber of exhibi ts and the amount of information, we wereencouraged to take a break every now and again, so we didn' t get toot i red. In keeping with the theme of the event we were able to try realspace food as refreshments, including l iquid sal t and pepperl

The best thing about the exhibi t ion was a very real ist ic repl ica of theInternat ional Space Stat ion. l t was easy to imagine working there,(8) as we were able to turn keys and push buttons on the controlpanels, (9)As a result we were able to appreciate what l i fe is l ike on aspace stat ion.

I To conclude, I would say that the opening of this exhibi t ion was afantast ic event. Putt ing together an interact ive display l ike this, wherethe publ ic can real ly experience something new, sets a precedent forother museums. There are many ideas here that could be developed forfuture events of this kind. The skv's the l imit !

D

. i

,t.t j t t

Page 61: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

4 Ctassify the tinking words undertined. in the texta s a o r b .

a reason (expla ins the cause of an act ion)b purpose (shows the a jm of an act ion)

Example1 In order to = b

Which of the l inkers are fotlowed by modat verbs?

5 Comptete the second sentence so that i t has asimilar meaning to the first sentence.

1 Take an umbrel ta because i t might ra in.Take an umbret ta in case

2 Br ing your costume for a swim in the r jver .Br ing your costume so thatIt 's foggy so you can't drive fast.You can't drive fast due to_- .I f you leave your teLephone number, we' [ t contact you.Leave your te lephone number so thatCheck i f he 's in by g iv ing h im a r ing.Ring h im up f i rs t in order to - - .Wear warm ctothes as the n ights can be very cotd.Wear warm ctothes in caseYou might sp iLt i t i f you f i t l " the jug so fut t .Don' t f iLL the jug so fuI that

,New fi'antiers

A Desuiplion of on Event

Write a description of an interesting event youhave been to. Follow the stages.

@ Writing Help 5, page 140.

Stage IChoose an event.

Here are some suggest ions:. a new exhib i t ion in a museum/gaLLery. a pubt ic ta lk or rat ly. the opening of a new shopping centre/publ ic

b ui tdi ng

Stage 2Plan your description using the headings fromExercise 1. Write notes on the different stages ofyour event.

Stoge 3Use your plan to write the description.

Stage 4Check your description.

folkhuckWork in pairs. Read each other's descriptions. Thente[[ your partner:

. what ( for you) is the most in terest ing in format ionin h is /her descr ipt ion

. what in format ion is not so in terest ing

. if any part of the text is not very clear or diff icuttto understand

Lislening: A SongI n t h e y e a r ? S ? 5 { b y Z a g e r a n d f l v a n s }

O I Listen to the song about the future. Whichyears are mentioned?

2g2g, 3535, 4545, 5555, 6565, 7575, 8585, 9595

O Z Listen again. Which of these things arepredicted?

intettigent machines, pitl.s that controI you, test-tubebabjes. machines for doing everything, an invasionby a[ iens, changes in our bodies, a nuctear war,space traveI to other stars, the end of humankind

Page 62: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

" : -= ' r '

The gvarvify oh Hars is (l) _ .

Catnyonrs arrr2 varlley5 show fhatl- irr fhe parsf lhee wqs (Z)

The astvohor^rer Schiarparvelli obseweA O) _ .

lq H.G. Wells'book, t,tar"liatrrs harl @) - .

Marvirrev 4 €lew parsf lhe glatnef itr (9 _ .

ParthQi\/ev wats ,r sr^ccess becarqte if (6) _ .

l.lASA clariu,reA fhatl ar r^releovife ?yoveL (7) _ .

A stu"\y o€ lhe *refeorife ir\2;001 Qoqqa (8)

fl r^,rarr,ue/ r^,riSSior,r lo }.,\awS woql/ fake atboqf (?)

,rn***w*--*,.*rru.*ii'p***4*

**-*fo-**" .***.*nro***"

s-.*e*ef

abcdef

3 Read the Strategies. Which of them do you think are the most usefu[?

Speaking Strategies: Giving presentations

. First, make sure you understand the subject and have coltectedenough informat ion.

. To prepare, choose the most interesting jnformation. Then write notesabout what you want to say. Do not wr i te out your presentat ion.

. Find visuaI aids to hetp you: slides, photos, diagrams, etc.

. Practise giving your presentation to yourse[f. Go through it again justbefore you give it.

. Ifyou get very neryous beforehand, breathe in and out deep[y a fewti mes.

. At the start, state clearty what you are going to talk about.

. If you make a mistake or forget something, don't worry - continuetaLking.

. F in ish your presentat ion wi th a summary of the main points and thenask for any quest ions.

-mffi &&afrnrwPresenting

2 match the expressions from the presentation (1-9) with why weuse them (a-S).

I Today I 'm going to talk about . . .2 As you can see in this photo . . .3 Wel.t, first I'd like to tatk about ...4 What about the history of . . .?5 Right, now [et's look at ...6 Another area of great interest ...7 So what is the future of . . .?8 To sum up, . . .9 That 's att . Thank you.

to refer to a drawing or phototo start off the presentationto finish the presentationto start the conclusionto introduce the first topicto introduce a new topic witha quest ion (x2)

g to introduce a new topic (x2)

A Presentotion

Give a five-minute presentation tothe rest of the class (about theevent you described in the WritingWorkshop). Fotlow the stages.

Stage ILook at your notes from Stage 2 ofthe Writing Workhop. Add notes foryour objectives (beginning) and for asummary (at the end). Underl ine theimportant information to hetp youremember it.

Stage 2Look at the expressions in theFunct ion Fi le in Lesson 19 and in theChatroom in this lesson. Practisegiving your talk to yourself.

Stoge 3Give your presentation to the rest ofthe ctass. When [istening to otherpeople, take notes about their talk.

TolkhackWork in pairs. Discuss these things:

1 Which was the most in terest ingpresentation? Why?

2 Which subject wou[d you [ ike tof ind more about?

3 Which of the Speaking Strategieswere the most usefut?

4 What were the b iggest problemsyou had?

Page 63: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ankle, bra in, eye, hear t . k idneys,knee, L iver . [ungs, muscle, r ibs, sk in,spine, s tomach, wr is t

How many hours per night do you sleep?a) under 6 hours b) about 7 or 8 hoursc) more than t hours

How often do you clean your teeth?a) once a day b) twice a day c) after every meal

How often do you do physical exercise, enoughto make you out of breath?a) never b) once a week c) two or three times aWCEK

How often do you eat sweets or chocolate?a) never b) occasionally c) quite a lot

How many pieces of fresh fruit do you eatper day?a) one or two b) more than two c) none

Page 64: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

2l Life Sqvers

Before you start

1 t-ool at the Key Words. For which of thediseases is there a vaccine to prevent thei [ [ness?

KEY W0RDS: rr :,.+:;i::ri.:.

A ldt brr .L i t l rJ** ' ; d iarrhoea,' f l "u (= ;nf1r .nza) , hear t d jsease, ma[ar ia,meas[es, pneumonia, pol io . te tanus,TB (= tuberculos is)

2 Wort in pai rs . Do you th ink thesestatements are true (T) or false (F)?

1 I Meastes, d iarrhoea and pneumonia k i tL anest imated seven mi [ [ ion chi [dren a year .

2 E Each year 600.000 babies p ick up tetanus bacter iaand d ie - even though there is a vaccine.

3 I t ' ,tany chitdren stit[ suffer from po[io; every yearthe d isease d isables 140,000 chi tdren.

4 E Over two mi l .L ion people a year get matar ia anddie. mostty jn Africa.

5 E Nearty one- th i rd of the wortd 's populat ion isinfected wi th tubercu[os is . which k i l ts atmostthree mi t t ion peop[e per year .

6 E gy the year 2000. more than 20 mi l .L ion peoprehad contracted and d ied of Aids s ince the outbreakof the epidemic.

Check your answers on page 135.

h l .

Ke0drng

3 neaa the strategies.

Reading Strategies: Texts with paragraph gaps

. Read the text wi th gaps to get the generaI jdea andsee how it develops, e.g. The X-factor on page 65.

. Read the sentences before and af ter the gaps togive you an idea of what the beginning or end ofthe miss ing paragraph might refer to , e.g. paragraph2 might begin with a reference to a history-makingevent or end wjth a reference to the ' l" itt l"e boy'.

. Read the miss ing paragraphs and look for thesereferences.

. I f a paragraph doesn' t seem to f i t , you may havemade a mistake or it may be 'the extra paragraph'.

Now use the Strategies to match five out of sixpa rag raphs (A -F ) w i t h gaps 2 , 4 ,6 ,8 and 11 i n t hetext. There is one extra paragraph.

B

"\

to.\code has been cracked, more and more of those flawswitl csnib within reach of repair.

G Dr Cavazzana-Catvo agrees that there has not beenenough time to claim that it's a definitive treatment."Nevertheless,

the importance of this work is that it hasproved this strategy can work. It has been a breath offresh air for gene therapy."

In every person's bone marrow is a group ofcells known as'stem'ce[s. When they receivethe right chemical signals, they muttiply tobecome red and white blood cells.

iuut sot better"'

Meanwhile. doctors Alain Fischer, Marina Cavazzana-Calvoand Salima Hacein-Bey took out a few million of his bone

-^"1+1nt in child immunologY at a

E Adrian Tlrrall;;, 1 :::::::il ji*;':

:::l:::llfi ff,J*London hosprtat'. "",'o?n.r,"

therapy 1l .ltllua*.rra,

0.,say, unequivot"tif i", ,.l..ived any other tre

own' Patients have ntru r'"'-'-

marrow cells and managed to insert a healthy gene in them.Then they put them back - a single. simple infusion of 20 to30 millilitres of fluid. It took half an hour to give the boywhat they hope witl be a lifetime of normal immunitv.

#, r,l-ii

$ lrow' , l l ; i .

For the first time, doctors had used their knowledqe ofthe genes involved in a fatal disease to cure it. Aieryears of experiments, gene therapy's promise to correctnature's flaws was being realised. Now that our qenetic

\ Dl

{'{rl

; ' F,'t

i

\li',i

Page 65: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

#d

,d 4nt?(rartine

4 Comptete these sentences about the text in yourown words.

1 The baby had to be kept in an a i r t ight bubbt"eb e c a u s e . . .

2 The parents were altowed to take the boy homebecause . . .

3 Adr ian Thrasher bel ieved gene therapy coutd workD e c a u s e , , .

4 Doctors are carefuI not to be too optimistic aboutthe operat ions because . . .

5 Doctors shoutd be ab[e to cure more i t lnesses inthe future because . . .

5 How did you feet after reading the articte?Tel[ the class.

l r I I rYoconur0ry: )yn0nymsmb* Lex ic ln . paae [53"

6 Match the words from the first four paragraphs(1-10) with their meanings (a- j) .

:.€1:"

eA.,te5

The ll-factorGene therapy has been used successfully for the firsttime. James Meek looks at how this was achieved.

I Last February there was an air of euphoria in the corridorsof the Necker Hospital for Sick Children in Paris. Anincredible transformation was happening to an 1L-month-oldbaby boy in an airtight bubble. In fact, history was beingmade there.

2 . . .3 When the little boy was admitted to hospital. he was facing

death from a rare inherited disorder called'X-linked SCID'. adisease that causes children to be born without a workingimmune system. The slightest infection can be deadly. Forseveral da1m, the boy tay in his bubble and his only directcontact with his mother, father and nurse was throuqhplastic gloves.

4 . . .5 Within 15 days, doctors knew from tests that the new gene

was working. But the marvel for the parents was lnatchingthe change in their sickly, underweight boy. Before theireyes, he began to get better. The ugty red blotches on hisskin faded away, his diarrhoea disappeared, he put onweight and his breathing became easier.

6 . . .7 'Afterwards. we lived through three months of euphoria,"

said Cavazzana-Calvo. "Everyone was so happy then." Sincethen, treatment of three other chiLdren in the NeckerHospital has also turned out welt. A fifth boy has done lesswell, because the disease had aLready caused seriouscomplications. but the Necker is pressing ahead with furthertrials later this year, and similar gene therapy is to becarried out in London.

I . . .I Despite the initial optimism, this first achievement of gene

therapy will have to be further proved over time, as it mightnot be so successful in treating other genetic diseases.Nevertheless, it is a major step forward in gene therapy.

10 Dr Jennifer Puck. a leading genetics researcher. underlinesthe importance of this breakthrough. 'Although thesechildren had no immunity when they were born, now they'reexactly as good as any babies of their age. However. theimmune system is not totally mature until they're three orfour years of age. So the question is, is this going to last atifetime?"

i

*gI

1 euphor ia2 transformation3 fataI4 therapy5 flaw6 rare7 d isorder8 inser t9 fLuid

10 immun i t y

a treatmentb uncommonc great happinessd pu t i ne weaknessf dead tyg t iqu idh d iseasei protectionj changei{

i

a

ii

I

7 fina idiomatic words or expressions in the textwhich mean the same as these.

1 feel ing of happiness (paragraph 1)2 deciphered (paragraph 2)3 be in our capaci ty (paragraph 2)4 nearty dy ing (paragraph 3)5 very quickty (paragraph 5)6 cont inuing (paragraph 7)7 important advance (paragraph 9)8 a great encouragement (paragraph 11)

a I .)pe0Krng

8 Wort< in pairs. Which of these things do youth ink wi t l happen wi th in the next 25 years?

1 Genet ic therapy wi t [ cure cancer.2 New drugs wi t l hetp people to l ive for 150 years.3 Ma[ar ia wi t [ d isappear in the deve[oping wor ld.4 Manipul"at ing genes wi t [ cause new j t tnesses.

..- \*iid,

Page 66: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

6i.e.{,.. *T e i

9N? frafi"int

4 Comptete theseown words.1 The baby had to

b e c a u s e . . .

sentences about the text in your

be kept in an air t ight bubbLe

2 The parents were attowed to take the boy homeD e c a u s e . . ,

3 Adr ian Thrasher bel ieved gene therapy coutd workD e c a u s e . . .

4 Doctors are carefuI not to be too optimistic aboutthe operat ions because . . .

5 Doctors shoutd be able to cure more i l tnesses inthe fu tu re because . . .

5 ttow did you feel after reading the article?Tell the class.

Vocsbulury: Synonymsnh" Lexi{o''t, page 153.

6 matctt the words from the first four paragraphs(1-10) with their meanings (a- j) .

The ll-factorGene therapy has been used successfutly for the firsttime. James Meek looks at how this was achieved.

I Last February there was an air of euphoria in the corridorsof the Necker Hospital for Sick Chitdren in Paris. Anincredible transformation was happening to an L1-month-oldbaby boy in an airtight bubble. In fact. history was beingmade there.

2 . . .3 When the tittte boy was admitted to hospital, he u,as facing

death from a rare inherited disorder called'X{inked SCID'. adisease that causes children to be born without a workingimmune system. The slightest infection can be deadly. Forseveral da5m, the boy lay in his bubble and his only directcontact with his mother, futher and nurse was throuqhplastic gloves.

rt ...5 Within 15 dala, doctors knew from tests that the new gene

was working. But the marvel for the parents was watchingthe change in their sickly, underweight boy. Before theireyes, he began to get better. The ugty red blotches on hisskin faded away, his diarrhoea disappeared. he put onweight and his brealhing became easier.

6 . . .7 'Afterwards. we lived through three months of euphoria,"

said Cavazzana-Calvo. "Everyone was so happy then." Sincethen, treatment of three other children in the NeckerHospital has also turned out wett. A fifth boy has done lesswell, because the disease had already caused seriouscomplications, but the Necker is pressing ahead with furthertrials later this year, and similar gene therapy is to becarried out in London.

I . . .I Despite the initiat optimism, this first achievement of gene

therapy wili have to be further proved over time, as it mightnot be so successful in treating other genetic diseases.Nevertheless. it is a major step forward in gene therapy.

l0 Dr Jennifer Puck, a leading genetics researcher, underlinesthe importance of this breakthrough. 'Although thesechildren had no immunity when they were born, now they'reexactly as good as any babies of their age. However, theimmune system is not totally mature until they're three orfour years of age. So the question is, is this going to last atifetime?"

{

f::

1 euphor ia2 transformation3 fataI4 therapy5 ftaw6 rare7 d isorder8 inser t9 ftuid

10 immun i t y

a treatmentb uncommonc great happinessd pu t i ne weaKnessf deadtyg tiquidh d iseasei protectionj change

7 fina idiomatic words or expressions in the textwhich mean the same as these.

1 feel ing of happiness (paragraph 1)2 deciphered (paragraph 2)3 be in our capaci ty (paragraph 2)4 near[y dy ing (paragraph 3)5 very quickl.y (paragraph 5)6 cont inuing (paragraph 7)7 important advance (paragraph 9)8 a great encouragement (paragraph 11)

i a .)pe0Krng

8 Wort in pairs. Which of these things do youth ink wi l t happen wi th in the next 25 years?

1 Genet ic therapy wi t t cure cancer.2 New drugs wi [ [ hetp peopLe to l ive for L50 years.3 Ma[ar ia wiLt d isappear in the devetoping wortd.4 Manipulat ing genes wi [ [ cause new i t tnesses.

;F

-1e::

Page 67: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

zlSuper fthlelesBefore you stort

1 Wtrat champion ath letes can you name?What were their achievements?

ExampteKenenisa BekeLe - worLd record in 10,000 m

2 Read the articte and answer the questions.

1 What reasons are g iven for improvedperforma nce?

2 How did drugs d is tor t wor ld records inthe 1980s?

3 What woutd the ef fect of 'gene-doping 'be?

4 Wha t was the o r i g i na t ' 0 t ymp ic sp i r i t ' ?

Revision: Condit ionols

3 u" t .h the condi t ionaI sentences initalics in the text with the fo[[owingtypes:

. zero condi t iona[ . 1st condi t ionaI

. 2nd condi t ional . 3rd condi t ional

Which of the sentences in italics talkabout the past , the present and thefuture?

Proct ice

\ / 4 Pronunciat ion. L is ten to the sentencesand write down the contractions you hear.Then listen again and repeat the sentences.

Exampte 1. 'd've (wouLd have) / 'd (had)

5 M"te condi t ional sentences about thesesi tuat ions (1-6) .

Example 1, If he hadn't taken drugs, hewouldn't have been banned.

1 Ben Johnson took d rugs ) he wasbanned f rom sport

2 ath letes earn a lo t of money) thev t ra in hardsomeone wi t [ run 100 metres in 9.3seconds + nobody wj [ [ bet ieve i tE lena Is inbayeva is very f i t ) i t 's easyfo r he r t o j ump ve ry h igh .an ath lete wjL[ win four go[d medats inathtet ics ) they wiLt be a record breaker' in 1980 the 0tympic Games were organisedin Moscow t the USA didn ' t take par t

Kfum funxnudnm# #fifrffififi-ffiffi fin ffi $Hmllffi$s?ony contemporory amateur othletes ondswimmers would hove broken world records ifthey hod token port in the first Olympic

Cames. Since then, records have tumbled in trachfield and swimming events as performance hasimproved dramatically.lf records fall, it is usually due to better equipment,troining ond diet but recently improvements havebegun to slow down. In recent Olympics, there havebeen fewer world records. Some experts predict aceiling for many events, such as 5 metres for womenpole vaulters. Elena lsinbayeva's current record is 5.Olmetres and she hopes she can go much higher.However, past predictions are nearly always wrong. Allthe levels of performance predicted in the 1930s hadbeen reached by the 197Os. Ron Maughan, fromAberdeen University, believes that if more peoplearound the world took part in organised sport, morerecords would have fallen.One factor is the use of performance-enhancing

drugs, or'dopingi Ben Johnson would stil l be the lO0metres world record holder if he had not been caughttaking drugs. Other records remain dubious, likeFlorence Criffith's IOO metres record back in 'l988.

Did she take drugs? lf the current Olympic championtook such drugs, she would probably have brokenthat world record more than once.Unless we ore careful, 'gene-doping'will be the nertbig threat. For medical purposes, scientists havealready found ways to build muscle and increasestamina through gene therapy. lf gene theropy wereused now, it would be olmost impossible to detect.lnthe future, genetically-modified athletes might be ableto run the ,l00

metres in 8 seconds or the marathonin under two hours. However, if o generotion ofgenetic monsters were creoted, it would show thotthe whole point of sport has been losf. lt would bemuch better to forget the records and return to theoriginal Olympic spirit - taking part is more importantthan winning.

Page 68: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Presentol ion: Mixed Condit ionols

6 Reaa the sentences (1-4) . Do they descr ibe s i tuat ionsthat are:

a t rue or cou[d possib ly happen?b imaginary, unreaI or contrary to facts?

1 I f the current 0[Vmpic champion took such drugs, shewou[d probab[y have broken that wor ld record more than0 nce.

2 I f Peter was a more sk i l fu I p laver , he woutd have scoredmore noints.

3 Ben Johnson woutd st i l " t be the 100 metres wortd recordho[der , i f he had not been cauqht tak ing drugs.

4 I f he had broken that record, he woutd be a wor ld- famousrunne r now

7 Wtrat t ime does each condi t ion (undert ined) inthe sentences in Exercise 6 refer to: past or present?What tense is used? Complete the table.

CoruomonTrue RrrrRrlcr Vrne ronm

1 the present Past Simpte

a

4

What time does the result in the sentences in Exercise 6refer to: past or present? What verb form is used?Complete the table.

9o#ftarrt"tne

Proct ice

8 Write answers to the questions.

1 What wou[d the s i tuat ion be now:

a i f per formance-enhancing drugs hadn' t beendeve[oped?

b i f penic i t t in hadn' t been d iscovered?c i f the computer hadn' t been invented?d i f the Second Wor ld War had never broken out?

2 What wou[d or wou[d not have happened in thepast :

a i f footba[ [ was a less popu[ar spor t?b i f the Amer icas and Europe were one cont inent?c if peopte didn't l" ike travetl ing?d i f the sun was c loser to the Earth?

Compare your answers with your partner's.

9 Use the cues to write mixed conditionalsentences.

Exampte1, If John weren't so tolL, he wouldn't have hqd tohave the doors in his house changed.

1 John is seven foot ta [ [ + he had to havethe doo rs i n h i s house changed) he jo ined a basketba[ [ team at schooIt he had problems f ind ing a date for a school .d i sco

2 Jessica has been a wor ld-c lass gymnasts ince she was 1L ) she suf fers f romspine problems t she is a famous person now) she is abte to support her fami ty f inancia[ [y

I 0 Cnoose one adjective from each pair thatreftects your personality.

a [azy/hardworkingb sociabte/shyc wet [ organised/d isorganised

Write three conditionaI sentences about someevents in your tife that these personality traitscontributed to.

ExampteIf I wos more hardworking, I would have studiedharder and passed the Last chemistry test.

I I Write about three things that you did ord idn ' t do, or that happened or d idn ' t happento you in the past and what the presentconsequences are. Use mixed conditionalsentences.

ExampleIf I had started to ploy tennis when I was ten,I could be o champion now.

Tel[ the ctass.

Page 69: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

23 Bruin Power

, l.ut ''it : '

if

{

one thousand m i lUona par t of the body that has apart icu lar purpose, e.g. the heart .the [ iver

3 the smal test p iece of a substancethat can ex is t a lone

4 a nerve cet l5 a unit of structure of l ivinq matter

Listening2 Read the Strategies.

Listening Strategies:

Completing a text

. Before you listen, read the text andpredict what kind of information youneed, e.g. the f i rs t gap in Exerc ise 3 isprobably a co[our . Remember, you mayneed more than one word.

. Undert ine some important words in thetext before each gap, e.g. consists of,weighs.

. Whi [e you are l is tening, [ is ten for theseimportant words - the in format ion youneed shou[d fot low them.

. You can complete the gaps us ingabbreviations at f irst - this saves time.Then wr i te them in fu[ t .

the gaps in this summary.

The brain consists of grey andl - matter.

It weighs 2 -.lt uses 3 - of

the body's energy. lt contains ouer 4

which make up neurons.These neurons are

connected by electrical impulses.There are more possible

connect ions in one bra in than there are 5 - .

Neuroscientists have mapped different areas of the brain which

are responsible for 6

Thea reaso f theb ra in re |a ted tocon t ro | l i ng7 -cou |d

be compared to miniature fi lm studios. Our eyes and ears send

signals 8 -, and it is our brain that interprets these

signals and builds up a picture of the outside world. Scientists

have also identif ied areas responsible for different emotions,

such as 9 -,love and laughter.There are also

different areas for different types of thinking, such as learning

your own language and learn ing a 10 - language.

O 4 lirt"n to the [esson again and answer these questions.

1 How do you th ink the teacher feets about h is subject?2 What exampte does he use to expla in the way the bra in

controls different parts of the body?3 What does he compare to a f i [m studio?

O 5 l irt"n to a student phone-in programme about revising forexams. Who said these th ings (1-6) : Dan (D), Chart ie (C) orMohammed (M)?

r f] You need to get some exercise jn the fresh airto keep your bra in work ing wet [ .

2 I Keep yourse[f motivated by rewarding yourse[f.

S I Cet organised with a revision tjmetabte.

+ fl Priorit ise - study the important things first.

5 I Leave some time to relax.

6 l] Don't drink lots of coffee.

Which p iece of advice do you th ink is the most usefu l? Why?

S'i6th

m tIf

it ':

tll

lr-

2o

z3

lr-

Before you storl

1 uatctr the Key Words withthe def ini t ions (1-5).

KEY WORDS:atom, bi t t jon, ce[[ , neuron, organ

72 S1

7yoth

siYcfo(ugcWi

te

N sirl Y o

t ? t1 " "| (rrI areI tear

LJ

Page 70: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

,,1 Il t l

J

z ln l

z lt t l

G i v i n g a n d A s k i n g f o r A d v i c e1 - have you got for me and our [isteners?I th jnk 2 - ptan your rev is ion.I th ink you 3 _ make a t is t o f at t the th inqsyou've got to study.You 4 - work out what the priorit ies are.5 - do you th ink I shou td do?u - = , I ' d m a k e s u r e t h a t I g o t s o m e e x e r c i s e .You 7 - get out of the house and get somefresh air.I th ink spending hours and hours in the [ ibrarvw i t h o u t a b r e a k S _You 9 - drink Lots and lots of coffee.10 - - you g ive me some advice?You 11 give yourself rewards.And you 72 - g ive yourset f a break.You 13 just th ink about the exam at [ theti me.74 - � do ing tha t .I ' d 1s peopte to watch a good fi[m.

a f .

)pe0Ktng

7 Work in pairs. Take turns to expl.ain each situation toyour partner and ask for advice. Use expressions fromthe Function File.

6 t is ten again and complete the Funct ion Fi te wi ththese words.

must , mustn ' t , ought to. shoutd, shoutdn. t , advise, need to,I f I were you, have got to . Cou[d. There,s no point in ,i t 's important to . What t ips, can be counter-product jve, What

Vocobulory: Multi-port Verbs

E*l Lexicon, pages t\e-176.

8 M"tclr the words and expressions betowwith the verbs in the text (1-11) .

Example L postpone

appear, d iscover , [earn f rom, look at indeta i t (x2) , make a note of , ment ion, pass.postpone, s tar t , understand

Last month, I had an important Engi ishexam. I decided not to 1 put off studying(as I norma[y do!) and got up earty everymorning to 2 get down to work straightaway. I 'm a 'morning person'and I 3 gota lot out of my revision sessions. I alwavsbegan by 4 going over a practice test I

-had

done - checking my answers and 5 f ind ingout what things I 'd got wrong. I also triedto 6 work out why I 'd made mistakes. If Ididn't understand something, I 'd 7 write itdown and then 8 br ing i t up in c lass wi thmy teacher. She was very hetpfuI and she9 went through a l " t o f the th ings thatwoutd probabty 10 come up in the exam.In the end, the exam wasn' t so bad af ter a[ [and I th ink i 11 got through i t . Mind you,I stit[ haven't had my resutts yetl

9 Wort in pairs. Discuss these questions.

What new informat ion have you found outabou t b ra ins?Which schooI subject do you get most outof?Do you t ry to work out your EngLishmistakes yourset f before you ask thetea cher?Do you wr i te down vocabulary L is ts or justt ry to remember everyth ing?Do you put of f s tudying for an exam or atest unt i I the n ight before?Have you ever got through an exam or atest you thought you'd fa i ted?

Situation 1You f ind i t hard to s tudyfor exams at home(why?). You th ink you aregoing to fa i I but don' twant to speak to yourteacher (why not?). Youdon' t know what to do.

Some friends have invited

I#.?,l i" lpins hoirday in:j:.-.rlT ru, (w h e re ?) . yo uwant to go. Thev arJ, ,

::",'lr, 16;' ;;j;;; ;:',Y.jl,l"Jl.l, "f activities (sucfli:1...t?r.are not very;portV but you want i^nt ro i *,"-r'r"#;:11' il'r rn",> r r u U l o y o u d o ?

Situation 4

A friend is alwaYs 9o.P,Ytnsvour homework and tdeas

inow?\ but Your t r teno

u-t*uYt seems to get.!."t'"t

**ttf." ttft;tt' subject?)! You

;;; ;"; the teacher-thinks

""" *oV from Your friend

and not the other way

;;;";. what stroutd You do?

pUoft,.... UNBUoTT,'Th. trai., is a wonJerfi,l or{an; it starts worLindthe nroytrent you {et up in the rnornind and do.sn'tstop until yorr {et into the office.'

Pc,tert Frc,st, Arrerican poet (t}l|_:f�rll)

Situation 2

.s aresoonrr youwith ;You r

abou ta t hoyou I

SituatYour pon ho l(wherewa nt t((why ntare worteavi ngWha t s i

Page 71: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

24 Communicq rksh,ipt

Writing

Before you stort

1 Rewrite the information betowusing each word or expression to jointhe two sentences.

a l though, despi te, even though,however, in spite of,on the other hand, whereas

Some peopte f ind the idea of c loning awhote person repulsive.They don' t mind the c loning of humanorgans for transp[ant operations.

ExampleAlthough some people find the idea ofcLoning a whole person repulsive, theydon't mind the idea of cloning humonorgans for transplant operations.

2 neaa the article. Match theseheadings with the paragraphs A-D.

. conctus ion (your opin ion)

. arguments against c toning

. introduction of the topic

. arguments for cloning

3 Comptete the text with thesetinking words.

a l though, despi te, even though,however, in spite of,on the other hand. whereas

t ,

't '.' ,;

Every week we invite a well-known personalityabout an issue in the news. Tltis week, Sophie Macleanlooks at cloning and asks ...

Does Mother Natureknow best?Cloning - using genetic engineedng to make exact copies of livingplants and animals - has been in science fiction for years. Since1997, with the cloning of a sheep, Dolly, it has become part of reallife and the subject of public debate.

For some people, human cloning is acceptable in medicinet the criticism that it is urmatural. For example, humantissue can be cloned for use in organ replacement or gene therapy.Also, organs provided by human clones could be 100% donor

compatible 2 -�organs provided in other ways might not beas successful. Moreover, couples who can't have children might beable to clone a child from themselves. Finally, endangered animalscould be cloned to increase their numbers.

C 3 there are many arguments against cloning. 4

many people saw the cloning of Dolly as a major breakthrough,now they have to face the fact that the sheep is no longer alive.

Thus, 5 what some say, scientists have no idea of theterm effects of genetic engineering. A growing number ofgenetically created creatures might be acceptable to society;6 -, creatirg'perfect'plants and animals coutd eliminategreat variety of natural species on our planet. Furthermore,7 -organs from cloned animals could be transplanted intohumans, the risks to health are enormous, and some people findthe idea repulsive.

All things considered, I am against cloning. It is clear to me thatneed to regulate genetic engineering and stop experiments now,before it is too latel

, t i

Page 72: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

t@ t@@t

Discursive Essay (I)

Write an essay with the title: 'shoutd

Smoking Be Banned?' Fottow the stages.

S Writing Help 6, page 141.

Stage IWork in pairs to brainstorm ideas. List asmany arguments as you can - both for andagainst banning smoking.

Example

Work individua[[y. Decide what youropinion is. Write notes for four paragraphs.

Stage 3Use your notes to write the essay.

Stoge 4Check your essay.

TolkhockWork in pairs. Read each other's essays andassess them:

a a good argument but I don' t agreeb totat ty convinc inglc not a very convinc ing argument

For

Qouerru,ttznt wou,/d'tax? woney on/m"eltca/ireatwznt.

;;n,;

Against

Qouerwaznt wou/d,l"osewntTfrom'tax on, ulare,{ter.

#i$;

{

hot?(lah"tne

l isf eningBefore you stort

1 I-oot< at the picture. What kind of programme do you think it is?

a chat show, a documentary, a panel discussion, a game show

2 tisten and check your answers to Exercise 1. Then put thesetopics in the order they are mentioned.

. freezing dead bodjes . genetic engineering . long l ife

A TV Programme

Listen to a doctor taking part in a TV programme.Answer the questions.

o

O 3 Urt"n again. Complete each statement from Dr Cartwright witha few words.

1 0ur knowledge of the human genome wi t t radicat ty changemedic i neThere 's no doubt that i t wi t l . he l .p us _ .We have already identif ied a lot of genes thatWe know that many common diseases. [ ike cer ta in k indsofWe can manipulate processes butWe may be abte to freeze certajn body parts whichBy the year 2020, over 20 percent of the poputation

Pronunciul ion

234567

O 4 lirt"n to three sentences. Choose the correct meaning,a, b or c, according to the way each sentence is stressed.

1 The man at the back in the btuejacket .a not the woman b not the f ront c not the green jacket

2 There is no doubt that it wil"l" heLp us to cure a[[ sorts of i l [nesses.a not some doubt b not ident i fy c not d iseases

3 By the year 2020, over 20 percent of the poputat ion wi [ [ beover eighty.a not the year 20L0 b not 30 percent c not over n inety

Work in pairs. Practise saying the same sentences but with adifferent stress to show the other meanings.

Page 73: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

(ommunicotion WorkshopsG a .

)pe0Krng

Before you start

Q 1 listen to two peopte discussinggenetic engineering. How would youdescribe Tom's and Jan's opinions on thesubject:

. strongty in fuvour?

. strongty against?

. in fuvour but with reservations?

&hafi,otn

Cottoquiat Expressions

O 2 Listen again and match thewords betow with the colloquialexpressions (1-6) .

are not at at [ in terested, I d isagree, amsure, not in any c i rcumstances,comptete ly unacceptable or absurd,f rom the beginning

1 From the word go2 They don't care two hoots about ...3 I be t you wou ld . . .4 I wou[dn ' t touch i t wi th a bargepote!5 lt 's totalty off the map!6 Come off it!

E. Lexicon, page 164.

Format and Informal Expressions

3 M"t.tr the formal expressions(1-5) from the TV programme in theListening Workhop with the informalexpressions (a-e) from Tom and Jan'sdiscussion.

1 The f i rs t th ing I 'd L ike to say is . . .2 The important th ing is to . . .3 I 'd t ike to point out that . . .4 There 's no doubt that . . .5 I n my op in ion . . .

a We've got to . . .b Let 's face i t . . .c For s tar ters, I th ink . . .d I reckon . . .e J u s t l o o k a t . . .

Lha

A Discussion

Discuss issues related toheatth and medicatadvances. Fo[[ow the stages.

Stage IRead the Strategies.

Speaking Strategies: Avoiding problems

. Try to avoid diff icu[t subjects with vocabu[ary you don't know.

. Don' t pretend you know about topics when you don' t !

. I f you don' t have a ctear opin ion about something, behonest, e.g. Io be honest, I hqven't really thought about that.

Which of these subjects betow would you avoid?

1 Shoutd we genet icat l .y modi fy ptants and animals?2 What problems would occur i f peop[e l ived to be over 100?

3 Shoul"d the government ban smoking?4 Shoul,d women over fifty be atlowed to take ferti l" ity drugs to he[p

them have a baby?5 Do you th ink teenagers in your country are becoming more unheat thy?

Stoge 2Write a few notes about the topics above that you can talk about.Use the photos above and headl ines to help you.

Genetis cure the only hope for eatin$ disorders%4e, a*.e- q*-",e4# 6.-6@

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acGenetic engineering to eradicate hereditary illness .{{.

Stoge 3Look at the expressions in the Chatroom and in the Function File onpage 45 (Lesson 15). Practise saying your opinions to yoursetf.

Stoge 4Work in groups. Discuss some of the issues above.

TulkbockTelt the ctass some of the opinions of the people in your group.

Page 74: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I nead the ar t ic te aboutLance Armstrong. Whathave been his two majorachievements?

2 Uo* do you th inkArmstrong must have fettat these t imes?

. before he went to thedocto r

. when he received thedia g nosi s

. dur ing chemotherapy

. when he was t ra in ingfor the Tour de France

. when he won the Tourde France the f i rs tt ime

Y:tt*##The Courage of a WinnerMany people wil l know about Lance Armstrong's seven wins in the Tour de France,

but fewer people wil l have heard of his battle with cancer'

ln the summer of ,l996, everything must have been going perfectly for the tuventy-five-

year-old Texan cyclist. He had just won a major race and was ranked 7* in the world. He had

been offered contracts by big sporting companies, such as Nike, and did not need to worry

about money. His future looked bright.Then, in September 1996, Armstrong went to the doctor with a pain. He should have gone

earlier but he had ignored the pain so that he could continue racing. When he went to the

doctor that day, he could not have known what was about to happen to him. Within two

hours, he had been diagnosed as having cancer which had spread to his lungs. There was a 600/o

chance he would survive and a 4Oolo chance he might die.

Lance put his head on the doctor's desk in despair. However, when he looked up he said

with determination: 'Let's get started. Let's kill this stuff.' ln the next few months, he had to have

two operations and to undergo chemotherapy treatment. He lost weight and felt so tired that he

had to sleep tvuelve hours a day. But throughout his battle with cancer, Armstrong was

determined not to let it beat him.After months of suffering, Armstrong recovered enough to start his next battle: to win the

Tour de France. During periods when he did not have to have chemotherapy, he rode his bike

30 to 50 miles a day. By the summer of 1999, he did not need to tal<e any

more medication and, according to his doctors, was 98o/o 'home' in his battle

agarnst cancer"

*.*.* ll

Many people doubted Armstrong's abil ity to become a top cyclist again but. they need not have worried. This young man must have a special kind of drive

, B"Wu""n ,l999

and 2005, Armstrong became the first rider ever to win the Tour

, de France an amazing seven times!Lance Armstrong is now a sPorting suPerstar. He does not have to worry

r about proving himself any more. However, we must not forget that he rs

different from other stars. Lance Armstron8 is, of course, now more than a sports

, star - he is a symbol in the fight against cancer. The Lance Armstrong Foundationl: has sold nearly 50 mill ion wristbands to raise money for cancer sufferers.

f,i,,,.,,,,,,:,,,,ri,, '

ln his autobiography, Armstrong gives advice to young men between the ages

of 20*34 who should be aware of the disease he suffered.' l neverthought I 'd get

cancer,' he says. 'But young, strong men must realise that this can happen to them, too.'

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E Gramffisr Summnry" Page 15a.

3 loot at the sentences with must in

the text. When does ,?tust express:

a obt igat ion? b specutat ion?c prohib i t ion?

4 loot< at the expressionsin red. Which of them saythat someone:

a d id something at though i t wasn' tnecessa ry?

b d idn ' t do something becausej t wasn' t necessary?

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5 neaU these sentences from the text. Does wiltexpress:

a future? b specutation? c obtigation?

1 Many peopte wi[ [ know about Lance Armstrong'sthree wins in the Tour de France.

2 Fewer peopte wit[ have heard of his battte with cancer.

What t ime does each sentence talk about?

6 Wtti.tr of the modaI verbs and expressions in blueexpress:

a obt igat ion? b Lack of obt igat ion?c speculation? d prediction? e possibiLity/abitity?

Which of them talk about:

a present? b past? c future? d future in the past?

4' More practice. Language Powerbook, page 86.

Page 75: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

rtII

Review ]:

Grommor

1 Comptete the condi t ional sentences us ing asuitable form of the verbs in brackets.

1 I f F leming (not leave) bacter ia in a d jsh.he woutdn' t have d iscovered penic i tL in.Have you seen your horoscope? Iout th is af ternoon i f I were youlI f you ____ (not go out) inwoutdn' t have caught a cotd.Many athLetes ___ (not break) records i ft hey hadn ' t used d rugs .Un tess we con t ro [ ' dop ing ' , t he o r i g i naL sp i r i t o fthe Olympics (d isappear) .I f you ta id out f la t the grey mat ter of a humanbrajn, i t (cover) an of f jce desklI f you have a headache, why ___ you __-(not take) an aspi r in?I f farmers used the new types of ptants, they

(have) crops that can res is t d isease.I f p lants were engineered in the r ight way.they ___ (have) the taste and consistency ofmeat - good news for vegetar iansl

10I f we had not bred f rom the wol f . the astonishinqrange of dogs _-- (not exjst).

2 Write sentences about what tife woutd be l. ike nowi f these th ings had not been invented or d iscovered.Use mixed condi t ionat sentences.

eLectr jc t ightbutbs, a vaccine for cholera. pr in t ing,pen i c i [ [ i n . t he a tom ic bomb, compu te rs , guns . t he whee t ,c l on ing , ca rs

ExampleIf electric IightbuLbs hadn't been invented, we wouLd stillhave to use cqndles.

3 Comptete these sentences saying what th ingswoutd have happened in the past i f the wor ld wasdifferent. Use mixed conditionats.

Examplet Ifthe Earth was covered bV sea, humans would not haveevolved.

1 I f the Earth was covered by sea, . . .2 I f humans had sma t [ b ra ins . . . .3 I f spaceships cou[d t raveI at the speed of L ight , . . .4 I f humans t ived 200 years, . . .5 I f there were in te l t igent robots, . . .

( n o t o o )

t h e r a i n , y o u

4 loot at some of the ideasfrom NASA. Write predictions aboutthem.

fxamplePersonally, I don't think that in fiftyyears't ime we'lL have OrrM1:...

NIAC: the Nasa Institute for AdvancedConcepts. a lift to take us into space \ l i. 'astrotels - space rockets like hotels *\ _ \

going between the Earth, the moon ..i,tHland Mars

o 'tl;

. the perfect telescope to observe the \unrverse t

. plants we can program and give 1� lcommands to, e.g" 'rturt groriring, I 1'produce fruit' \ ,

. using plants for producing armospheres i[j \ 1on other pranets, *;#;;ffi;i

" i,,,fri'. using robots to explore other pianets [_,10,

. using robot 'f ish' to explore the oceans $,

___:::::::1*:tt*:::":o'o::, "_.*_. l'

l

Il lIIIII

5 Wtite predictions about your own [ife. What do youth ink:

. you wi t l be doing jn f ive years ' t ime?

. you w i t [ be do ing i n t en yea rs ' t ime?

. you wit[ have achieved by the time you are thirty-five?

6 Comptete the second sentence so that i t has asimilar meaning to the first one. Use the word givenand up to four more words.

1 I doubt i f winning the marathon was easy for her .mustWinning the marathon for her .

2 We should g ive them a r ing in case they th jnk we'vehad an accident .wi l tWe shou ld g i ve t hem a r i ng o r had ana cc ident .

3 I t was very k ind of you to come and cot lect me buti t wasn' t necessary.needIt was very kjnd of you but you _______and col lected me.

4 I cut my hand but luck i [y s t i tches weren' t necessarV.needI cut my hand but I **-____ .

5 She's probab[y fee[ ing a b i t depressed af ter get t ingher exam resutts.can'tShe ___ after getting her exam results.

Page 76: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

t2

34

Vocobulory

7 Complete the sentences with these words.

of f , out (x3) , out of , over (x2) . up (x2)

I atways put _____ tidying my room as [ong as possib[e!I p icked a ' f [u bug whi te I was away. I t took metwo weeks to get __ it.You shouldn't give ___ so easity - keep trying!It took us a long time to carry ---* theresearch, but we got a lot the project.I used the Internet to find about geneticallymodi f ied food but I s t i t l can ' t work exact lv howthey do i t .

6 Some peopte th ink computers are tak ing __ our l ives.

8 Comptete the compound words in these sentences.

1 The nearest s tar to our solar is over fourtight __ away.

2 Are you sure that 's correct? Can you doub[e-- i t?3 In the museum there are t i fe-_ models of d inosaurs.4 Many th ings are mass-_ in factor jes nowadays.5 They showed a slow __ reptay of the goat.6 I am against genet ic of p lants and animats.7 She is a record-_- ath lete but has been under

suspic ion of tak ing per formance-_ drugs.8 After severaI set __ and years of t ime-

experiments, the scientists fina[[y made amaior break in the fietd of artif icial

9 Brit ish-_ , f ifteen-_Jon Kaspar is a sof tware engineer.

10 Neuro have first knowtedge ofthe data-_ abitit ies of the brain through studyingi ts e lect r icaI imputses.

9 Comptete the sentences with the words below.

' f lu , maLar ia, meastes, pneumonia, pol io , te tanus, TB

1 Phi t has a pain in h is lungs and f inds i t d i f f icuLt tobreathe. He could have -__ or -- .

2 Sonia has a very bad cold and a h igh temperature. Shemay deve[op

3 Mary has a temperature and sma[[ red spots on her sk jn.She might have caught

4 Stewart is in the t ropics and has got a very h ightemperature. He coutd be suffering from _ .

5 Ian contracted ---- when he was a chitd; it affectedthe nerves in h is spine and now he can' t move the musctesin one o f h i s [ egs .

6 I cut my hand recent ly and now I can ' t move my jaw.

Do you th ink I may have p icked up - - - ?

Qoftfturttne

Pronunciol ionO f O Listen to the sounds in these words:

7 /ut/ you 2 /ct/ sort 3 /eu/ go4 /t/ ott 5 /t,/ shtf.f.

Now match the sounds with the words betow.

Example fought = 2

fought , though, th rough, cough, thought , ought .enough, a t though. rough, tough, bought

Q Listen and check your answers. Then listenagain and repeat the words.

O 1 1 Listen and repeat these sentences. Howmany di f ferent sounds tor 'ou'can you ident i fy?

1 The young coupte bought a new house.2 Atthough he was wounded, the tough boxer

fought another round.3 You were unconscious for about four hours.

t2 Can you say this proverb? Use the phonet icchart on the inside back cover to hetp you.

/crl wsft end neu pler merks dsek e d,rl bcr/

What do you think the proverb means?

Tronslol ionI 3 transtate the sentences into Engtish.

t B nocnpeceHbe ;ariM) rrl uorlol'o]rl4Nlr4r ro:lll)aBJ reH rrfl Mr4. oTKla,llbrBarb y)Ke HerBfl .

z Ec.lre 6rr pa6o'ra He orHr4N4aJra y \,reHrr rar(Nrnofo BpcMeHr.{, n 6rr yexa:ra 3a ropoil elteBqepa l,r ceriqac Bece;iu4.;racb 6br B\aecle cXll.Y'll,ttM11.

3 Voxc ' r 6rr r r , . us i l He r i lK() r4 ( :T i tp i t re. r ,Hbu4,

HO 3aro C006pa3l.rre.rnHnrr.i. TaK .tro BaM Hec'r'or4'l' 6eoronouucfl. Jl nyvan, oHC|lpaBh't'cfl c . )K3a\,leHaMt4.

Ec.rua 5r,r He o'r'Kl)brl.re /lt{K, Koropoe 6br.rooI'poMHbrM rocrr4)Kerrr4eM B t)6.rract'ufeHerr4lfl4, ulr 6lt lle cMol'll4 orpaBh'ncfl crt)\1[lor't4\4t4 llac' Ie]ICTBcHHbtN,tI{ Ilpo6-r{]]taMl4.

flponepne eute pa; nce pe3y.lr,ra rlr,coTpy,itHr.{Kr4 na6ol)aropr4r4 [oHfr.ru.4, q'r'o oilblr'y.{ancfl. I4r pa,rocru He 6br.iro rpere.ra -

BerL BCe :rra:ur6 q'r'o J1'o o'r'KpbrT'ile ilNteroorpoMHoe 3HarreHr.re rlrfl 6yi1)'rilefo\4e/IntlI4HbI.

Page 77: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

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\ ) tj ((e, j r Look at the map and ctassi fy the

countr ies according to the fo l lowing groups.

. EngL i sh spoken as a f i r s t [ anguage

. FnEL ish spoken as a second Language - i ti s used i n schooLs and un i ve rs i t i es andas a L ingua f ranca

. EngL i sh spoken w ide l y as a f o re ignLanguage

,r, t isten to the first part of a [ecture andcheck your answers to Exerc ise 1.

' , , L is ten to the second par t of the lecture.Match these dates wi th the events below.

1788, 1806, 1782, 1.840, 1.607, 1.848

1 _ t he f i r s t p r i son co lony i nAustraLia

2 _ Br i t ish Loya[ is ts move nor th in toCa na da

3 _ the f i rs t Br j t jsh coLonv jn

Vi rgi nia4 _ Webster 's Dict ionary of Amer jcan

EngL ish5 _ the t reaty between the Br i t ish

and the l t 4ao r i s i n New Zea [and6 _ Lhe s ta r t o f mass i ve em ig ra t i on

from CentraL Europe to the USA

{.} 4 f - i r t "n again. Are these sentences t rue or fa tse?

1 At the t ime of the US independence there were th i r ty s tates.2 Amer jcan Engl ish borrowed words f rom Nat ive

Amer i can [anguages .3 Noah Webs te r changed the speL l i ng o f many EngL i sh wo rds .4 Canad ians do no t use Amen 'can words .5 Aus t ra l j an Eng [ i sh has s im iLa r i t i es w i t h a London ' cockney '

a cce nt .6 New Zea[and EngLish sounds very d i f ferent f rom AustraUan

EngL ish .

{ } S l i r t .n to s ix peopLe tatk ing. Use the ctues to ident i fythei r accents.

Amer i can , Aus t ra l i an , New Zea [and ,Canad ian . Jama ican , Sou th A f r i can

L ,+ $ l* L is ten again and answer these quest ions.

1 Whjch of the var iet jes of Engl ish sound very s imj [ar?2 Whjch do you f ind most d j f f icu l t to understand?3 Wh ich do you f i nd t he eas jes t?

"F Wort in pai rs . Discuss these quest ions.

1 Wha t a re t he pos i t i ve aspec ts o f EngL i sh be ing a g tobaLLanguage?

2 Wha t a re t he nega t i ve aspec ts?

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Page 78: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

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read a t raveL s to ry and an adver t ; use read ings t ra teg ies fo r answer ing t rue / faLse ques t ions inmore than one tex t .

l i s ten to monoLogues, d ia logues , a TV adver t ,a song and a presenta t ion ; use [ i s ten ingstrategies for identi fying situatjons.

ta lk about t rave l exper iences and g ive ap rese ntatro n.

write a formaI Letter.learn about verb pa t te rns and express ionsus ing - ing fo rms and in f in j t i ves .

Worm-up

1 took at the photos. Where do you think theptaces are? Check your answers on page 135.

O 2 l i r t"n to four people talk ing aboutjourneys they've made. Match the speakers(1-a) with what happened (a-e). There's oneextra event. Which person:

a didn' t go as far as ptanned?b took too much luggage?c bumped in to a f r iend?d had the hot iday of a [ i fet ime?e spent the n igh t in an a i rpor t?

3 Choose two places in the pictures that youwoutd [ike to go to. Use the Key Words towri te br ief notes about them.

KEY WORDS:breathtak ing v jews, bust l ing st reets,cul turaI meLt i ng-pot , det ic jous food.d rama t i c scene ry , eLeganL a rch iLec tu re ,exo t i c an jma ls , h j s to r j c bu i l d i ngs ,ideaL for adventure spor ts ,in terest ing f lora and fauna, L iveLy n ight t i fe ,romant ic atmosphere, snow-cappedmoun ta ins , spec tacuLa r bu iLd ings ,teeming wj tdLj fe. unspoi t t forests,w ide open spaces , wo rLd -c lass a r t ga [ [ e r i es

4 Wort< in pai rs . Tatk about theadvantages and disadvantages of going tosome of the ptaces you'd t ike to go to.

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Page 79: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

25 0n The RoudrFi:t

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Before you s]ort

1 loot at the photos. Whichobjects in the Key Words do youthink woutd be most useful ona t r ip t ike th is? Rank themfrom the most to the Leastuseful.

KEY WORDS

backpack , camp bed ,f i sh ing hooks . mosqu j t o ne t ,water bot tLe

aLa rm ing ,app rehens i ve , cou rageous .comfcr tabLe, daunted, exc i ted,exhaus ted , jmpa t j en t ,

imp ress i ve , pa in fu [ , p rom is ing ,f r i gh tened , t u rbuLen t . uneasy

Reoding2 neaa extract 1. Chooseadjectives from the Key Wordsto describe the narrator'semot ions and exper iences?Expla in your choices.

3 ReaO extracts 2-3. Findadjectives in the Key Words todescribe each si tuat ion.

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r{In Decelnber 1951, two young men, a biochemist and a

medical btudent, set out on a journey from their nativeArgentinh through Chile, Peru and Brazil to the United States of

Ameriba.The biochemist was Alberto Granado; his companion watwenty-three-year-old Ernesto (Chr4) Guevara, the future

revolutionary and cultural icon. Here are three extracts fromGuevara's diary of the journey, published as The Motorcycle Diaries.

f ' Th roggh Argen t i na by mo to rb i ke) -,'The night before our departure, I came down with a cough and a high 3 I

tempqiature and consequently, we were a day late leaving Bahia Blanca. TWaFinally, at three in the afternoon, we left under a blazing sun and by the .rarvti"ye we reached the sand dunes around Medanos, it had become even hadhbtter. The bike, with its badly-distributed weight, kept bounding out of horn

'i control, the wheels constantly spinning over. Alberto fought a painful battle Whiwith the sand and insists he won. The only certainty is that we found rno\ourselves resting comfortably in the sand six times before we finally made it on tout on to the flat. We did, nevertheless, get out, and this is my compafrero,s stremain argument for claiming victory over M6danos. defiFrom here I took over the controls, accelerating to make up for precious lost andtime. A fine sand covered part of a bend and - boom: the worst crash of the witlwhole trip. Alberto emerged unscathed but my foot was trapped and intcscorched by the cylinder, leaving a disagreeable souvenir which lasted a long at lrtime because the wound wouldn't heal. rnosA heavy downpour forced us to seek shelter at a ranch but to reach it we I c1had to get 300 metres up a muddy track, and we went flying another two thirtimes. Their welcome was magnificent but the sum total of our first we Iexperience on unsealed roads was alarming: nine crashes in a single day. Oncamp beds, the only beds we'd know from now on, and lying beside our bike,La Poderosa, our snail-like dwelling, we still looked into the future withimpatient joy.

2 H i t chh i k ing th rough Ch i l e

Scarcely a few metres separated us from the Civil Guard post marking thelimits of the town, but already our backpacks felt a hundred times heavierthan they were. We decided to make our first stop and test our lucl< with tpassing trucl<s. All we could see in the direction of the road was a barrenhillside, with barely any vegetation; placid Tacna, with its little dirt streetsand terracotta roofs, waited so far in the distance it seemed almostdaunting. The first truck to pass caused us great turmoil; we stuck out ourthumbs apprehensively and to our surprise the driver stopped just ahead of Ius. Alberto took command of the operation, explaining the purpose of ourjourney and asking him for a lifq the driver gave an affirmative nod,indicating we could climb in the back, with a whole band of Indians.Collecting our bags and crazy with gratitude, we were about to climb upwhen he called out to us: 'Five soles to Tarata, you know that, right?, Albertofuriously asked why he'd said nothing earlier, when we'd asked to be takenfree of charge. The driver wasn't sure exactly what 'free of charge' meant,but to Tarata it was five soles ... And every one of them will be like that,'

. Alberto said angrily, directing all his frustration toward me, who had

t suggested the idea of walking out of town to hitch a lift, rather than waito'there like he wanted to do. The moment became decisive. I.0f6 could go back,

nin which case we'd be admitting defeat, or we could continue on foot, letting". whatever would happen, happen. We decided on the s€bond course and

started walking.

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Page 80: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

llvo or three mosquitoes alone could not beatmy desire to sleep and within a few minutes ithad defeated them. My triumph was empty,however, as Alllerto woke me to help him.l\ihat followed was the hugely arduous task ofmoving the raft towards the lights of a townon the opposite bank. We rowed at fullstrength, and just when it seemed we weredefinitely on our way, we'd turn a half circleand head back into midstream. We watchedwith growing desperation as the lights driftedinto the distance. Exhausted. we decided thatat least we could win the fight against themosquitoes and sleep peacefully until dawn. ...I clung to the thought that no matter how badthings became, there was no reason to supposewe couldn't handle it.

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Read the Strategies.

R e a d i n g S t r a t e g i e s : . , :

. F i r s t , r ead the ex l rac l s Lo geL a gene ra I i deao f each o f t hem. Take a no te o f t he head ingsand impor tan t wo rds i n each ex t rac t .

. R e a d t h e q u e s l i o n s a n d r o u g h t y a s s i g n t h e mto each extract . Remember that there isn ' taLways an equa l number o f ques t i ons pe r t ex t l

. Dav spec ia I a t t en t i on t o t he f i naL ques t i on asth is may requi re knowLedge of aLL the extracts.

. U n d e r l i n e t h e i m o o r t a n t w o r d s i n e a c hques t i on . Wa tch ou t f o r s jm j t a r wo rds andexpressions jn the texts.

. F ina t l y , check a l l Lhe answers once aga in .

QCo'[ l ] . . . . UN?UO'I t ,'l-;{:e .,rll srt:rt tr"lvellcrs. I h'ln. sccn rrrolc th:rn ir.r"r,.rr,L.r: ;rn.l rqhe nrLcr r 'trorc tir:rrr I h,ar" s..n.

l \ . . r r i , r r t , i r r l - ) i q 1 . . ; , . 1 i 1 A r 1 J p , , 1 1 ,

I)ritish If inrc Ministcl

inruneqo

5 Read extracts 1-3 again and decide if these statementsare true (T) or fatse (F). Use the Strategies to hetp you.

f f l n t ler to thoughf he had beaten M6danos because theyontv fe[[ off the bike three times.

2 [ ] Tw; of thei r fa t ts happened because of the weathercond i t i ons .

3 [ ] Thei r f i rs t n ight on the road was.spent ty ing on theground next to thei r b ike.' , , + ZAlber to was angry because he bet ieved the t ruck dr jverhad agreed to take them wi thout payment .Alber to and Che had d i f ferent jdeas about the star t ingpo in t f o r t he i r h i t chh i k i ng .Despite their efforts, the raft didn't come close to thes ho re.He managed to beat the mosquitoes by faLLing asl.eep.No matter what happened on thei r journey, tdeycont inued to feeI opt imist ic about the future.

Read the extracts again and answer these'questions.

Find words and expressions jn the f i rs t ext ract that teL[ youthe men were inexper ienced motorcycle t ravel ters whenthey set off.Why do you th ink they f i rs t fe l t 'c razy wi th grat i tude'andthen ' fur ious 'wi th the t ruck dr iver?Why was the narrator 's v ic tory over mosqui toes descr ibed as'em pty'?.What were thei r s t rengths and weaknesses as t ravet lers?What do you th ink they were t ike as peopl"e?

Vocubulury : Wordbui ld ing$ i l

- = * " ;

7 match the prefixes with the words to make theopposites.

Exampte to disoppear, uncomfortabLe

p r e f i x e s d i s . i [ , i r , i m , i n , m i s . u n

verbs appear , beL ieve , do , d ress , pack , quaL i fy . unders tand,wra p

adjectives comfortabLe, convenient, correct, crowded, eff icjent,f r iendLy , heLpfu t , hones t , in te res t ing , Lega l , loya l ,lucky, patient, possib[e, ret iabLe, responsibLe.sensit ive, si mi lar, spoitt , to[erant

G a)pe0Krng

8 Work in, pairs. Imagine you are on hotiday togetherand'tatk about these things. Use prefixes to contradictyour partner.

hotet , beaches, [ocaI peopte, countrys ide, tour guide, wai ters,food, [ocaI buses

Examp leA I like the hotel we are stoying at. It's qufte comfortable.B I disagree. I think it's reaLIy uncomfortabLe!

5 [ i

6 E

7 a8 I

67

45

,1"-#.r

r , l 4

t a I

I Row ing a ra f t i n B r az l l .

Page 81: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

% . :,bi

j ' l i

m"'":::lnl::"lJ: ;:' );lmericu btt t_"j:'."10

*ittt.tt. t*ert:i.:::;;; hard winters'rhere dur]1u.,'iio ,,ooo o* toautumn, tn"Y_'j1.i.., where tl

tiliffikL')ffi

;r#l;5f:}:ffij

'.'.TTT".;.l"T$:ii:#:fiT:l|#xffi:l'$;'lil';

,1f*:::ndeer##s.#;: ",::r:" w_arrD er foresrs

1"*r roo r_'""tr lr"l,j,

Green turtles migrate all the wayfrom the coast of Brazil to breed onthe smal l i s land o l Ascens ion , some3,140 km out in the Atlanticl Theyare an endangered species andecologists expect them to have beenmade extinct by hunting by the endof the century.

Revision: -ing form ond Infinit ive

3 toot at the examples from the l istening text.Try to choose the correct verb forms in italics.

1 I've atways enjoyed to travel,/travelLing.2 lt's no use to complain/complaining.3 What about fo go/going abroad?4 We decided to see/seeing the wortd.5 I refuse to stand/standing still.6 There's no point in sit/sitt ing around.7 I can't stand fo do/doing nothing!8 i put off to go/going abroad atL my l.ife.9 It 's worth fo spend/spending my savings.

10 I expect to l ive/l iving for a few more years.11 I 've always been interested in fo look/Looking

at nature.By find/finding hotiday bargains we'vemanaged to travel/travelLing ...It 's amazing to see,/seeing ...It 'd be a good idea fo do/doing that soon.We're ptanning to go/going to Mexico next year.I 'm looking forward to watch/wotching ...

4 prt the verbs and expressions from Exercise 3 in thecorrect cotumn in the tabte. Add more items to eachcolumn.

Vrnss nNo ExpREssroNsFOTLOWED BY ..Tfl6 FORM

enjoy

Blue whales eat tons ofin the polar seas but in the withe sea freezes over. By migratingtemperate or tropical zones, thewhales are able to survive thewinter but often without eatinsanything for months!

Vrnes nHo ExpREssIoNsFOLLOWED BY INFINITTVE

decide

AB

AB

AB

AB

AB

5 Wnat verb form always follows a prepositionz an -ingform or infinit ive?

6 Choose the correct meaning (a or b) for the verbs inbold in each sentence.

1 I remember having a great t ime.a not to forget an obligation b to recat[ a past situation

2 I regretted not having been abroad.a to feeI sorry about something f rom the pastb to feeI sorry about something you have to do

3 I stopped working and retjred.a to give up the activity b to interrupt an activityin order to do somethjnq e lseSa[mon were t ry ing to f ight thei r way up.a to make an ef for t to do somethingb to do somethinq in order to see the resul ts

tcae

a

a

ET

l ,ll

7 2

7 37 41 51 6

Salmon live most of their life inthe sea but each generation has avery strong inst inct to migrate.They swim hundreds of miles uprivers and streams to lay their eggsin exactly the same place wherethey were born.

Q tisten to the woman again and check your answers.

Page 82: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Vrne ParrrnNs

Prurtice

7 put the verbs in brackets in the fottowingmini dialogues in an '-ing'form or infinit ive.

A How was the party?B HorribLe, I regret 1 - (go) there.

A Good morning, Mr Jackson. Have youcorrected our tests?

B Yes. I have and I regret 2 _ (tett)you that you've aLt fu jLed.

I can ' t open th is jar of honey.Try 3 - (put) i t in hot water for afew minutes.

I t looks l ike our v ideo has broken down.Why don' t we t ry 4 ( l "ook) att he manua [?

Are you sure you [ocked the door?I c tea r t y remember 5 - l t u rn ;t h o l z o r l i n l - h o l n r l z

Did you remember 6 - ( buy ) apresent for granny?Yes, I d id. And I remembered 7(get) her f lowers, too.

I could do wi th a dr jnk of water or ju ice.I 'm qui te th i rs ty myset f . Let 's s top8 lget ; a ar inL.

Wou[d you Uke some choco|"ate?No , t hanks . I s topped 9q r ^ / a p t < 2 n a < 2 n n

(eat)

8 tmagine you are in a b ig c i ty in a fore igncountry. You have just tost your passportand your money. Work in pai rs and use theexpressions betow to d iscuss these ideas:

. contact ing home . get t ing money

. f ind ing somewhere to s tay

. f ind ing food . get t ing back home

ExampteA lt'd be o good idea to find the poLice

stoti o n .B Yes, but first it's worth ...

What about , I t 'd be a good jdea to,I t 's worth, There 's no point in ,I t 's no use. We can' t r isk.I can ' t s tand , I don ' t m ind

lonrneqo\

ihe

tL)

trip

leY ab

I-?34.&\r,

t11

)no

123

AB

AB

AB

AB

AB

23

56

dlq* Hn*;;#tuPresentotion: -ing forn or Infinit ive

9 Wnl.f, of the sentences below say that somebody saw:

the act ion in progress?the completed act jon?

, I saw herds of reindeer trekking south., I saw a btue whale come to the surface.

We watched them swimming of f the coast in Patagonia.I watched it dive with its taiI in the air.

10 Uatctt the expressions in botd in the sentences (1-3) withtheir meaning (a-c).

We used to go camping a [ot . a a habi t in the pastI 'm used to doing th ings. b the process of becomjng moreWe've got used to being abroad. accustomed to something

c the state of being veryfamit iar wi th somethinq

Which of the expressions are followed by an infinit ive and whichare followed by an -rng form?

ffi, Grammar Summary 7, page 147.

Ptoct ice

I 1 Matclt the sentences with the pictures.

1 I saw him get of f the t ra jn.2 I saw him get t ing of f the t ra in.3 I watched the man ct imbing the mounta in.4 I wa tched the man c [ imb the moun ta in .

B

#tt*

1 2 Comptete the sentences with be used to, get used to or usedto in the appropriate form.

Wjld anjmats in the Serenget i _ the s ight of peopletak ing pho tos o f t hem.Dinosaurs be the most in tet l igent creatures on Earth.When I [ jved in Afr ica, I gradual ly s teeping under amosqui to net .A hundred years ago, people in Europe eat [ess f ru j tand vegetables.We haven' t been abte to ___ a[ [ that t ravel l ing yet .Travellers Living in different climates and conditjons.

Page 83: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

27 Trqns-Confinentul

I's s

12 Yor-r can sleep in a

ar prir,ate ber-lroom.cornpartment or

3 You cart herr,'c t,orrr fbod in \-()ur rr)()m rrl in t ire

4567

The obsen ation c'lomc is Lhc. bcst plarct-. forThe compan\r ofgallPriccs rarlgc from €

Work in pai rs . Ask and answer the quest ions. Check youunderstand the words in i tq l ics.

1 \ iVhat do you L jke and d jsLi ke about t ravel?2 Wha t i s t he [ onges t j ou rney you ' ve been on?3 What was the best f r ip you've ever been on?4 What was lhe Last schooL out ing you went on?5 Have you ever been on a package tour or on an excurs ion

wh jLe on hoL iday?6 Would you L ike to go on a cru ise?7 Would you L i ke to go on a Long sea voyage?

Listen and comptete the sentences wi th one or twowords. Woutd you [ ike to go on the t r ip? Why/Why not?

T R A N S - C A N A D AThc comoanv offels a holiclav that lasts for

3 ReaO the Strategies.

L is tening Strategies:

. Before you L is ten, [ool< at the aLternat ivesi n t h e q u e s t i o n s . T h i n k a b o u t w h a t t h e ya re go ing to t a l k abou t .

. Wha t a re t he impor lan t wo rds you hea r?T h e s e c a n h e L p y o u ' d e n L i f y L h e s i L u a r - i o n .

. Sound ef fects a lso of ten help you ident i fythe s i t ua t i on .

. Ts t he l a no r ra oe [o "ma L o r i n f o r ma [? Th i scan heLp you dec ide reLa t i onsh ipsh o l r r r o o n l - h o n o n n l a

. I i s t e n t o t h e i n t o n a l i o n o f t h e p e o p L e t oident i fy thei r moods.

L is ten to the Canadian t ravel d ia logues. Usethe Strategies to choose the correct a l ternat ivefor each d ia logue.

1 Where a re t he peopLe?a in a tour is t in format ion of f iceb i n a ho te I c a t t he obse rva t i on domed at the t raveL agent 'sWho j s t a l k i ng?a a tour is t and a t ra jnee b a recept ionis tand a ho teL gues t c a passenge r and thetour manager d two passengersWhat are they taLking about?a a tour around the c i ty b a detayc stopping of f somewhered the c i ty 's bui td ings

. : la :

: r :

LSL-S trips errrery year.t o f

' l ' l t , ' l t o l i d i r r i r t r l r r t l e s l l r r : l l i q l r l h o n r

l o ( l a l t a r l a a n , li l Yorr also get in Toronto and9 For a f lee broclmre, phone

10 The nalne of the companv's webs. i te is

Vanr;ourrer.

&?....,.. "

ffi*n- ,,]ir:' b :

6 Z

Page 84: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

O 4 l l r t "n again and use these expressions tocomplete the Funct ion FiLe.

Woul .d i t be possibte, Could you, I ,m sorry but ,I was wonder ing i f . Do you th ink I could, WiLt you be,I 'd prefer not , I 'm afra id, Is i t a t t r ight i f , I fyou,d t ike,Coutd you possibty, I wonder j f

234

i j ro t i t " Requests*l 1 __---- to fitl. in this form here, ptease.

=l 2 I know this is unusuaL, but af ter the Long f l " ightFl to go on with the group.Zl 3 -_-_-_ I just go off on my own a bit later?

, i l o _ she won,t be here t i t t about teno'cto ck.

5 -.-_"- having lunch in the hotet, sir?6 -..-----_ give me a map of the city, please?7 -"---.-_- you could give me informatjon

about v is i ts to some of the bui td ings in Toronto,p lease?

g ----.--- have something about the modernbui td ings, p lease?

9 -.=_.--.- ask someone e[se, ptease?10 _-_-___ I could ask you something?11 ---- to stay over an extra njqht in

Winn ipeg?12 _-_--_- we have to keep to the timetabte,

si r.

Are the expressions in the Function File direct andnot very polite or indirect and polite?

[ / 5 Pronunciat ion. L is ten and th ink about [anguageand intonation. Which requests are:

a pol i te and indi rect?b too d i rect and possib ly rude?

Q now listen and repeat six potite requests.

?uoTn.... uNBUoTn'GooJ breeJind consists of concealind horv rrlr,ch w.thinL of c,t rseives and horr, little wc ih;nk "f thc other

JOMftEilq

Vocobulury: Multi-port Verbs@t Lexicon, poges LZA-176"

6 Complete the requests with these verbs.

keep to, stop off, stay over, set off, get in touch with,go of f , p ick me up, catch up wi th

1 Cou|"d you __---_ outside the hote[ in tenminutes, p lease?Is it aLt right if I just ________ on my own?When can I _____--_ the tour guide, ptease?Do you th jnk we coutd _______ at the shopsfor a coup[e of minutes?Would it be possibte to _______ an extra njqntin Winnipeg and __ the t ra jn [ater?Coutd you possibty be here at ten, ptease, as wehave to the t imetabte?

7 Coutd you ptease te[ [ me what t ime weto morrow?

a l .)pe0Ktng

7 ReaA the Strategies.

Speaking Strategies: Being pot i te

. For requests in at[ situations, always use pleaseand thank you.

. In formaI s i tuat ions. use more indi rect expressions(see Funct ion Fi te) .

. Try to use pol i te jn tonat ion.

. When refus ing a request , g ive a reason,e.g. I 'm sorry but . . . , I ,m afra id that . . .

. Try to look f r iend[y and smj te at the person youare ta lk ing to.

Work in pai rs . Student A turns to page 134 andS tuden t B to page 136 .

honpwtug hntruesIs your [anguage more or less d i rect thanEngt ish? Think of examples.

XarL Trvain (fiv,-nrc)

Page 85: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

', rf itf

i,lli','':

f r ' . 128 Co ion Workshops

%

FfOm tOday, reservations are being taken for the firstsightseeing trip into space which we hope to offer from 2008

onwards. For around E75,000, astro-tourists can book a week's tripinto a low orbit 60 miles above the Earth, staying in comfortable

accommodation on our space hotel. The price includes:. ful l physical training r a made-to-measure space suit

r preparations for zero-gravity ' space walks

A team of ex-Nasa scientists and astronauts are involved in theproiect. The flight to the space hotel from Cape Canaveral lasts

three hours. Then orbit the Earth once every three or four hours forbreathtaking views of home!

IIII

Before you start

1 Read the advertisement andthe letter to 0rbitaI Tours.Which of these th ings is theletter writer worried about?

tra in ing, space sui t , space walks,weight [ jmi t for baggage,heal th insurance, accommodat ion,fl. ights, the price, work

2 rina mistakes of styte in theletter.

1 ( l . ine 1) 2 ( t ine 3) 3 ( l . ine 5)4 ( l " ine 7) 5 ( t ine 8)6 ( l " ine 8) 7 ( t ine 11)8 ( t i ne 15 ) 9 (L ine 16 )10 ( l . ine 17)

Example 7 Hi there

3 Reptace the mistakes withthese formal words andexpressions:

can be guaranteed, woutd prefer not,Dear Si r /Madam, i f possib[e,I [ook forward to hearing from you,to reserve, would [ike,I would be gratefuI i f you cou[d,Yours fuithfutty,Coutd vou p lease te[ [ me

Hi there,

I aw writinl to ask for more infownation abo.ut the 'Orbital Tours'

ho/iday. I arn vety ;nterested i' the holiday' but / want some /etails'

r;rrt'f, it is not clear whetheryour cututfan)/ ar nies fghts fron

rrrip,, I wo,ld like t, fy f"^ London' !.*:tO

all rtiht withyou'

suoirdly, I would be yai1"t ;pt" co'.ld tell 'ne what kind of

accomwodation is available. I would ltkeyou to sare me a place'

provide/ that the safelr of the trtp * O1 ,t

re,all/ don't want to share' o ,oo^ with anybody else unless it can't be helped'

rhirdly, you uoy th' price incl^/es f'll trainini atyour special space

u*ir..1rrt til ^' what the training inrolres exactf'

Ftnally, your advertisement also mentions NASA experts and space

*oli. rt, idea of space walks so'nds very interestini' as long as I

I(

cstfo

arn not expected to do a^y work for NA9A'.

Send me ,nore details about the dates and prizes'

Write soon.

Allthe best

MichaelDavi/son

,iF,ts5rr$nfl f ii:r{\!ql-1rry-ri:F{q:tl{ 14$11!:::li'ilt}:- !i

, ,i

::

Page 86: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

4 toot< at the sentences below. Replace theqnde(ine{ words with these words:

as long as, except i f , i f

I t is not cLear r ,vhethej y0ur company onl -y arranges f t ightsfrom the USA.I wou[d [ ike you to reserve me a pLace, prov ided that thesafety of the t r ip can be guaranteed.I would prefer not to share a room q4gts I have to.

Now choose the correct words from the brackets.

1 I t ike going to the beach (as [ong as/unLess) j t isn ' ttoo crowded.

2 I won' t go (prov ided that /untess) the room has ashower.

3 I don' t know (untess/whether) I woutd enjoy a bat loonftig ht.

4 The Arct jc cru ise sounds great (prov ided that /unLess)i t i sn ' t t oo coLd l

5 I don' t t ike s ightseeing (unless/whether) I have ag u ide.

6 The submar ine ho t i day sounds f i ne , ( as t ong as /whether) i t 's safe.

7 I am not sure ( i f /prov ided that) i t 's such a good idea.8 I 'd love to s tay (unless/provided that) there are

en sui te bathrooms.

A Formol Letter

Write a letter replying to a magazine advertisementby a hol iday company. FoI tow the stages below.

El Writing Help 7, page 142.

Stage IChoose a type of hotiday, e.g. Antarctic cruise, Africansafar i , ba l tooning across Europe, deep-sea d iv ing inthe Indian 0cean. Decide who you are going wi th, e.g.f r iends, fami ly , and when you want to go. Then wr i tea l is t o f th ings you want to f ind out .

ylce,- hour mttc/t l nrhnt doe,s Lt u,utLu"d,o?a"re tl.Lero a,tc)t sxtrorla"cc-olr,tra,od,a,ttzh, - terLt? cabwl hatelf t*rtbor d.owblc. rootu,?

fo.oil - ulhrLt kuodt are u,te,als uurl{,1d.e.d., w

th,o prtce?bqq"q, - any nrtqltt /L.nt/t/ck|lds - urlLat clithzs are suttable ?eanLlraae+lt - Ls ut prod.d.e/-.?heaX.tlt'arcd, acculirct Ln swraltc,e -h.oor sa.fe k ttlLa,ryuage - do jwld,es syak.,rngbslot

Iortneqo

Stoge 2Plan your paragraphs.

Stoge 3Write your letter. Remember to write in a format styte.Try to include examptes of unless, whether, as long osand provided thot.

Stoge 4Check your letter.

TolkhockWork in pairs. Read your partner's letter. Then imagineyou are a travel agent. Answer the questions fromhis/her letter.

Lirlening: A Song'Oariel'by tltonJahn

I took at the lyrics. Try toguess the missing words.For the final word of eacht ine think about words thatrhyme with the previousline, e.g. cry, my

Daniel is travel[ing 1 --- on a planeI can see the red tait t ights heading for 2

0h and I can see DanieI waving goodbyeGod i t looks Uke Daniet , must be the c louds in my3

They say 4 -- is pretty though I've never beenWelt Daniet says it 's the best place that he's ever5

0h and he should know, he 's been there enoughLord I miss Danie l , oh I miss h im so much

DanieI my brother you are 6 than meDo you stitt feeL the 7won't heaIYour eyes have died but you see more than IDaniel you're a star in the face of the 8

O 2 Now l is ten to the song and check yourguesses. Answer these questions about the song.

1 How does the s inger feet about h is brother?2 Why do you th ink DanieL is going away?3 What do you th ink might have happened inthe famil"v?

of the scars that

Page 87: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

CommunicolionWorkshops

SpeokingBe1ore you start

Q 1 listen to a presentation onthe topic 'Travet broadens themind.' and complete the notes.

What conctusion does the speaker reach?

GSs oharroonExpressing opinions

expressions below signal a different opinion?

apart from, as, as a resutt, but, contrary to,I disagree. in fuct, instead of, secondly, whereas

3 mot at the quotes (1-4) about travetting. Think of oneargument to support and one argument to contradict each.

1 Peopte who travel atone, travel the fastest.2 The wortd is a book, and those who travel read onty a page.3 Two great tatkers wit[ not travel far together.4 I love to travel, but I hate to arrive.

Example 1. In favour: when you are olone, you ore the onty person tomske decisions; you don't need to negotiate plans with anybodyAgainst: when you travel with somebody, they can help you out inmany situations; decisions ore often easier ta toke when you candiscuss options with somebody

4 Oo these express agreement or disagreement?

1 There may be some t ruth in that but I don' t reat ty th ink . . .2 But is i t a tways t rue? For example, th ink about . . .3 I think that's tota[[y right. A good example of this ...4 You've got a point there, especiaLLy that ...5 I woutdn ' t say so! For exampte, imagine . . .

A fopk Presentolion

Prepare a presentation on the advantagesand disadvantages of travelting on anorganised tour. Follow the stages.

Stage ILook at the table betow and use it to makenotes.

Exampte

Look for more ideas in th is modute.

Stage 2Think about how to present your argument.Choose one of these models:

A . Begin wi th your general opin ion aboutthis kind of trip (for or against)

. Present atl advantages

. Present a[[ disadvantages

. Conclude (for or against)B . Begin wi th your general opin ion about

th is k ind of t r ip ( for or against). Present the first advantage and give a

counter-argument for it. Present the next advantage and

disadvantage, etc.. Conclude ( for or against) .

Prepare your presentation usingexpressions in Chatroom, Exercise 2, andthe ways of contrasting argument inExercise 3.

Stoge 3Work in pairs. Give your presentation toeach other. Use the expressions fromChatroom, Exercise 4, to comment on yourpartner's opinions.

TolkhockTett the class about some of your partner'sbest arguments for and against this kind oftrip.

1 .-.-

H,

O 2 firt"n to the presentation once again. Which of the

Aovlrncrs Drslovlutnets

. You won' t missplaces worth visit ing.

. You can travel incomfort.

. You can't plan yourown route.

. You need quite alot of money.

Page 88: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

8 hhin( lssnforead a magaz ine page, a newspaper a r t i c le anda report; use reading strategies for doing( a n l a n . a n : n : r t i r r i t i o c

[ isten to the news, a lecture, a radioprogramme and d iaLogues; use L is ten ingstrategies for taking lecture notes.

ta lk about impor tan t human andenv i ronmenta l i ssues in the wor ld today .write a Letter of appLication.learn more about repor ted speech.

Worm-up

1 tutatch the Key Words with the photos,graphs and headl ines.

KEY WORDS:

deforestat ion, the destruct ion of habi tats ,e rdange red spec ies , t he expLo i t a t i on o fwomen , f am jne , f l ood ing , g loba l wa rm ing .the g reenhouse e f f ec t , maLnu t r i t j on , na tu ra Id isasters, overpopu [at ion, pover ty

2 l isten to four news stories and identifythe issues.

r / 5 Listen again. What do these figures referto?

Example 1. temperature increase in the20th century

1 0 . 6 " c 2 6 " c5 6b i t t ion 6 40Yo

4 1"1.,0008 L 2 c m

1.5 billion morepeople btlg3!

,#.; 'q.

d+'iH ..t

"",',X*ffi;:""4 8

4.0

3 2

2 1

1 . t l

:oo

,*\dtrdotr*e**

,ry,sfuv"

fl

, ;ffi6'k;;; *J.' P'ressu'b

.J[irtr

-i',ir

3\

3 5 ,0007 9 bi tLion

Villages cut off, byfloods

4 Wort< in pairs. Tatk about the gtobat issueson th is page. Which issue do you th ink is themost important for the 21st century?

Exampte I think famine is o very importontissue. I th ink. . .

Tett the class whatyou agreed.

EE Lexicon, paqe 154.

CO2 levels climb380 -- ." , . t . t 'o '"

3o6 in" ' ' *o-r t ' " ' " PP'" '

3f,0

320

3oo

261)

250

t'",ooo t'*

.!:r'iiJilf 'rllrll'

r4O0 1600 1800 2OO0

Destructidn of naturalhabitats puts some animals on ,

'r* ^^ 2ooo 21oor $,'4fl..n*il

n'T:'_;*ffi'ffi

the brink of extinction

Page 89: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

29 Unnol

Belore you starl

1 Wtrictr of the disasters in theKey Words do you think are:

. caused by peopLe?

. made worse by peopte?

. naturat?

KEY WORDS:u-ryrghtr,earthquakes, floods, forest fires,hurr icanes, [andsl ides, votcaniceruot ions. windstorms

Reading2 ReaA the article and checkyour answers to Exercise 1. : '

3 nead the Strategies.

Reading Strategies:Completing texts withsentence gaps

. Read the text to get then o n o r e I i d o e

. Read a paragraph wi th asentence gap and ident i fythe topic , e.g. d isasters.

. Read the sentences beforeand af ter the gap and [ookfor c tues about the miss ingsentence. e.g. is i t anexample of what is ment ionedbefore?

. Certa in words may help you:time references (then),pronoun references (it, that),l"inking words (however).

. Decide which sentence goesin the gap. Check that i t f i tsthe sentences before andafter it.

yearsdisaiters a experi are predictingTim Radford reports.

- A I I ere is how to become a disaster statistic. Move to a shanty town on an

;'ll;l:ft ':.xil':li;ff ?::,f :Trf ffJ":;:x,1J-*"1'I:Ti,1"Jffi1ffi ::!, means more rain, which means the slopes will get progressively more

$,1 waterlogged. One day, the land will turn to mud and the neighbourhood will:gil

ffij begin to go downhill. Literally. And if the slope is steep enough, the landslide' will accelerate to more than 200 miles an hour. Peter Walker, of the$$ international federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. has seen it all

too often. "First, your house has been washed away. Second the land that youfarmed has disappeared. (l)

B In the last decade, floods, droughts, windstorms. earthquakes, avalanches,volcanic eruptions and forest fires have become increasingly common. Therehas been disastrous flooding in Asia, Africa, Central and South America andOceania'(2)-Stormshavebeengettingworseeverywheretoo,witha growing number of hurricanes hitting the US, the Caribbean and CentralAmerica. Drought has affected large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa for years andmany other zones are becoming drier. (3) A number of nationshave already been in armed conflict over water, and drought in the West of theUS has resulted in enormous forest fires.

C Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes have always been a threat in certain partsof the world. A volcanic eruption virtually wiped out the small Caribbeanisland of Montserrat in 1991 and there have been serious earthquakes inGreece, Turkey and El Salvador. The quake that rocked the smail CentralAmerican country of El Salvador in 200 I came as the people were sli l lrebuilding their houses and recovering from 1998's Hurricane Mitch.

4 no* uie thi es to comPthese sentences(a-S). There is one extra sentence.

a But geotogicat evidence shows that 73,00Ay".* igo there '

was a much greater eruption.b Even prosperous Europe has suf fered and large areas of

France, Britain and Germany have at[ been under water.c That is probabLy not the most important factor either.d Thi rd, the other b i ts of [and you might have been ab[e to

farm are now useLess.e 0n top of a[ [ that , add ct imate change and the spectre of

g[obaI warming.f For example, the Yetlow River, once notorious for ftooding the Chinese

landscape, fa i ted to reach the sea at a[ [ on 226 days in 1997.g 0ne answer is overpoputat ion.

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Page 90: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

hhia(lssnes

ocobulury: Prefixes$ Lexicon, page 156.

6 tool at the words (1-10) from the textand the other examples in brackets. Match theprefixes with the meanings (a-j).

1 overpopulation (overgrown, oversleep)2 substandard (subway, submar ine)3 deforestation (defuse, dehydration)4 downhi t l " (downstream, downgrade)5 undernour ished (underpaid, undercooked)6 rebuitd (reptace, rewind)7 unstable (unusual , uncommon)8 semi-active (semi-circle. semi-fina[)9 multinationat (mutti-purpose, mutti-racia[)10 mismanagement (misunderstand, misp[ace)

answer these questions.

: 1 What js the attitude of the journatist towards the future?

:.+;1=

r$:hq:i$.'most tikety to be a victim of natural disasters?Wfry pre there now more hurricanes, ftoods and droughts?,Why'bre votcanoes and earthquakes more dangerous now?What couLd be the biggest threat to the planet in the future?

',What effects might this threat have?

opposi te of an act ionno t enoughdownwardsopposite of an adjectivepartl.y / hatf

7 Complete the sentences with words fromExercise 6 in a suitable form.

1 After the storm they had to -hundreds of houses which had been damaged.

2 Many peopte in the devetoping wortd suf ferfrom diseases because they are

3 0ur team was knocked out in theof the compet i t ion.

4 The bomb was about to go of f but theexperts managed to - jt.

5 I -- the question and fuil"ed the exam.6 I -- yesterday and arrived an hour

late for ctass.7 A Lot of houses cot lapsed in the ear thquake

because of - construction.8 Ftoods are not these days; they

happen more and more of ten.

a l .)pe0Krng

8 Wort in pairs. Discuss these questions.

1 What natura l d isasters have happened in thelast few months?

2 What do you th ink governments can do toprevent natura I disasters?

3 What organisat ions do you know that prov ideaid after disasters or work for theenviron ment?

4 What can we do as indiv iduats to improve theenvi ronment and hetp v ic t ims of naturaIdisasters?

Tett the ctass some of your answers.

a aga in fb badl.y gc below hd too much ie many j

: l

',F#'

So why is nature beginning to turn on us? (a) Thepopulation of the world is growing at the rate of I0,000 people anhour, 240,000 every day, nearly 90 million a year, with most ofthe growth in the developing world. People in agricultural areas,unemployed and sometimes undernourished, move to the cities,and then set up homes on poor soil, crowded into substandardbui ld ings.(5)-Thishasmain lybeencausedbythemismanagement of the world's resources: carbon emissions fromrich countries; the activities of the big multinational companies;the deforestation of the world's forests. As a result, a hotter oceanbreeds fiercer cyclones and hurricanes. It surrenders greaterquantities of water as evaporation, and more powerful windsdump this water against mountainsides with increasing fury.Atlantic hurricanes, for instance, are 40 percent more intense nowthan they were 30 years ago.

Volcanoes and earthquakes are even more dangerous than in thepast as around half the world's population now lives in cities.There are more than 500 active and semi-active volcanoes, aboutfifty of which erupt each year, and more than 500 million people

now live within range of a volcanic eruption. An even greater

number live at risk, in some degree, from earthquakes which havetaken a toll of more than 1.6 million lives in the last hundredyears.

Al1 the betting from the disaster professionals is that things willget worse. Professor McGuire, of University College London, is avolcanologist who has been warning for years that the world hasnot seen the worst nature can do. The worst eruption in humanhistory was probably Mt Tambora in 1815, in Indonesia. Itpumped so much dust into the stratosphere that it effectivelycancelled the following suffuner in Europe and America.(6) -

"It reduced temperatures by maybe 6"C in someplaces and the whole planet was plunged into winter for years.

And there are about two ofthese events every 100,000 years ..."

;!

Page 91: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

IIt

i

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Before you slarl

1 took at the map andanswer these quest ions.

1 Which countr iesproduce the most C0z?a developed countriesb devetoping countr iesc both

2 How many tonnes o fCOz are produced perpe rson i n you rco u ntry?

2 Wort in pairs. Decide if thesestatements are true (T) or fatse (F).

f I f ne 'g reenhouse e f f ec t ' i s caused bythe re lease of carbon-based gases.

Z I gr i ta jn 's coaI industry is producingmore and more carbon-based gases.

g [ , ] fne USA produces more harmful gasesthan any other country in the wor ld.

4 [ A[ t experts agree that g lobaI warmingis par t of a naturaI weather cyc le.

5 I 0nty the industr ia t ty devetoped countr iesare responsibte for gtobaL warming.

Now read the text and check your guesses.

Revision: Report ing

3 Wtrat were the original sentencesreported in the text?

Climate conferencecollapsesBy Bob RobertsMinisters at the conference in Buenos Aires today told theworld's press that they had failed to reach an agreement on'greenhouse gas' emissions, which raise the earth's temperature.Scientists warned that this would mean more pollution and agreater risk of disasters across the globe.A UN representative said the conference had been organised toreach agreements on reducing emissions. It was another foilow-up to the 1997 conference in Kyoto, Japan, when governmentspromised they would reduce emissions of carbon-based gasesbelow 1990 levels by 2OI2. In Kyoto, the European Union agreedto cut emissions by 8 %, Japan 6%, and the USA 7 % . At theconference Britain declared that it was one of the few countriesto have reduced its emissions but crit ics asked if this was due togovernment policy or the decline in the coal industry. The EUreminded the USA (the world's biggest polluter, producing 24%of the world's emissions) that it had not met its targets. TheUSA firmly denied it was making excuses and asked why thetargets were so unrealistic.Some environmentalists at the conference claimed that the worldis warming faster than at any time in the last 10,000 years.However, other experts suggested that it is part of naturalweather cycles. In 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC) announced that there was a definite humaninfluence on climate change. Some government ministersreluctantly admitted that they may need to cut global emissionsby up to 60% in the long-term. However, many developingcountries have refused to sign any pollution agreements; theysay it would harm their economic growth and insist that thedeveloped countries lead the way and show it is possible tobreak the l ink between economic growth and rising emissions.

30 Globsl Wurming

Tonnes per person

! tess than 1.0

*J 1.0 - 2.e

j 3 .0 - 6.e

W z.o - 14.e,X! ts.o or more

ffi No dara

In the text

1 Min is ters totd thewor ld 's pressthey had fa j ted toreach an agreement .

2 The USA asked whythe targets were soun rea [istic.

3 Governments promisedthat they wou[d reduceemiss ions of carbon-based gases beLow 1990levets.

0r ig inaI sentence,,We

t n

Page 92: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Presenlol ion: Report ing Verbs

4 Wtrat verbs are used in the text to report thesestatements?

Exampte 1" = to warn that

1 We're af ra jd that th is tack of agreement wi t [ mean morepoI tut ion.

2 0K, we'Lt cut emiss ions by 8%.3 We are one of the few countr ies to have reduced thei r

em iss ions.4 Remember you have not met the targets.5 We're not making excuses.6 The wor ld is warming faster than at any t ime jn the last

L0,000 years.7 It 's probably part of naturaI weather cyctes.8 There is def in i te human inf luence on c l imate change.9 Wei l . , we may need to cut gtobal emiss jons by up to 60%.

10 We wi t t not s ign any pot tut ion agreements.11 The developed countr ies lead the way.

5 Read the sentences (1-3) betow. Why has the tense ofthe qndelfl led verb not been changed? Match thesentences wi th the explanat ions (a-c) .

1 Ga[ i leo said that the Earth is round.2 FuturoLogists bet ieve that the wortd 's future doesn, t [ook

very br ight .Most experts c [a jmed that a lo t of areas wi t t be f loodeddue to g toba I wa rm ing .

because the repor t ing verb is in the presentbecause we report something which is s t i t I t ruebecause we report something that hasn' t happened yet

E Grqmmar Summary 8, puge 148.

Practice

6 Wtti.tr of the sentences (1-6) below:

says that the country exports nuctear waste?suggests that the country exports nuctear waste?suggests that the country opposes the idea of export ingnuclea r waste?reports the minister's reaction to an accusation?reports the minister's declarations about future actions?reports a warning?

The minis ter denied that h is country exported nuctear waste.The min is ter warned that h is country cou[d export nuclearwaste.The min is ter admit ted that h is country exported nuctearwaste.The min js ter ins is ted that h is country d idn ' t expor t nuclearwa5te.The min is ter accused h is country of export ing nuclear waste.The min is ter promised that h is country wou[d not exportnuclear waste.

hbia( lssnes

7 Uatch the sentences (1-8) wi th appropr iatereporting verbs from the tist. Then write thereported sentences.

admit . boast , forb id, inqui re, inv i te ,order , suggest . threaten

1 We'1"1" close credit [ ines if you don't reducecarbon d iox ide emiss ions.

2 0K, you' re r ight , some poisonous chemicats d idescape into the atmospnere.Why don' t you drop in tonight?Stand up immediatety lI 'm the best s tudent in th is schooLlYou can' t use your d ic t ionar ies dur ing the test .Shat l we have a cup of tea?Is the bus serv jce running according to theti metable today?

Use the verbs to report the two diatogues.

t

admit , advise, promise, warn

Tom I don ' t t h i nk you shou ld pLay the gametoday, John.

John You're right. i 'm stitt a tittte bit i i l . , but Ipromise I won' t overdo i t .

Tom Be carefut . I fyou run around too much jnth js weather , you may get another at tackof 'f lu.

2

accuse, beg. compla in. deny, expla in, refuse

Mum, p lease, wi [ [ you buy me th is CD?I've always wanted it.Sarah, you know I can ' t a f ford i t . Why doyou a lways ask me to buy you expensiveth i ngs?That 's not t rue. You just never buy methings that I want , on[y those that youLikeI

abc

345678

8

Da u g hter

Mo the r

Da ug hte r

9 neport the fottowing statements that youheard at 7 a.m. th is morning. Do you need tochange the tense?

1 "Women l i ve [ onge r t han men . "I h e a r d t h a t . . .

2 " I 'm hungry."C la i re sa id t ha t . . .

3 "0ur galaxy conta ins severaI thousand mi l , t ionstars. "

An as t ronomer announced tha t . . .4 " Ihe 2016 0 lympics wi t t be organised in Afr ica. , '

A spor ts expert sa id that . . .5 "This cof fee is too hot . "

Jona than comp la ined tha t . . .56

Page 93: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

3l Rich ondPoor

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Fig 1: Poveny in the USA, 1959-2003Source : US Census Bureau ; l . h { E u ! n

Listening2 Read the Strategies.

*a?.Y?.ryrryx4wa!.ryry-4au.rayw.e.

Listening Strategies: Taking lecture notes

. Listen for 'topic' words, e.g. poverty, number, poor people. fhesewords are usuatty stressed and the facts are often repeated, e.g.increasing, going up, growing.

. L is t your main points us ing numbers or an aster isk (* ) . This makesyour notes easier to read when you [ook at them later .

. Don' t t ry to wr i te down everyth ing; se lect important in format ion.

. Use abbreviat ions and your own shor thand (see example betow).

Q t-isten to the lecture. Use the Strategies to write some notes.

Example" Poverty- increasing - L/3 worLd pop. - rich/poor gap - growing

3 Wort in pairs. Use your notes and take turns to say sentences.

ExampteA Poverty is increasing.B Yes, about one-third of the worLd ...

Compare your notes. Are your partner's notes easy to fo[[ow? Te11 thectass the most important information that you got from the lecture.

5':;::1,:i,:HJ Hlli.l l"u iL,'o, *u

Before you start

I lool at the graphs. Is thisinformation true (T) or (F) or fatse?

t I there were fewer poor peoprein the USA in the 1990sthan i n t he 1980s .

z E fne percentage of poorpeopte in the USA washighest in the la te 1950s.

f I I n 1998 Denmark had thehighest average income percapi ta (per person) .

4 I The country wi th the h ighestper capi ta jncome gives thehighest percentage of i tsGNP in fore ign a id.

5 [ ] Denmark g ives the h ighestpercentage of i ts GNP inforeign aid.

What are your opin ions about thestatistics in the graphs?

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Page 94: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Vocubulory: Mult i-port Verbs

E Lexicon, pages 17a-176.

4 Complete the tast part of the lecture with these verbs.

0(fia(lssaes

Speaking7 Read the factfite about an imaginary country.

t t

come. cut. get, put, set, take

In 1996. the Uni ted Nat ions asked the wor ld 's r ichestcountries to 1 aside 0.7 percent of thei r GNBthat's their gross nationat product, for aid to deve[opingcountries. 0nty a few countries met that target and someeven 2 - down on a id programmesl However,governments must 3 up the chat tenge and4 - up wi th solut ions. They shouLd 5 - upnew, reatistic aid programmes to 6 rid of poverty

once and for a[ [ , not just jn the Thi rd Wor[d, but everywhere.

Pronuncial ion5 tisten and check your answers to Exercise 4. Mark thestress on the multi-part verbs.

Exampte 1. put aside

6 Listen to the diatogue and comptete the Function Filewith these expressions.

so that, That 's why, basicatty. because of that,0ne reason, to, That 's the reaI reason why,A Lot of it 's to do with

J u s t i f y i n g A r g u m e n t s

Don't you think r ich countr jes shoutd give more aidhe[p devetop poorer countries?

I mean, 2- , some countr ies wi t l never be

abte to pay back the in terest on the money theyborrowed, wiLt they?And I t h i nk , 3

they owe us.4

, we shoutd just forget what

they ' re poor is the changing ct imate

there are a lot of these disasters, isn'tit?And poverty's often retated to discrimination.6- job opportunit ies.

in our countrv women and b[acks areoften the poorest.

The government shoutd create more jobs8- poor peopte have more of a chance.

Poputatlot't: ro mill ionGNP PER cAPrrA: $1ooUxrmplovmrNT: 3o%Acnrcurtune: poor soil -some product ion of bananaslrousrnv: very l itt le - a chemical factory in thecapitalCommunrclrtoNs: most roads muddy - problemsin the wet season; airport in need of repair; veryfew te lephonesEouclrlon: only 4oo/o literacy rate; very fewsecondarv schoolsHrrrtn: onty z hospitals (roo hospitat beds); poorsani tat ion - matar ia is commonHoustne : many houses badly damaged in recentftoodsNlrunlr DtsAsrERs: bad ftoods in central rivervalley; danger of earthquakesEtvtnonmrrt: several endangered species(inctuding a rare kind of bear); main river and lakepoltuted by the chemical factory

8 Imagine you are ptanning an aid programme.Decide on your priorities and think of sotutionsto the probtems. Use these Key Words for ideas.

KEY WORDS: ,educat ion programme (buitding schoots and trainingteachers), health programme (bui[ding hospital"s,training doctors and nurses. vaccinat ing chi l"dren),housing programme, modernjsed farming, recyct ingof mater ia[s, road buitding programme, renewab[eenergy (so[ar and hydro-electr ic power)

9 Wort in groups. Discuss the problems and yoursolutions using expressions from the Function File(Exercise 6) and multi-part verbs from Exercise 4.Try to agree on the two most important things.

ExampleA I think we should set up an education programme.

The nqin reason is that we should be thinkinqqbout the long-term future.

B That's a good idea. The country needs ...

Tett the class what your group decided.

?uoTr,.... uNBUoTn'%u cann.rt feeJ the hun{ry on statistics.'David LloyJ Geor4e (tlf;-ntq),

british politician

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Page 95: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

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Listening

Before you storl

Look at the photos. What do you think are the mostserious problems for women around the world?

A Rsdio lnterview

Listen to a radio programme about the status ofwomen in the wortd. Answer the questions.

1 Read these statements and predict the kind ofinformation that is missing. Then [isten to a radioprogramme about the status of women in the world.Complete the notes with one or two words.1 There are 1..3 biLl"ion peopl.e living in poverty and

nearly _ of these are women.2 More than _ of the wortd 's women do unpaid

work.]n devetoped countr ies, women do _ as muchunpaid work as men.0n average, women earn onty of the pay ofmen .Unemployment among women is - - than thator men.

6 A Lot of women have much less iob thanmen .

7 NearLy of the wortd's chitdren who don't goto school are fema[e.

8 Two thirds of the wortd's itt i terate adultsare women.

9 0nty of the wortd's polit icians are women.10 _ towards women happens on a b ig sca[e.

2 tisten to the second part of the radioUse the Strategies in Lesson 31 and takenotes on the foltowing:

. improvements in the si tuat ion for women

. what st i t l needs to be done

Work in pairs and compare your notes. Didany important information?

WritingBefore you start

I Read the appeal for hetp and the tetter whifoltows. Then, match sections A-D in the [etterthe headings (r- ) betow.

1 ways of heLping2 request for additionaI information3 relevant qualif ications and experience4 reason for writ inq

The tsunami disasterclaimed hundreds ofthousands of livesand hrnr rah+

devastation to largeareas of South-EastAsia.We a-11 lcrowthat. But what we areperhaps less awareof is how much we can all do to help the survivors.This is an appeal from the Tsunami Alert Group forvolunteers aged 25+ who are willing to grive theirtime and energy to help. We need both professionals(especially doctors, nurses and therapists) and anypeople with a generous spirit. Please write to MegHudson, TAG, explaining how you could help. T?avelexpenses and (modest) accommodation costscovered by Tsunami Alert Group,Thank you.

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miss 'j1r

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Page 96: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

2 Comptete the tetter with these linking words andexpressions.

furthermore, also, in addition, atthough, as a resu[t,to sum up, however, according to

O[tia(lssnes

3 you can avoid repetition within a text by usingsynonyms or words that have similar meanings. Look atthe two verbs below. Match the words and expressionsto these verbs a and b.

a help b votunteer

to aid, to assist, to back, to bring relief, to come to therescue, to do charity work, to give your services freely, tooffer your hetp, to support

4 Rewrite this paragraph. Choose from the fottowingwords to replace job and company.

firm, profession, business, post, work, corporation,multinationat, em ptoyment, occupation-When

people ask me about my job I say that I have nvo; myjpb is a lawyer but I am also a poet. I love my job as alawyer but I write poetry in my spare time. My first.job wasfor a big company with offices all over the world. Flowever,I don't like big companies, they are too impersonal. So I leftand started my own smali company. It is not a very bigcompany but it provides Jobs for ten people and thecompany is not doing badiy.

A Letter ol Applicotion

Write a letter of application to an Internationat CrisisAgency. Fottow the stages.

@@. Writing tlelp 8, page 143.

Snge IChoose one of these areas for your letter:

. the envi ronment ( in your country or the wortd)

. poverty in the world

. anima[s in danger of ext inct ion

. refugees and immigrat ion

Stage 2Collect information about the problems in the areasyou've chosen. Use the ideas in this module, notesyou've made, newspapers and magazines, the Internetand a library.

Stoge 3Plan your letter. Use Janet Bingley's letter as a mode[.

Stoge 4Write your letter. Use the tinking words andexpressions from Exercise 2. Try to avoid repeatingwords and expressions.

Stoge 5Check your letter.

TalkhockWork in groups. Read each tetter. Talk about them anddecide which of them is most effective.

Page 97: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Communicolion WorkshopsSpeckingBefore you slort

1 tisten to two peopte discussing anarticte from the newspaper. Who has theseopinions - the man (M), the woman (W) orbo th (B)?

Fee[s sorry for t igers.

Finds the articte very depressing.

Is very worr ied about c l imate change.

Is not sure about c l imate change.

Thinks we shoutd change our l i festy les.

Thinks we produce too much pol tut ion.

0[r.dfrarwGiving 0pinions

2 Wt ict of the expressions from thediatogue (in botd) are used to:

a give you t ime to think?b express an opinion?

1 What I don't understand is why peoptewant to kiLL them.What's realty worrying is al.t this stuffabout ct imate change.I'm not sure. I haven't thought abouti t much.

4 What's ridiculous is that they say thect imate isn' t changing . . .

5 That's a good question.6 What we should do is start using

renewabte sources of energy.

Impersona[ 'You'

3 lool at the use of 'you' in theconversation. Which of the examples( r -5):

a refer to a particular person?b refer to peopte in genera[?

1 Have you seen this article on theenviron ment?

2 I t depresses you just to th ink about i t ,doesn't it?

3 Don' t you th ink so?4 The problem is , you don' t want to just

g ive up your car and centraI heat ing, doyou?

5 You don't want to go back to the StoneAoe.

1 T2 n3 T4 a ls n6 E

Discussing Photos ond Texts

Discuss the photos and the poem. Fo[low the stages.

Stoge ILook at the photos and th ink about :

. the g[obaI issues each photo represents

. the causes of the probtems

. your opin ions and possibte solut ions

Stage 2Read the poem. Decide which photo i t may relate to, and why.

It d. id not seem important at the t ime:I {e gave tben p i ty when they wanted go ld ql{e couLtl not help i t l we were never told..Weta l los t our g lasses l so ! r@ cou ld no t see .We wa lkec l away! l t was no t our concern .The s t ree ts we le dark and i t was very co ld .ft di i l not seen inportant at the t ine.

Stoge 3Look at the expressions in the Function Fite in Lesson 31 and theChatroom. Practise giving your opinions about the issues in thephotos and the poem.

Stoge 4Read the Strategies.

Speaking Strategies: Using photos and texts in discussions

. Do notjust describe the photo or the text in detai[. Avoidsaying things Like:. I con see...or 0n the Ieft there is .. / At thebeginning of the text the author says .... untess there issomething reatly important there.

. Speculate about the photo and the text . Think what is happeningin the p ic ture, but a lso what has happened and what is going tohappen next . Think what the text is about , but a lso why i t hasbeen written.

. Use indirect expressions as you specutate and give your opinion,e.g. The young people are probably homeless. The young man ishiding his face because he may be oshamed of his situation.

. Don't forget to involve your partner(s). Use expressions Like Don'tyou agree? or What do you think?

Work in pairs. Use the Strategies to discuss the photos and thepoem.

fslkhackTett the class about your discussion.

Page 98: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

1 Read the(1-4) withextra title.

article and match the headingsthe paragraphs (a-c) . There is one

1 Indifferent Lover 2 Mid-Life Crisis 3 Fame!4 FaLt ing Numbers

Lonesome Male of theGalapagosJO TUCKMAN ON THE GATAPAGOS ISLANDS

6 elebritv is not usually a characteristic associated with

I middle-aged giant tortoises from the Galapagos\,1 Ishnds. Horveveq felv have been so inlluenced byhumaniq.as Lonesome George. Fame came to George in l97llvhen he was discovered on the tiny uninhabited island ofPinta. He is known i'ii) ire the last surviving member of his sub-species but it is hopcd that Geolge tvill pass on his genes tu aitor gcnclation.

The numbers of Gaiapagos toftoises are said to have beguntheir decline when it u'as lcalised that thev could supplvercellenl flesh mcat for pussing ships, because they wereknorvn to be able to sunive for six months without food andrvater. Nevertheiess, it rvas the effect of the goats introduced tothe Galapagos bv the earl1, settlers that are understood t,ii, ,.r:',rri'.r-r' :r.. thc ecological balance on the islands andthe livelihood of George's clan. Recently, there was anotherthreat when the tanker Jcssica ran aground near the islands.It is believed to have lcaked llmost a million lih"es of oil intotlie sea. At first, it rvas feared that the islands' manv uniquespccics uould be danraged but the archipelago is expected itr;,-'.: ,, a ful1 recoven.

Bv the time George was discovered, breeding programmesrvere knorvn to be increitsing the numbers of other toftoisesub-species but it rvas acknoivlc,rlged that his casc wasdifferent. Unless a mate could be found, his group facede\tinction. George rvas taken to the Charles Danvin ResearchCentre on Santa Cruz island and provided with a harem fromrelated sub-species but was said to have been uninterested.Thirty vears later the last Geochelone elephantopusabinsdoni is as lonesome as ever.

2 R.e you optimistic about the future of theGalapagos Tortoises? Give your reasons.

lmpersoncl Reporl Strucluresffi- Grsrnmar Suntmary, page 150.

3 tool at the sentences in btue in the text. Do they express:

a a generaI opin ion/exper ience?b the opin ion/exper ience of a par t icutar person?

4 neaa the sentences (1 and 2) . Which of them tatks about :a a present beLief? b a belief heLd in the past?

1 I t is hoped that George wi [ [ pass on h is genes to a newgenerat ion.

2 It was realised that they coutd suppty excellent fresh meatf ^ - - ^ ^ - i ^ ^ - L : - -r u r P d ) ) i l r 9 > i l t P 5 .

5 finO the sentences in the text with words in ree. whichexpress the same as:

1 Scient is ts know that he js the [ast surv iv ing member of h iss u b-soecies.

2 Everybody understands that the goats in t roduced by theear ly set t ters destroyed the ecologicaI batance on theis tands and the l ivet ihood of George's c lan.

3 Peopte expect that the archipelago wj [ [ make a fut lrecovery.

Now answer these questions about the three sentences above.

1 What is the form of the verbs expect, know and understond?2 Are the opin ions hetd in the present or past?3 Which sentences express an opin ion about :

a the past b the present c the future?4 What is the form of the verbs in re ' l in the text ? How does

the form depend on the t ime the verb refers to?

6 wnicn of these sentences below expresses:

a a past beUef about an ear t jer s i tuat ion or event?b a past bet ie f about a s i tuat ion or event that was paral teI in

ti me?

1 The tortoises were known to be able to survive for sixmonths without food and water.

2 George was said to have been uninterested.

7 fina sentences in the text similar to the ones in Exercises5 and 6. Rewrite them, beginning with 'It is/wossaid/believed thqt'.

Exampte The archipelago is expected to make a fuLL recovery.It is expected that the archipetago wi[[ make a fu[[ recovery.

8 I-ool at the two sentences from the text. Does it refer tosomething specific in the text? If so, what?

1 I t is bel ieved to have leaked a lmost a mi t l ion l i t res of o i lin to the sea.

2 I t was feared that the is lands ' many unique species woutdbe damaged.

More practice, Language Powerbook, page 116.

Page 99: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ReviewGrummor

1 Comptete the texts with the correct form of theverbs in brackets: -ing form or infinitive.

Our readers tell us about their ...

DreamDestinations" l went to the States last year wi th a f r iend.

We're used to 1 - ( t ravel) around on our

own w i t hou t 2 - ( spend ) t oo much

money, so we didn' t mind 3 - ( take)

buses everywhere. We avorded 4

(hitchhike) because we didn't want to r isk 5 - roemugged) - but we saw someone 6 - (be muggeotoutsrde a bus stat ionl Apart from that. i t was a great hol iday. TheGrand Canyon was the most b rea th takrng s igh t l ' ve ever seen. "

" l ' d a lways wanted 7 - (go) to l ta ly and v is i t Rome, theVatican, Florence, and see al l the magnif icent art there - and I

$+'E{,rr$*$q:.l; ;F flffiHu{$ ffi

wasn't disappointedl l t 's worth 8

(learn) 9 (speak) a bit of l tal ian beforeyou go . I managed 10 - (see) qu i te alot but there was so much to see and so manytour is ts l I can ' t s tand 11 - (queue) andsome places were impossible - you must haveseen the c rowds 12 {be pushed)through places l ike catt le. But, as I say, i t wasmy dream destination and i t was marvel lous. I 'd

( go ) t o Ven i ce , t oo , bu t d i dn ' t have t ime i n

ExampleEIso asked Banu where she was from. She replied that...

Etsa So, where do you come f rom?Banu I 'm f rom a sma[[ town on the Aegean coast , in

Turkey. ca[ [ed Bodrum.Etsa Real" ty? What a coinc idence! I spent a few days

there iast summer.Banu Did you have a good t ime?Elsa Wett , I was having a great t ime unt i l l was b i t ten

by a scorpion.Banu How terr ib te lElsa And whi [e I was jn hospi ta[ , my boyfr iend met an

American gir[ from Nevada. They're getting marriednext month.

Banu 0h , no !Etsa But then I met th is fantast jc Turk ish boy caLLed

Kemal . Woutd you [ jke to see a photo of h jm? Hetvery handsome.

Banu I don' t bet ieve i t ! That 's mv brother . You must beEtsa I

Elsa Yes! We've got a lo t to ta lk about l Come on, [e t 'sgo to the d in ing car .

3 Rewrite what the government minister said at ameeting, using the verbs in brackets.

1 (c l .a im): "Unemptoyment is going down at a s teadyrate. "

2 ( ins is t ) : "The problem star ted wi th the previousgovern ment . "

(announce): "We wi [ [ create 100.000 more jobs bynext year."(admit ) : "There were more than 1,000 new cases ofAids [ast year . "(warn) : "The number is t ikety to r ise by 20 percent inthe next two years."(promise) : "We wi t t end pover ty . "(deny ) : "The gove rnmen t has done someth ing abou tit."( remind the pubt ic) : "We have spent over f500mit l ion on new houses."(agree) : "Yes, I ' t [ answer quest ions at the end of themeet i ng. "

10 ( refuse) : " I 'm sorry, I won' t answer quest ions aboutmy personaI L i fe . "

4m€u p

1

2

frmt.fJ%*

p l a n n e d 1 3

the end. "

' 'My brother emigrated to Austral ia twenty years ago. We'da lways kep t i n t ouch and l ' d seen h i s w i f e and

k ids 14 - ( s i t ) i n t he i r ga rden on v i deo ,

bu t l ' d p rom ised 15 - ( v i s i t ) t hem, and

so I d id, last Chr istmas. Before that l 'd a lways

ref used 16 - ( f ly) but there 's no point

in 1f - (worry) too much at my age. is

there? And i t was the best Chr istmas l 've

ever had | "

"Every Mus l im who is hea l thy and has enoughmoney is expected 18 ( v i s i t ) Mecca once i n h i s o r he r

l i fet ime. l 'd put of f 19 - (go) for years -

I lust couldn' t af ford 20 (go) But

t hen , l as t yea r , I dec i ded 21

real ef for t and go. I t was amazing. I had seen

the c rowds 22 - (wa l k ) r ound on TV

before but the place was real ly bust l ing. I

r ea l l y en joyed 23 - (mee t ) peop le

f r om so many d i f f e ren t coun t r i es . "

67

,&,it{&:

tto

2Reportthisconversationbetwe.;i;;tr-t*irTimusing ask, exclsim, guess, reply and say.

Page 100: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

4 Comptete the second sentence so that it has a similarmeaning to the first sentence. Use the word given andup to four more words.

Ctimate change is now an accepted fuct .knownIt _ the ct imate is changing.They are opt imist ic about the pat ient 's chances ofrecovery.expectedThe patientThey say that the burg[ars got away by using a heticopter.saidThe burglars used a helicopter.There are probabty no surv ivors f rom the shipwreck.fearedI t _ no surv ivors f rom the shipwreck.According to experts . Neanderthal Man coutd speak ina [imited way.believedNeanderthal Man able to speak in a L imi ted

6 Ooctors now recognise that malaria js transmitted bythe Anopheles mosqui to.acknowledgedI t _ is t ransmit ted by the Anopheles mosqui to.

Vorobulory

5 Complete each sentence with a word beginning withthe prefix.

123

A lot of people in the Third Wortd are under-Manv countr ies [ ike China and India are overShe has been un_ since the factory ctosed lastyea r.That company has had to c lose because ofmisA lot of the housinq there is subAfter the earthquake they had to start re_ thecity.The forests have been cut down by b ig Loggingmulti

0oo6a(lssnes

6 M.k" the opposite of these words. Then write sixsentences using the opposites.

Example visible / invisible

Adjectives: believable, correct. crowded, efficient,happy, interesting, legat, patient, poputar, simitar, spoitt,successfu[, t idy, toterant, usuat, visib[eVerbs: agree, appear, believe, dress, pack, trust, wrap

7 Comptete the sentences with a suitable word.

1 He p icked me _ at about s ix and droppedme _ at the stat ion.

2 We set earty and stopped _ ata coup[e of places on the way.

3 The price of petrol has gone __ a lot so Ihave to cut _ on my use of the car.

4 He has to pay a b ig loan f rom the bankso he puts some money every week.

5 She came _ a great idea forthe fancy dress party.

6 Why doesn' t the government take _ thechat tenge of homelessness?

Pronunciot ion

O 8 r' lart the main stress in these words. Then listenand check your answers.

1 exptoit / exploitation2 communicate / communicat ion3 retax / retaxation4 celebrate / celebration5 d iscr iminate / d iscr iminat ion6 industry / industr ia I7 envi ronment / envi ronmentaI8 potit ics / pol.it icat9 geography / geographicaL

10 h is tory / h is tor ica l "

Tronslot ion

9 Transtate the sentences into Engtish.

r tlro6rr fio-HacrofluleMy floHr{Tr, JTor BoJrrxe6HbrrlocrpoB, fr4A rrocoBeroBana uanr no:rn6oBaTbcfl HaKuxu Ha 3aKare. 14 u;r unraK He MorJrll.AO)KAarbCfl Beqepa, rrro6br yBr{Aerb try3axBarbrBar0uyro KapTr4Hy.

z Vl'rar;, oHr4 Haqa.ru4 cBoe rryre[recrBr4e ilo Bonre.tr4n,t npeacrofliro noce'ru'rrr crapr4HHbre pyccKr{efopoAa, r43BecrHbre cBoer.r caModbrrHo[apxr4Ter(Typor{ 14 r4cTopI4qecKI4MI4 naMflTHI4KaML{, 14r{acJ laah'fr,cfl pyccr{I4Ml4 IIeRJa)KaMI4.

3 Tar< KaK rpo6JleMa y6opKr,r Mycopa ocraBar'racbHepeueHHor, zfl4TeJrr4 fopoaa cBfl3a-rrr4cb cpanoHHor{ aA\4r4Hr4crpax|1len A npl4fpo3r4nn, qToIlona,[yr Ha Hr{x B cyA, ecJll,l T oTKa)KyTcrlBbr[oJrHr4Tb r4x 3aKoHHbre rpe6oBaHr4n.

56

8 The audience stood around the l ive statue in a semi-

Page 101: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

&mffitwfupw*p@Answer the questions:

Can major envi ronmental problems besotved in one country a lone?Do you think Russia plays a negativeor a positive rote in globaI ecotogy?

e' 1

t irrIy iiJJ

f t-*

It

J

O Z Listen to the first part of the radioprogramme Ecology Today and checkyour answers. Then say whether thesestatements are true (T), fatse (F) orthere is no information (NI).

1 EcotogicaI d isasters shoutd beprevented by locaI governments.

2 Russia is a 'donor ' for manyecosystems.

3 Russian forests occupy nearly half ofits territory.

4 Russian wet lands pot lu te theenvi ron ment.

5 A great number of p lant species areunder the threat of extinction inRussia.

w1he brown bear has always represented Russian nature, butmascot needs nature reseryes for its continued survival. In just 10 years'Russia's Green movement has helped to increase the total area of

Russia's protected lands by 20%.Blt many problems still remain unresolved'Among them are the particularly vulnerable reserves of Central Russia andthe Caucasus, where many of the bears live today...

Today, only about 4b0 Amur tigers live in the Far Eastern taiga. How do theymanage to survive, threatened bypoaching, illegal logging, uiA U.t,flrrafTo save this magnificent predator fro* poJriUt"'"*tinction, a specialcampaign to dear with these threats was raunched by wwr,-Russia eishtyears ago' But we need to keep up the pressure. so don't delay - visit"this

The population of the sturgeon, the pride otorrr"".ffiilffiffidramatically. The reason is obvious - it ir ou"trirr,ing. Despite the FederalLaw on Banning Fishing in spawning crounar, poachers are still ruthlesslyexterminating the fish. what is totally disastrous: after taking out til.;;;they leave the dead fish on the coastl

Mupportthiscampaign.

I believe that educating the public about the benefits of recycling will getpeople involved in recycling and make them environmentally aware' But it'slocal government's responsibility, too. If the binmen took away sorted rubbithat would be fine, but they don't, and we just don't have the time and theenergr to dispose of all this litter ourselves.

KTbedrrra(

3 Read the newspaper extracts. Match the extracts(1- ) with the tittes (A-E). There is one extra titte.

A Poachers shou[d be stoppedB Gl.obaL changes are at handC Save the habitat of Russia's mascotD Getting rid of wasteE We need your hetp!

4 Read again and choose the issue you consider themost urgent. Give your reasons.

O S Listen to the second part of the radio programme.What natural wonder is it about? Which of thefottowing adjectives is the most characteristic of theplace?

O 6 lirt"n again and answer these questions.

Where does the name of the lake come f rom?How big is i t?How does i t in f tuence the c l imate in the area?Why is its water considered the most precious of jtsresources?

1234

historic, diverse, mysterious, unique, hoty, ancient

Page 102: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student
Page 103: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Fifth century BC Athens was one of the first societies to have a golden age. Philosophy, ot'search for truth', was born with philosophers like Protagoras, Socrates and Plato. Hippocrates,father of medicine', the historian Herodotus and others began the systematic study of the wotld,the playr,vrights Sophocles, Aeschylus and Euripides came fhe birth of serious drama in westernculture, attracting thousands to see their masterful tragedies and comedies. Sculpture andboth flourished and a great programme of public building was undertaken, culminating in themagnificent temple of the Parthenon.Why did this all happen in Athens and not somewhere else? To start with, Athens could afford it

city state ofAthens was the greatest trading centre in the Mediterranean with anwhich provided plentiful food and other goods. Rich Athenian citizens had plenty

for leisure and culture as most of the work in the city was done by slaves andthe business and trade conducted by 'metics' or foreigners. Many of these forelsuch as Herodotus, were drawn to the cultural magnet of Athens and played a vitalin the cultural life of the city.

Socially, Athens was in a period of transition between a conservative, aristocr

society and an urban, commercial society in which citizens were equal byAthens became the first direct democracy in history where major politicaldecisions were taken by large numbers of citizens.

At the same time, Athenian society was moving away from the old beliefsin the gods and ancient myths towards values based on rationality anda bel ie f in human nature.

SpeokingBefore you stort

1 match the cit ies (a-e) with their gotden ages - their periodsof greatest cuttural or technologicaI achievement (1-5).

a Los Angetes 7 1.760-1830 (the industrial revolution)b Rome 2 1.950-2000 (the information revolution)c San Francisco 3 7870-1.91.0 (a revotution in painting)d Manchester 4 'J.91.0-1.950 (the goLden age of Holtywood)e Paris 5 1.73Q-7750 (a revolution in architecture)f St Petersburg 6 50 BC-150 AD ( the imper iaI capi taL)

Check your answers on page 135.

Reoding

2 Read the Strategies.

Reading Strategies: Summarising

. Read the text to get the generaI idea and identifyparagraph topics.

. Underl ine the key sentence in each paragraph (oftenat the beginning). Then f ind information that backs i t up.

. Write notes of the main noints and the kev information.Use your own words.

Work in groups of three. Each student reads one of the texts(1-3) and uses the Strategies to summarise the information.

3 Wort in your group. Use your notes fromExercise 2 to tett each other about your city.Use your own words.

ExampleThe greatest time for ort and culture in Athens was

4 Individuatty, read about the other two cities.Which of the cities in the articte woutd you [iketo have visited? Why?

ExampleI'd Like to hove gone to Athens because ...

[ istening

O 5 lirt"n to the lecture. Are these statementstrue (T) or false (F)?

1 The poets of the Sitver Age fottowed ctassicatooetic traditions.

2 The Symbotists were among the firstinnovators in poetry.

3 There were no arguments among theSymbolists,The Imagists [ooked for new forms in grammarand style.The Futurists used co'ined and invented words.

Page 104: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

.he

i rh

l e

remer f

r le

2 In the l5th century, the Ital ian city state of Florence was toundergo a frenzy of creativity as the cradle of the Renaissance.Outstanding painters and sculptors l ike Bott icel l i , Donatel lo andlater Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci rediscovered classicaltradit ions. They aimed, l ike the Greeks before them, ro creare anideal form of beauty based on nature. Brunelleschi,s breathtakingcathedral dome is just one example of the architectural splendourof Florence during this period.Why did this happen in Fiorence and not in other l tal ian cit ies l ikeMilan, Genoa or Venice? One reason was that Florence was able toburld on the cultural achtevements of the previous century. Thel4th century had not only produced great writers such as petrarchand Dante but also glf ted painters l ike Giotto. Another reason wasthat Florence was simply the r ichest ci ty; i ts central posit ion madeit a major trading and industr ial cl ty. Florence was also the scene ofa commercial revolut ion which saw the development of modernbanking and accounting.As a result, Florentine society was in a state of flux between the old,stable medieval world and a new dynamic commercial world. Therewas greater social mobil i ty than before with many opportunit ies forindividuals to go up (and down) social ly. The new merchants andbankers had money to spend and they were not afraid of showing offtheir new wealth by bui lding magnif icent palaces and f i l l ing themwith superb works of art. Frnal ly, there was an open and tolerantcl imate for art ists to work rn, helped bv an increase in the number ofschools and an improved l i teracy rate. #

Vocobulory: Rich Longuoge6 Matctr the words and expressions from the text(in the box) with the expressions (a-d).

a a great t ime for ar t and cul tureb changing a [otc really goodd i t was the star t o f . . .

Exampte a an explosion of creativity

an explosion of creativity, outstanding,in a period of transition, a golden age, undergoingdramatic changes, masterful,the birth of . , l iving through major changes,breathtaking, a frenzy of creativity,a creative flowering, ... was born,in a state of flux, a burst of literary activity, beingrevolutionised, magnificent,was the cradle of..., sculpture and paintingflourished, was emerging, bursting with new ideas

In which of these types of text would you expect tosee' r ich ' [anguage?

popular newspapers. qual"ity newspapers, history books,nove[s, books about ar t

3 t n t h e l a r e l 6 t h a n d e a r _

%

6:::: r n# :t lrili ilj:ffi # il',tffi : ixx;:,.,.; ::l i'I"I ''" ; ;;;;: ;;,",1; ? ;:' i ::Jl: 1,1 ffi :n'".? :j,, "",:';; i,tT t,?"i:lH' ilff i,,j* t'.",i,1 jdF,, rec rea, i on;ffJ "#l;Jff

fi,lif Ji,T ?: : ; i ; ;'".1' : ; ioze n r h e a'� re s

ff ruflii,.#::#n*TF:li #,?.".; jd;;i #:.,.,s,lruf| ;;

;.n.0,, il i,"Jffi J:y::i, ;i.i j.il r 6 2 0 B r itr i a n rwhat caused this burst of iirerarv ̂ :^"',,: ,:". .

vv:usrer and' of course'

,rm;rm{illx:il:.iiry:#,JJ i?TiJT., A, h s meI13""d.;;;# T,,ji;,:';;;ZU* *f ;;:i1 T:ilJi;::: :il:,;?:ii i;l ff. ;,;il * " i ; ;;.;:.'' ;:,1' fi f :' i:#;iliilIH?:Jili illl' :;qish courr and ther rade. London *r* o,u.lnl, jluolr rion ,r.a ;;;r JJ#lHil';:[,

;;I ::ffi Jfi ffi#il#,:," r:i:iiTlT:J: #r;.T Hlff il rH {Tfi ** H l,*::?j! : i:fi rr: r;l'T*n1r;H'il;.ffi* ffi :f ';'ffi [1i, f;J :T, ffi ;[ n*n *;l

o 7 tirten to the lecture again and add phrases to eachcategory from Exercise 6.

honpuing hnfnresUse the information you have coltected from thelesson to write a paragraph (about 75 words) aboutthe reasons for the great creative eras. Useexpressions from the texts. Begin [ike this:

So what was the key to the burst of creat iv i ty inAthens, Ftorence, London, Par is and St Petersburq?Firs t of at [ . . .

Compare your paragraph to the one on page 135.

i]jI

k-w

Page 105: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ik

b

Before you sfqrf

1 toot at the photos and the titte ofthe article. Which three of these thingsdo you think wit t not be mentioned inthe articte?

globaI trade, stress and lack of time,cr ime and viotence. reduct ions in theworking week, work sharing, advert is ing,opportunities for leisure, drugs

2 ReaO the article and check yourguesses.

3 Wtri.tt of the writer's views do youagree and disagree with?

Presenlot ion l :Complex Sentences ( l )Persuosion in Wri t fen Engl ish

4 In ttre text underline a[[ sentenceswith the foltowing verbs andexpressions.

shoutd, ought to, insjst , demand. suggest,i t 's high t ime

5 look at the sentences youundertined in the text. Now form therules by matching 1-4 with a-e.

1 should2 ought to3 insist , demand,

suggest4 it's high time

Spend, Spend, Spend

*#"

Anrn: wE usr:a (that) + subject + should do somethingb (that) + subject + subjunctive (same

form as infinit ive, e.g. 'I suggest he go.')

c (that) + subject + present tensed (that) + subject + past tensee infinit ive without'to'

Grammar Summoryt e, pog" l+a.

any of us in developed societies are in a viciouscircle. We work hard so that we can earn moremoney. When we have more money, we spend

more. Because we spend more, we have to work evenharder. The circle goes round and round. The result is notincreased happiness, but more stress and less free time tobe ourselves and be with our families and friends.However, there is growing resistance to this consumersociety, especially from young people. Protest groups areinsisting that some of our money be redistributed to thethird world. Trade unions demand that the PrimeMinister reduce the working week. They are alsosuggesting that people should share work and thus reduceunemployment.As a society, it's high time that we took these issues moreseriously. We should insist that advertising is morecontrolled, especially advertising aimed at children. Weshould also make sure that there are constructive waysfor young people to use their free time apart fromspending money. On a personal level, we ought to visit theshops less and worry less about our image. Above all, weshould remember that 'being' and 'doing' are much moreimportant than'having'.

Page 106: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

e$ Grammar Summary 9, poge 148.

Procf ice

::J:q JYri*

Presenlot ion 2: Persuosion in Spoken Engl ish

6 tirten to the diatogue between Grant and Lucy. Answerthese questions.

1 Which of them buys second-hand c lothes?2 Which of them spends a lo t of money on c lothes?3 Which of them has an evening job?4 Which of them is a vegetar ian?5 Which of them suggests going to a f i [m?

7 tisten to the diatogue again and comptete the sentences.What are the verb forms used after the expressions in botd?

*** I t 's about t ime you going there.* If I were you, I _ buying a[[ those expensive

clothes.*** I 'd 1= 1 woutd) rather you _ that .** I th ink you ought to _ that job.** I th ink you shoutd meat yourset f .**** You'd (= you had) bet ter _ going.

Note: 1-2 stars = weak and polite expressions; 3-4 stars = strong expressions/crit icism

8 Comptete the sentences with the words in the tist. Youdo not need a[ [ o f them.

shoutd, ought, suggest, rather, woutd, insist, better, t ime, had

1 If I were you, I __ start saving now.2 You'd get a part-t ime job.

3 His boss that he work longer hours.4 I th ink you - - to spend more t ime at home.5 You _ better avoid carrying heavy weights.6 I t ' s - y o u s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g a b o u t y o u r f u t u r e .7 I 'd _ you d idn ' t buy so many gadgets.8 I __ that she open her own bank account .

9 Ut. the beginnings provided and the words in bracketsto paraphrase the sentences.

1 I suggest that he shoutd change h is career ptans.He _ h is career ptans. (bet ter)Ptease don' t p lay music [ate at n ight .I 'd - music la te at n ight . ( rather)The commit tee shoutd manaqe the funds more carefut ty .We _ the funds more carefutty. (insist)I th ink i t 's a good idea to s tudy economics nowadays.If __ economics. (were)I th ink he shoutd star t looking for a job.

I t 's about for a job. ( t ime)Her teachers made her wear longer sk i r ts .Her teachers longer sk i r ts . (demand)I'd prefer you to dress more smartly for work.I - more smartly for work. (rather)J im shoutd see a doctor before i t gets any worse.

9ocieft1

10 nead the s i tuat ions. What would thepeople in brackets say? Use the strongerexpressions (*** or ****) f rom Exerc ise 7.

1 Mark spends a[[ his pocket money on the lottery.(Mark's tuther)

2 Peter spends at [ h is f ree t ime p lay ingcomputer games.(Peter's mother)

3 Jenny is a lways borrowing her otder s is ter 'sctothes wi thout ask ing.(Jen ny's older sister)

4 E[a ine watches TV unt i [ la te at n ight andcan never get up in the morning.(Ela ine 's parents)

5 Ian has got an exam next month and hehasn' t done any rev is ion yet .( Ian 's teacher)

1 1 Wort in pairs. Tatk about your probtemsand give each other advice. Use the weakerexpressions (*or **) from Exercise 7.

Student Ayou are dreaming about a hol.iday abroadbut you have no moneyyou don' t know how to get to know theboy/girt you're interested inyou can never f ind anyth ing in your roombecause i t is a lways in a mess

Student B. you don't know what to buy your best

friend for his/her birihdayo lou i lf€ very unfit and always feel t iredo lou'v€ lost your friend's favourite CD

(-

J

Jim _ a doctor before i t gets any worse. (hqd)

Page 107: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

35 Utopis

Before you start1 took at the picture of the ideat society of Utopia.Guess the answers to some of these questions.

[ istening

Q Z Listen to Sir Thomas More's story about Utopia. Q lirt"n to the conversation. Guess what these

Are there any differences between rich and poorpeopte?What [eisure activit ies are there?How democratic is the society?What punishments are there?

Check your answers to Exercise 1.

4 Reaa the Strategies.

Listening Strategies:

Understanding culturaI references

. When l is tening to Engt ish you wi t [ o f ten hearcutturaI references (e.9. to people, places, objects.TV programmes, measurements) which you are notfami l iar wi th.

. Use the context of the conversatjon to try to guesswhat thev refer to.

234

O 3 lttt"n to the story again. List two things youwould like about Utopia and two things you wouldhate. Woutd you like to live in More's Utopia? Why/Why not?

things refer to.

Exampte 7=as t ree t

1 The Broadway2 Rotherham3 the number 234 a season ticket5 Jaguars6 EastEnders

7 mjn i -London Eye8 Scunthorpe9 the Barbican/ the South Bank10 The Min is t ry of Sound1 1 scones

Page 108: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

O 5 lirt"n again and complete the Function File with these wordsand phrases.

Let 's , I t 's t ime, I 'd charge. Why don' t they. I th ink they shou[d,what wou[d be rea[ ty great is i f , I wish they 'd, They ought to,I t 's about t ime. There coutd be. What about , I t 'd be a good idea i f ,I th ink j t 'd be good i f they. What we need

M a k i n g S u g g e s t i o n s

Tentative suggestions Stronger suggestions

IJ

J

LL

zo

z

l!

1 - theystopped traffic going intothe centre.2 __ lots morepedes t r i an s t ree ts . . .3 _ do ingsometh ing abou t pub t i ct ransport?4 And __ theywere free,5 _ peopl"emore for br inging cars'into the centre.6 _ spentmoney on th ings fo ryoung peop[e to do.7 _ start adecent c tub.

Student A. c lean up the r i ver ( l ). make pubt ic t ranspor t f ree (? ). make pedestr ian streets (!). charge more for parking (?). do up the main square (? ). buitd a sports centre ( l). create a venue for concerts (?)

8 __ we hadmore buses.9 --- put busesevery fifteen minutes.10 _ a re somebig changes in th is p lace.11 _ make adecent park?72 - bu i i d adecent spor ts centre . . .13 _ they setup a cul turaI centre.14 - havesome more scones.

Student B. make more parks (? )

inc rease the number o f buses ( ! )bu iLd more car parks ( l )do up the o [d houses jn thecentre (?)bu i ld a new hosp i ta t ( ! )set up an Internet caf6 (?)start a new t ibrary (?)

Pronunciot ion

O 6 l i r t"n to eight more suggest ions. Which of them soundtentative (T) and which sound stronger (S)? Then [isten againand repeat the suggestions.

Example 1 5

a l .)peoKrng7 Wort in pairs. Use the rolecards to make suggestions abouthow to improve a town. Use suggestions from the Function File(! = strong; ? = tentative).

ExampleA lt's about time they cleaned up the river!B Thqt's true. And it 'd be a good idea if ...

9ocietq

8 rninl about ways of improving yourlocal community. Write notes about theseth ings.

t raf f ic and t ransport , h is tor ic bui ld ings, parksand gardens. pot tut ion and the envi ronment ,recreation facjtit ies for young peopte(sport/socia [isi ng/cu ltu re), hea Lth services,care for the el,derly/pooy'ho metess

9 wort< in pairs. Discuss your suggestionswith your partner.

ExampleA lt's about time we started to Look

ofter the historic buildings in our city.B Thqt's true, but I think it'd be better to

spend money on , . ,

Tett the class about some of your ideas.

ExampleBoth of us think it'd be a good thing to buiLda new outdoor swimming pooL.

Vocobulqry: Multi-port Verbs with up

Lexicon, pages 170-176

1 0 Comptete the sentences with theseverbs in the correct form.

go, turn, set , br ighten, make, g ive, dress.p ick, hol"d, take, c lean, do

Why don' t they _- up the r iverand -_--- up that old house nextto the br idge? I t 's near ly fat l ing down.I t woutd be a good idea toup a theatre group. I t wou[dth ings up a b i t in th is town. I love

up and I 'd t ike toup act ing.

I was -----__- up for twenty minutesin a t raf f ic jam and up latefor c tass. But the teacher thought I

up an excuse.The cost of t ickets keeps -- up,so I _----- up taking the bus andstar ted walk ing to col tege. Thoughsomet imes my neighbour - meup in the morning and takes me there inner car .

BUoTn,.... UN?UoTnfian is ty nrtrtr. a political anithal.'

Aristotle

Page 109: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

36 [ommunicslion Workshops

Writ ing

Before you start

1 toot at the Key Words.Which of the cr imes are thebiggest problem in yoursociety now?Wha t pun i shmen ts wou ldyou give for the crimes?

KEY WORDSburgLary, drug deaLing,

m r r n n i n n m r r r d o r r : n o, , , " J Y , , , Y ,

shopLi f t ing, thef t

t he dea thpenaL ty ( cap i t aL pun i shmen t ) ,f i n e n r i c n n < e n t e n e e, , , , " , r ,< a f l / h a r A < o n l - o n r o c

Li fe sentence

2 Read the letter. Which ofthe two approaches topr ison sentences do yousu pport?

' . ;

Dear Editor

Polly Fisher's articre last week made me consicler the pros and cons of harderprison sentences in this country. The issue h_as never been easy to resolve and I;?J:il#::l#,y" minds about it myserr. rd lik";; .;;;"-lil" or -v .,i"**on the one hand, it is really scandarous that some rapists and murderers are letout of prisons after three or four years. (r)

: this, rnany people are losingfaith in the British system of justice. Accorcling to tr,"-, ," .'n*ra bring backharder sentences (z) _ criminals are macle to pay for what they have done.Many peopre strongry *upport the American idea or i',r"".trit ". nna you,re out,- the idea that after committing three crimes criminals are rocked up for life.Something musr be gg:," . d";". ;;;;s,p"npt" from a tife of crime. It is alsosomehow wrong that (3).-__- *on"i i. *p"nt on prisons so that some havebecome like luxury rroters with televisionr'u"a gyms. Finally, I must admit that Isometimes understand those who berieve we should restore capitar punishmentin this country as in the usA. It l. i-p"tt"rt to think about the wishes of thefamilies and friencrs of murder ui.d;; ,r;; demand that justice be done.on the other hand, punishment .norra"ii" seen as an opportunity for revenge.we need to help and reform .o.rrrr.t"J..r,ornut. (4) - make them intouseful members of the communifir. personally, I am totally against hardersentences in principle. Despite-what many people say, capital punishment isjudicial murder and no better trru" uny otirJ. *rrd", (s) _ it is committedby the state. It is a savage form of punis'm"nt which i, uilin.t t urnan digni[2.Besides, it is highrv unfair (6) --_il;;iar mistakes. ilele; penarly arsoaffects some sections of the ."il;br;r""n r1or" than others. (7) --, inthe USA, sometimes it seems that the death penalq, is not as fif."fy f the victirn isblack and the murderer white as the otf."rrvuy round. l

All i' all, I'm sure we need to do whatever it takes to consider the positive anclnegative effects of harder sentencing tr"rore- ony final decisions are made. Iwonder what other readers think abiut tni. i".u".

Yours faithfully,Hannah Sutter

\ ' '' u,'T$

Page 110: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

3 matctt the sentences l isting arguments from adiscurs ive essay (1-8) wi th personal opin ions in theletter.

1 Many people feel that harder sentences shou[d beb rough t back .

2 The Amer ican system of ' three st r ikes and you' re out 'has supporters in Br i ta in.

3 Moreover, some peopte say that condi t ions in pr isonsare too soft.

4 There are arguments for the restorat ion of the deathp e na [ty.

5 The wishes of v ic t jms' fami ly and f r iends possib lyneed to be taken into account .

6 There are arguments against harder sentences andcap i t a I pun i shmen t .

7 I t is s t rongty fet t by many people that capi ta lpunishment is the equivatent of jud ic iaI murder .

8 Fur thermore, the death penal ty is seen as savage andan af f ront to human diqni tv .

4 Read the le t ter again and complete the gaps wi ththese [inking words (reason/resutt).

consequent ly so, due to, so much. just because.so that , as a resut t o f , in order to

A Discursive Essay (2)

Write an essay discussing this statement:'The onty way to cut cr ime in our country is to makepunishment more severe.' Fottow the stages below.

ilr writing Help I, page x44.

Stuge ILook at the letter. List the arguments 'for'and'against':

a the death penat ty and hard sentencesb punishment as reform

Add other arguments and reasons backing them up(e.9. f rom your country) .

notes to write a ptan of your essay.

Stoge 3Use your plan to write the essay.

Stage 4Check your essay.

TalkhuckWork in pairs. Give your essay to your partner to read.Comment on the arguments.

8 T

TI[]flu

23

Stoge 2Use your

9ocretq

Listening: A Song, r r , l l r ' l - , - ,f t ( . tht1'a]4d J0]4 by L/( t Jt t :yt- |4J

1 Wtrat differences are there between yourgeneration and your parents'generation in yoursociety? Think about these things:

a tastes in music/clothesb att i tudes to work and moneyc att i tudes to marr iaqe

Q 2 I- isten to the song. Who do you think said thesethings, the father (F) or the son (5)?

1 E l t 's not t ime to make a chanqe.2 [-] You're stjt[ young, that's youi faul,t.3 I Find a girL, sett te down.4 [ ] But take your t ime, think a Lot.5 E For you wit t st i t t be here tomorrow, but your

qreams mav not.6 [ ] How can I t ry to exptain, when I do he turns

away aga in .7 a) From the moment I coutd tatk I was ordered

91 01 17 21 3

to l isten.Now there 's a way and I know that I have togo away.Just relax. take it easy.There 's so much you have to know.I f you want , you can marry.Look at me, I am otd but I am happy.I f they were r ight , I 'd agree, but i t 's themyou know. not me.

- , l lr 4 l _ r K n o w I n a v e t o q o .

t j 5 Listen again. Answer these quest ions.

What do you th ink the s i tuat ion is? Why do youth ink the son wants to go away?What is the father 's advice?How do you th ink both of them feet?

Page 111: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

fl

II

ii

[ommunicolion Workshopsa l .

)pe0Krng

Before you start

1 took at the photo. If you had to spend two weeks:without any of comforts, what would you miss most?

Exampte hot water

2 Wttictr of these would be the biggest survivalprobtems for you?

making a f i re, f inding food, making a shetter, f i rst aid,f inding water, cooking

f) 3 listen to three peopte on a survivaI course. Whichof the probtems in Exercise 2 are mentioned?

i*$53ffi &ftt&,wwExaggeration and Understatement

Q 4 lt.t"n again and match the expressions.

1 It 's freezing.2 My feet are blocks of ice.3 I 'm dying for a cup of coffee.4 There are a few stones around . . .5 It 's huge.6 I t woutd take ages . . .7 l t 's qui te muddy . . .8 I 'm get t ing a b i t peckish.

a l t 's knee-deep in mud.b I t 's not what you'd ca[ [

tropica[.c Mine are a b i t cotd.d I 'm starv ing!e I t woutd take a whi [e.f There are mitl ions.g It 's quite big.h I wou[dn ' t mind one.

5 Wtrictt of the expressions invotve exaggeration and whichunderstatement? Do you use these a lot in your language?

Reacting to Suggestions

Look at the reactions to peopte's suggestions. Which arenegative?

1 That 's a good idea.2 Surety, it 'd be better to exptore a bit.3 0K, [et's do that.4 I t 's qui te b ig, but I don' t see why we have to bui td j t here.5 Don' t you th ink i t wou[d be bet ter near the st ream?6 How come?7 Right . I ' t [ cot tect the stones . . .8 0K. Why don' t we both do that?9 Surety, we can do that when i t 's f in ished.

O O Pronunciation. Listen to the words said slowty andthen said fast. Which of these sounds disappear or areadded: /t/,/d/,/r/,/v/?

1 start getting 2 Let's start. 3 explore a bit 4 best place5 for a cup 6 cup of cof fee 7 coutd bui l "d 8 need peopte9 some of them 10 before i t 11 b i t peckish

F , . '

*

Prohlem Solving

Make group decisions about how to survivein the wild. Fottow the stages below.

Sfoge IRead the Strategies.

Speaking Strategies:Preparing for problem solving

. First, read the information. Don't worryi f you don' t know at [ the vocabutary.

. Ident i fy the most important problems.

. Wr i te s imple notes wi th suggest ions/sotut ions. Give reasons for them.

. Think of what you woutd votunteerto do.

Use the Strategies to prepare for the task.

Task'surrrive two weeks in a forestin groups of tlrreeTemperature - maximum a5'C -

minimrrm 8"GEquipment - knife, fish hooks, torclr,flint, first aid kit, cooking pot, waterbottle, food for one day

Stoge 2Look at the expressions in the Function Fileon page 107 and the Chatroom. Practisemaking and reacting to suggestions.

Stoge 3Work in groups of three. Discuss your survivalp lans. Decide what you are going to do andwho is going to do different jobs.

TolkhockTe[[ the ctass how you plan to survive. Whichof the groups in the ctass do you think hasthe best chances of surviving?

Page 112: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

. tatk about, act out and resolve different kind;of conftict.

. listen to TV news reports, diatogues, a radiodocumentary and a radio p[ay; use listeningstrategies for identifying mood.

. read war memories. a newspaper article and aformal letter; use reading strategies forquestions with more than one type ofexamination task.

. write a formal letter of comptaint.

. learn about complex sentenees for emphasis.

KEY W0RDS: Conftictargument, battte, clash, feud, f ight, friction,gang, quarrel, row, violence, war, warfare

'TV breeds eopycatviolerice' elaims minister

KEY W0RDS: l'4stivesambition, fear, greed, hatred, intoterance,

Page 113: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

lilrI I I

i l !l , i l

liliL I :! : l i

iii:

i r: i

Before yw startI

I R Quiz. Work in pairs and do thequiz on page 136.

Reading

2 nead the Strategies.

Reading Strategies: Questionswith more than one type ofexamination task

. Read the text to identify themain 1dea. Underltne key words,

. Go through the questirns andmake sure you know what thetask is.

. Declde which task types refer towhich parts of the text.

. Deal wlth one type of task at atime. Remember that each type oftask (for example, Multiple Choiceor True/False) requires a dlfferentstrategy.

. Check the Strategies on pages 16,31, and 88 for advice about howto deal wtth speclfic types oftask.

Now use the Strategies to read thetexts and answer the questions inExercises 3-5. You have 20 minutes,

3 Uatch these titles with the extracts.There is one extra title.. A Brave Patlent . Vlllage Nightmare. The Way to Vlctory . Feeling Helpless r. N.o More Flghttng

i

4 Complete the gaps in Text B with 'r1

these sentences. There is one extrasentence.

a Just before mldnight we all decldednot to start ftring before they dtd. i""

b We told him he wasn't the only one iwho was fed up with it.

r The enemy had stuck up a simtlarone,

d The noise of the guns waslncredible.

e Then we all got out of the trench.

On Christmas morning we stuck up a board with"A Merry Christmas" on it. (1) flvo of our menthen threw thelr equipment off and staggered out of the trenchwtth their hands above thelr heads. Tbo of the Germans did thesame and thev met and shook hands.

, Q) 'Buffalo Bill' (our offlcer) tried to prevent it but

it was too late so he and the other offlcers climbed out, too, andstrolled over, We and the Germans trudged through the mud and metin the middle of no-man's-land.

We rrxrcked in all day with one another,.Some of them could speakEnglish. By the look of them, their trenches were in as bad a state asour own. One of their men, speaking tn English, mentioned that heworked in Brighton for some years and that he was fed up to thewith this damned war and wpuld be glad when it was over.(3) The German cohmander asked Buffalo Bill if we woulike a couple of barrels of beer and they brought them over to us. Theofflcers came to anunderstanding that the unofficial truce wouldend at midnight.(4) *-_- During the whole of Boxing Day we ner/er fired a shotand they the same; each side seemed to be waiting for the otherto set the ball rolling. One of thelr men shouted across tn Englishand inquired how we had enJoyed the beer. We replied that wewere very grateful and spent the whole day chatting with them.That evening we were replaced by another battalion.

$ralln OId Soldiers Never Die by Frank Richards)

*i":ffi;ffi:$ffi'"i'-#;iq.:,*t{ty":1i:"Jg#.ffiffi,1s;Sio"ff?Pffiiy ffi ellng niear<rast when the GIs enteredthe village and orderJd;; il*"their homes' Together with

other viilagers tlxey *J- *"t"ft*d " f*y hundred meters into the:'-

plaza, where they *-li"t"iit";;rtttl** hud tto reason to S

lrraia," Chuc recallei:"d;;;y;?as calm' We'd seen it"all 1'before.- He watched as the'GL u*t "p u *"tfti* g* tlt" '*9 ?

ended. The people'#;;;v*g.""d. u-ffi' b"3 *19 showed l'

his identiiication paplis*to?*iOi*t put"tfie [merican simp-lg luid'.Sorry.'Then the tht;i";Jtar;A' chuc was wounded P'ttr

t:g

but he was covered LV?3"a l"Oies and thus spared' After waiting

an hour, he {led the village--

tiriitty tai bY seYmour Hersh)

III

zI

I

Page 114: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

T *o, a phone call from the chief nurse, saying, "You've got a

I paUent there that is going to get an award. Make sure that theI ward looks good." This really tumed me off to begin with;'Let's clean up the ward because we've gotVIPs coming in.'Well,theVIPs happened to be the general of the 25th Infantry Divisionand an entouage of about twelve people.This was this patientssecond visit to us, this time with both his legs blown off * he wasall of about twenty years old.When he was waking up from hisanesthesia he whispered: "Don t you remember me, ma'am?" I said,"Oh yeah!" But real$ I didn't because there were so many of them.

The entourage was coming to give him the award because hehappened to be number twenty thousand to come tluough thishospital.They had this little ceremony, gave him a PLrple Heart anda watch. As the general handed him the watch, "fiom the 25thInfantry Division, as a token of our appreciation," the kid more orIess flung the watch back at him. He said somethlng like, "I can iaccept this, sir; it's not going to help me walk." After this littleincident, i went over and just put my arms around him and huggedhim. If I remember correctly, I started crying and I think he wascrying, too. I really admired him for that.That was one time I letsomebody see rnrhat I felt. It took a lot for him to do that, and itsort of said what thls uar was all about to me.

(From A Piece of !v{y Heartby Keith \Afrlker)

ffi=Hrft

5 Choor* the best alternative tc complete eachsentence, a, b, c or d.

I The Vietnamese villagers were calm at first becausea they knew the American soldiers.b this was a normal procedure.c they had'identification papers.d they didn't understand English,

2 The student said she would be able to kill a fascistbecausea her bayfriend was as the frontb she was going to the frontc she was ready to defend her motherlandd she didn't want to die

3 The nurse wasn't enthusiasric about the awardceremony from the start becausea she had {o clean up the ward.h she didn't ltke her boss's attitude to the VIPs.c the patient had been badly wounded.d the patient started to cry.

I The troops got together on Christmas Day becausea they had pianned it beforehand.b they all knew each other,c they were tired of the war.d the officers declared a truce.

Vorabulary: llUord Families

ad:k

Jc

the front '.."Yesterday I went to an institute where the students were

iu"t"g .i"rr*s. suddeniv a girl stood Yp Td shouted'

{;#;leam to throw grJnades antl petrol bombs!"

Evervbodv suppofted heias she went on speaking' "Each

;;J;il'.;ilJ' to 't'^t', will kill at least one fascist!"

Ftr" Lexicorr, Jrage i613.

6 Classify these words from the text.

beg, chat, inquire, march, mention, mutter, recall,reply, shout, stagger, stroll, trudge, whisper

wALr( staggerSPTAK / SAy / TELL cltat, muttet shautAsIt inguire

$peaking7 Would ynu fight in a war? Wtry/Why not?

",i l i-,.4r ...,,,.,,.

From The Chronicle of Caurageby Ilya Ehrenburg)

Page 115: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

l

a

l' l

t :;

:

II

!IIi

O 2 Listen to some traditionat scottish

: l

i ilri

i ll :i ,

38 Nei

Befare you storl

1 Wtrat usually causes conflict betweenneighbours? Have 1pu ever had problemswith pur neighbours?

bagpipe music. Do you tike it?

3 neaO about the dispute between twoneighbours. Whose side are you on, thebagpiper's or his neighbours'? $lhy?

Presenluf ion: Complex Sentences (2):Emphosis

Neighbour$ Call the Tun* ^^- hos oacked I

dl*t**+nill*n*;'-'r='*i,j*'-,irff Ititlfr u"t"oreersupset*'?*:"":E;ltt",'h"; ;;;j; 4 *"-Tl",t#:'m'*'i1,"'o

"N everthat really gels to To1,i,ll,"""i- -v whole life' I mean'

ffi; ir,ea; anYthing tike it t" *I:i:J""t 'n];; 10

the pipes are :Tri?;T""tl instrument' aren't they? I

rt's not "o'nt'"'oj'ittt'fi"l"f our best pipers go to

l ive abroad!" r --i-^- ^orrc.ed. such conflict ' Mr"'- setaom h*.".1"T:-':ffinr;s;ffiH -""""' i'"a ,^.,H:gfit;:t:l,tlJ,fil"Tru;;,il*:iT,*i:nff3"'

1 5the noise' "ett *"**u"i""'ao t"' 1"^Yt

the sound or

bagpipes!" th"Y ili;;naa we nl-:-1."t'$|'itl'"a i"to

mX U:';**:l il""Hi$ii""1i#n:';;*: zo$;;;;iY did. we s"l,i ::::::^'Xtoot at homeand rare\ dld- we -;*;;G.*:.?:h1:lHl

oo,rrumorning' Neither :^t;;;. Ile practisetwi tho ut y*ti" g,u

Hr' ;"p *irtt tt'at : we wonder?"" utnj H::S::i1Y;;J;;""'il took i"::';l;'i,Y"- 25"",,6;;;;r:t'-::ry'*T*1iiJlil,l;":;"ia'wr,"'Maclean a warning'r.;;;;; "f""rf.V defined - there

ff H'f iJ'ff "'"";:,1#;: :*h"" praYin g the

!4 Compare the sentences in thetable. Which of the statementsbelow (a-c) are true about theformaI sentences? 0nty onestatement is false.

a they begin with a word that hasa negative meaning

b they have the word order ofa question (inversion)

c they sound less emphatic

Find more examples of formalsentences in the text. Make a listof negative rvords and otpressionsthat these sentences begin with.

ru;# ffifooa 'o"t rnusic'"

Fow*L Wnrrrrn llxeules

ffever lras fte knorn crrythfng like r{

Seldom have bagpipes causedsuch conffct.

I{*ft&er cauld we reail a boak st honewithout we aring earplugs !

Nsurnnl Llncu*es

He has never known anything til<e it.

Sagpipes have hardly ever causedsrrch con;Flfcf.

We couldn't read a book at homewithout wearing earplugs either.

5 Paraphrase these conditional sentenc€s so that they sound less emphaticand less formaL

Had we known that our neighbour was a pipe4 we wauldn't have moved inin the first place.I wauld have felt terrible at the ceremony, had ny frie nds not been there with ne.

Page 116: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

6 ttow are these neutral statements (1-3)reported in the text?

1 I'm moving house. In iact, I'm go'ing toArnerica.

'',2 We'd only just moved in when the noisebegan to drive us mad.

3 We hardly ever get a chance to have a[ie-in.

7 f;na rentences in the text which meanatmost the same as the sentences below.

1 Mr Maclean feels upset about the factthat people ca[[ his music "noise

potlution".2 This really gets to me.3 flle want to forget the sound of bagpipes.,4 We gave Mr Mactean a warning after

carefu[ consideration.

Underline the parts of the sentences (1-4),which are emphasised in the text.

i:l Exampte

; Mr Maclean feels upset sbout the -fuct thatpeople call his music'noise pollutionl

e$ Grammar Summary 10, poge 749.

Prartire

8 Using the beginnings provided, rewritethe sentences to make them more emphaticand more formal

1 They wit[ never admit their mistakes.Never -- .

2 If she had come, she would've learnedthe truth.H a d - .

3 He didn't only sing in the choit heplayed in the schooI band as we[.Not on[y

4 We hardty ever hear such powerfulpeirforma nces.Setdom

5 Politicians hardly ever experience what warreally feels [ike.Rarety -- .

6 I don't argue with people and I have neverbeen in a real fight either.I don't argue with people and neither

hpn{tef

9 Comptete the sentences using the beginnings and the cuesprovided.

ExampleThe flight was a nightmare. (take aff / it tum aut thqt the enginewas on fire)Na sooner had we taken off thsn it turned out that the engine wason fire.

1 People spend too much money nowadays.Not only ... (they buy things they don't reatly need f go onexpensive hoLidays)

2 British football fans are the most violent in Europe.5eldom ... (it is quiet after the match)

3 The sunset at the seaside is an extraordinary sight.Rarely ... (one see anything so beautiful)

4 The evacuation of the building was completed just in time.l{o sooner ... (than} ... (the last person had left / the firebroke out)

5 The press conference generated enormous interest.Never before ... (there had been such a great turnout ofreporters and journalists)

10 Rervrite the sentences below so the emphasis is on theundertined phrase. Start each sentence with ft... .

ExampleWe enjoyed the wine, but not the fpod.It was the wine that we enjayed, not the fuad.

1 Jenny wrote a letter of complaint to the manager.2 l'm allergic to dairv products, not wheat.3 They offered us financial compensation onlv after we

threatened to take them to courl.4 She is constantly arguing with her mother, not her father.5 Tim took part in the competition because of the attractive

Prizes.

I 1 complete the sentences.

Examp[eI don't watch a lot of TV. Atl I watch is the news.

1 I don't eat much. ALt i ...2 He didn't come to see me. It was ...3 I don't enjoy talking about politics. What I ...4 I didn't order spaghetti bolognese It was ...5 We didn't do anything occiting in Greece. A[t we ...6 I don't really mind people being [ate. What I ...

1 2 fn pairs ask and answer the guestions. Always start youransvuers with 4ll I ... or Whst I ... .

1 How do you like spending your free time?2 Do you do a lot of sport?3 What do you usually do together with your friends?4 Do you watch tetevision a [ot?5 How much water do you drink a day?5 What do you usuatly have for breakfrst?7 How do you spend your hotidays?

What can !/ou say about your partner's lifestyle?

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: l

39 ftnflict ResolutionBefore yoa stutt

Vocshulory: Multi 'part Verbs

e Lexicon, psges 170-176

I Ptatch the wrbs betow withthose underlined in thequestionnaire.

criticise discuss, get revenge.irritate. make, return, say 0K.stop liking, suggest, take,tolerate

2 uow would you react in thesituations? Ansruer thequesfionnaire in Exercise 1.Then check your an$wers onpage 136 to see howassertive you are.

Page 118: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I .Hsrentng

3 neaa the Strategies.

_L_i *grr1!Ls_!E!qg qs_ll!! n lifyi n g- m o o d' Listen for ecpressions that are positive {e.g. I'm really

pleased.) or negative (e.9. Slop getting at met).. Pay attention to intonation to help you identifir people's

moods {eg. happy, angry, nervous, upset}.. Be careful with sarcasm. Sometimes people say

sornething positive but with a full ing intonation so thatit means the opposite.

I J { Listen to the argument between a brother and sister.Use the Strategies to decide if these statements are true(T) or fatse {F}.

1 tr Lucy is not happy about her history essay.2 L) Pete is interested in hearing about her result.3 LJ Lucy is upset by his reaction.4 LJ The first t irne she asks her brother to chanse channets

she is patient.

5 n Pete gets angry because Lucy has borrowed hiscalculator.

6 n Lucy is angry because Pete refuses to change channels.7 LJ Pete is not worried about Lucy not letting hirn use her

computer.8 L-J He gets nervous when she makes her last threat.

Q 5 ltst"n again. Ctassify the expressions in the Function File"

a crit icising b contradicting c refusingd suggesting e threatening

A r g u i n g

1 Just stop getting at me. willyou?7 You're always telling people about your exciting maths

problems.

No, I'm not.I wish you wouldn't interrupt me atl the tirne.$fhy don't you turn over and see if it's started?No, why sbould I turn over?You never let other people watch anything.l{hy do you atways have to twist the truth?I did giw it back to you.I do tidy it.I don't see wlny I should.If pu don't, I'tl never let you use my computer again.And if pu do that, I'Ll stop giving you a tift to school in themornings.

6 Pronunciat ion. Listen to ten sentences. Ident i fy the mood.

angry, annoyed. confident, happy. impatient, patient, sarcastic.tr iumphant, upset

hmpwing ha{tares$lork in pairs. Slhat do pu think causespeople to deal with conflict differently -their personality or their culture?

IL

zo

z

tr-

J

456

8v

I U

7 77 2l 5

o

0w{W

G l r)peoKrng

7 Wort in pairs. Ast out situations 3 and { fromthe questionnaire in Exercise 1. Use theexpressions from the Function File.

ExampleA Hey, yau know I'm going to a party an Saturday.B les, what abaut it?A Well, can I barraw your blue T-shirt?

l .HSrenrng

O I Listen to a radio programme about how toresolve conflicts. Complete the sentences withthe correct ending - a, b or c

1 The worst thing to do when someone isaggressive is toa say nothing at al[. b be aggressive back.c g0 away fiom the situation.

2 Withdrawal is not a very useful strategy becausea it bottles up both peopte's feelings.b the person leaving feels angry.c the situation can become violent.

3 Mediation is a good strategy whena the conftict is very serious.b you have a good mediator.c someone from outside decides.

4 When negotiating you shoutda be prepared to speak for a long time.b repeat your reasons again and again.c find out what the other person wants.

5 You should propose solutions whicha everybody agrees with. b do not threatenthe other person. c suggest you take turns.

6 ktjhen you are in confl. ict situations you shoulda be aware of your body language.b speak firmly and ioudly.c use strong body language,

A l o

)peoKtng

I Wort in pairs. Act out situations 3 and 4from Exercise 1 again. Use the advice from theradio programme to help resolve the conflict.

I 0 Uo* were the roleplays in Exercises 7 and gdifferent? How useful was the advice? Tel[ theclass.

Page 119: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

40 Communiculion WarkshopsLose Pti:ust

2 tcilos t;iniJ.[ uv usins the

#"u.demeK#r#lss Stkw

bear fir,/fvladam,

*|amwritiagtoyo*abutatbarlcFranoebil<ewhi&|bauShtfo*tldoSu|Melastorcsan

zf Xpte*rLr zow fot €41Lx1' / ene/ose eopiet of &e reoeipt anl gu**ttcc'

a ln yo*t aduertistn!, yM a{atm $at by wry the bffte for tev minwtes a da4' yon woxll {ose at

lcast two l<ifos a weel I haue been *aln. ie b;lrc frr'a month ww an/ tt * as th,tg& t have

/one no acwist at a{d /esPtte fa#owiry the instrqition h4anua{ carqury'

c rhe bl<e is also badly *ude' rhe speelomcter stlppel worhng @t y,(.*d $e mao*Uc

dtat measnrcsStour heartbed w'ustafso have brolccn stnee itgaue teatf hilh redtngs' t was

so wofl;cl d1d I went tu &e doaton who tuld me nat to worrT a$ hlrtbed was perfa{y

no,ual. worst ( all, the pdab brofceiwta' t ** t7t{4 i *f tP4 Yl*fal$n5

off

tlie bilt, I p*l{e/ a muse{e and han' ind * i;n' np exeteiec fir 3 weels!

o when | tuolc t{te bike baalt b the shop, not onf lid ilte wanryer refise to refxnd *y waney'

but he wasAfu ex*etuef rude anl tucatel'me ps if ;t was my fa*lt that fu bilc hal brolcen"

tlwoa*{itceyantorefulmywokql4ssootl4syoss&{at'/nlesslraaeiue,asatisfantotyrcpfu

wiiltn the next thr* weelcs' I wi/{ haue * talcc f*rther at-tion'.1 haue alreely becn in antatt

widt nyr {oeal conswmer probatiou offiee u ordcr * asi fot aduiea

1ts.:

Writing

Befare you sturt1 Read the letteL Matchthe titles (1-5) with theparagraphs (A-E). There isone extra title lpu don'tneed.

1 poor service2 fatse claims3 the product4 money back5 diet proqramme6 poor quality

words and expressionsaccording to thefoltowing groups:

mannet condition,cortrast, purpose, reason,result, time, addition,relative pronoun

I ho!< forwatd to hearing fron yot+'

Yows fa&hfwl{1

wJ#y'A. N.k{f/c/' {tu14

2 tint ing Review. Readthe tetter again. classifythe underlined tinking

Page 120: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

3 tootc at the examples, then use the cues (r-6) towrite similar sentences.

ExampleThe more I use the bike, the more weight I seem to put an.The earlier you leave, the sooner you will srrive.

1 get to know her / like her2 sport ptay I fit / get3 hard I study / good / marks be4 sweets eat / bad / teeth be5 dangerous sport I [ike it6 oLd / get / difficutt / work becomes

A hetler of frrmplaint

Write a letter of complaint. Fotlow the stages.

EF Writing Help 10, page 145.

Stage IMatch the products (1-6) with the Key Words"

1 a CD ptayer 2 a pair of shoes or boots 3 a jacket4 a mobile phone 5 a portable television 6 a digital watch

KEY WORDST l*r : :* la!nts

. it tfion't open . the zip broke . it won't work indoors' the sound is distorted . the atarm doesn't work. the heel fetl off ' the headphones don't work' it's not waterproof ' the picture is bad. the cotour faded after one wash. it loses about five minutes every hour

Stage 2Imagine you bought one of the products and somethingwent wrong with it. Make notes about these things.

. What went wrong with the product?' What frlse claims did the advertisement make?. What happened when you took it back to the shop?

tage 30rganise lpur notes into four or five paragraphs.

Stoge 4Use your ptan to write the letter.

Stage 5Check your letter.

1234

56

O 3 lirt*n to Part 2 again. Who do they think rtartswars? Tick the correct boxes.

emperors and kings [J generals f]manufacturers I soldiers Xnations of people lf

4 Worl ln groups. Discuss these questions.

1 What do you think of the soldiers'idea for kings andgenerals to fight wars themselves in a big field?

2 Why do you think wars start?3 Can wars be avoided?

hon{rc/'

Lirtening

Before You Start

1 toof at the stil,t from the fitm Atl Quiet on thewestern Front Try to guess if these statementsabout the film are true (T) or fatse (F).

1 n it cost a lot to make.a n tne film is set during the Second World War.3 [ It's an anti-war fitm.

A Fllmsfipt

Q 2 lirt"n to the fiLm critic in Part t and check yourguerses for Exercise 1. Then listen to Parts 1 and 2.Answer these questions.

When was the film made?How many 0scars did it win?Who are the sotdiers in the film fighting against?How many soldiers are left in their unit after theattack?How do the soldiers feel about the enemy?What people do the soldiers think benefit fromthe war?

Page 121: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Communiculion WorkshSpeoking

Eefsre foa ttart

Q I ltsten to the tetephone conrrersationbetween the manager of FitnessProducts and the customeiAnsrver these guestions:

How does the manager react at first?a confidently b nervously c angrilyHow does the manager try to resolvethe conflict?a she rnakes $(cuses b she is rude tothe customer c she stays calrnHow satisfied is the customer with thesotution?a very satisfied b quite satisfiedc not satisfied

-G#$ furt.afidonFormat Expreesions

2 chsslfy the sentences from thephone catt (r-r2) according to thefollowing categories.

. apologising . complaining

. promising . starting or ending a call' threatening

1 Good morning. Fitness Products Ltd.Can I hetp you?

2 Good morning. I'd tike to speak tothe customer service manager,please.

3 I stiLt haven't had a reply.4 I'm very sorry about that.5 I'm extremety sorry to hear that.6 0n top of that. when I took the bike

back to the shop, the manager wasectremely rude.

7 Unless I receive it, I'[t have to takelegal action.

8 WeLL, let me apologise for yourexperiences.

9 WeLt, I can assure you persona[ythat you will receive a full refund.

10 And we wi[[ look into the subject ofcompensation for your injury.

1 1 Thank you. I' l '[ be in touch.r 2 Goodbye and thank you very much

for ca[[ing.

A Farnal felephone ConYersolian

Harre a telephone conversation about a fautty product.Fo[[ow the stages.

Stoge ILook at lnur note$ about Spur product from Stage 2 in the WritingWorkshop. 0ecide what you want the cornpany to do.

Srage 2Wcrk in pairs. One rtudent is the manager and the other is thecustomer. Look at the expressions in the Chatroom and decidewhich ones !nu will usa

Stage 3Act out the situation and come to an agreement.

Stoge 4ilow change roles and have another phone conversation.

Talkhgr;kWhat agreements did you come to? Tetl the class,

Page 122: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

,;NF,I,l:I

i r

3I nead the letter.lilhat conflicts arementioned? What arethe reasons for them?

ExampleCIare and her boyfiend -he spends tao muth timeon his computer

2 wtrat advice wouldyou give Nick to helphim resalw theconflicts ?

ni L\are,Horr ars thing*? \.^1h1 tiawn't 1ou gOt in t0u{.h? YoLi',ae hadrn1 rrnail lor ary*lll Fihat hars 1ou i:e*n doing during tkx.hoiid;ls? And hou are Joii goiting cn +rith lcur bc1fr&ild?thopo tiiings art abis boiirr arrd hs i6n'i $tiil r1ilr! in{ronl of that aufui rcrnputer ail *x. lirns.iarry,rt pu Yrawbwr' {OrFing hard {cr lour sramsl il00hsr. l'w finiehsd nost 0{ minr, co 1 can sit ba* and re.lal

{a bit anpra'iJ. A1 lgast bl ihs timg I gei ba* i w;ll harrrr.ad ihnt auiulll borirrg boor ft# m1 Hir,torl *ae.|rr hasmads mg rr,ad ovt the haiidalsI'wbtort staling wifh nr1 iamill hsra on ihr roa$t. Ml'gcandiather'e livad hsre lor 1oaru and vle *r:mo hrro eve.r1

10ar Unfortunaie.ll, rn1 loungor brother's bor.n q*tiing 0n my nr.rvr,i You know uhat hds t;ral(or e,'ramS&r,,1*1erda1, Damian and lurnl {ot" a ualk to the towsr at ths till of thr: cltff l:shind t1rg to,,,rn Anlway,hfivin* $alk&d all tho ural 1o tho top yro \{ore tir&d and ttopprd ior a broathsr. i'd lovsd to luw had ,} dfirr rf '.latfbut rn1 broihec had f'nishad it alll*wrho rsmsnrbarsd once harring be,en iaksn nound {ne. io'*er r*hsn !l9 \lrfs.liilrllqsr, ro hejumpad ihe {anre araLrndit and !,ieri t0 thr, tOp I re{used t0 g0 up arrd li0ld Damiarr i'i qac not *a{s. \^l&ll, he. had be,e,rr Btaildinq th+rr, {crr alriilut& 0f ""c when th0f0 hrac ,i noreo. ijumpoC balr. ll rnu*i havs iigen an instinrtivr. ffatii0t1 bui it 6aved rx,i lift.bsr'aa*t' a larqo rtono aaehed pa*i rna l{ i had re.aiieod it var thai danqerou* l wculd ne.r,e,r havr, clond so rlotel!'lhrn wa g*t balr homr" an| i told Mum abnr]i ii, eha tcld mo nff for leitjng hin go up iho iO!.re.r and ,ile had a ff.alrou. l msarr, l'rn noi responcible {nr l,arnian, arir l? Hr'* {ifltenlApari {rom that i{5 $reat hora Havinrl tomo hare &verj $urnmsr $eans thai mori of the ry,oplc ir, the vr{lage ans re.afll{riondfy. i lt"ippaoc, thel nlt6t hav& Fft0hrr $t, sinc|. t wa* a bali1. fho onll parran I dofli get orr I'rit,:r ic iho rr.rnnan intho ruprmartrrl{hr. sihar da1 *ha complatrcdb*cauir" I qr,nt in ',{ifn no lhosr on.\.lrrli, fd b&iier 6t0p I should Yawbet'rt oui holpirrg &ranpa ',.rith hislswt. Ho's breil havinq ptbianrswrfn thaneiqhbouring {arrnsr r+iils& rhoep iravr beon qrtiinE int', thr, gardrn and ga}irrg his plarrtt&91 in tour-h.Nirr

Perfettive Verh FormrTtr Grammar 1ummary, page 150.

3 match the names of the verh forms with thcstr{ctures in botd in the sentences below.

Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Ferfect,Past Perfect Continuous. Future Perfect, perfuct infinitive"perfective -ing form, passive perfective -ing form

1 By the time I Eet back I will have read that book.2 I expect you have been warking hard for your

exa rnsl3 I've finished most of mine.4 Having come here every surnmer means that aI.[ of the

peop[e in the village are realty friendly"5 My brother remembered once having been taken

round the tower.6 I had been standing there for a minute or so when

there was a noise.7 I suppose they must have known me since I was a

baby.8 My brother had finished it alll

abc

t234

4 neaU the sentences betow from the text. Which ofthese {a-c} do the perfective rrerb forms refer to?

something happening before a tirne in the pastsomething happening before the presentsomething happening before a tirne in the futur*

I've been staying with my family here on the coast.My grandfather's lived here for years.By the time I get back I witl have read that book.He had been standing there for a minute or so whenthere t#as a noise.

5 nead two more sentenees from the text and decidewhat atl perfective verb forms refer to:

1 Having watked a[ the way to the top, we were tiredand stopped for a breather.

I I should have been out helping Granpa with hisfence.

a something that happened in the pastb something happening before a certain point in timec something that has ctear consequences

@" More practice, Language Powerbook, page 142.

Page 123: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

t ,i :

Revieuu1 Comptete the second sentence sothat i t has a simi lar meaning to thefirst sentence.

1 I think you should spend less moneyon designer c[othes.If ___ .I wou[dn't have gone there if I hadknown what i t was hke.Had -- .

I 'rn very busy. Why don't you go andget the newspaper this time?t 0

W" n"taty u*r get a chance towatch such a good f i lm.Seidomi th ink the government should dosomething to reduce crime.It's - .People dropping l itter in the streetsmaKe me very angry.What ___ .We just need another five minutes tof in ish the job.Ail. ___ .They are always making a lot ofnoise late at night, which reatlyirritates me.What __-_ .I cteaned the bathroom onty lastweek.I t _ _ .She always arrives late and then shedoes not even apologise.Not onlyThe [ocaI counci I real ly shou| .dprevent cars from going into thecentre.I L )

CoutA yor., *t ring me up after 10o'clock?r d _ _ .I t was the toughest decis ion he hadever had to make in his [ife.

Can' t you ta lk about something e[se?I wish __He watked into the room andimmediately started an argurnent.

1 0

1 1

2 Comptete the conversation with a suitable auxiliary verb.

A Hey, Mary, can you give me back my Walkman?B I 1 give i t back to you.A N o . y o u 2 - - .B Yes, I 3 _---- . I teft it on your desk.A WetL, it isn't there now 4 ____ it? I can't find it anywhere.B 5 --- you? Someone else must have taken it,

ring Alan. Heatways going off with other people's thinEs.

I I -_-- . The battery's low on my mobile. 10

you phone h im?B 0h, a l l r ight , I 11 _ do i t . But i t 12

annoy me when people just take things.A Yes, what we 13

74to do is take sornething of his,

B Yes, I 15you think?

I

3 Ur* the {ues to comptete the sentences with perfective verbforms.

1 ___ (arrive) at the vi[[age, we went for a mea[.2 He _____ (stay) with some friends on the coast for a few days.3 By next week. I (f inish) my diving course.4 ___ (be trained) in first aid by my dad, I knew what to do in

the accident.5 We ____ {wait) for the b'us about five minutes when we heard

the explosion.6 This af ternoon I ___ (do) my homework but people have just

kept r ing ing me up on my mobi le .7 It __*_ (be) terribte for you to lose your wallet in Paris.

Vocubulury

4 Comptete the text with the correct words.

At the moment, I arn having a (1 argumentlfeud/fightfquarret)with the neighbours who |. ive in the flat above me. What is most(2 annoying/offending/outstanding/worrying) is that they often make alst of noise Late at night. Sometimes they put on very |.oud music andother times they have arguments and (3 argue/complain/shaut/whisper) at each other. At the weekends they have parties in their ftatthat (4 go on/last out/take/take up) untiI twc in the morning. When Iphone up and (5 complainfmention/recalfsay] the noise they (6apologise/promisey'suggest/threaten) to be quiet but then it starts upagain. Last night, I f inally lost my (7 fear/mood/pride/temper) withthem and called the police. When they came, the neighbours {8 ctaimed

,/denied/mentioned/refused) nobody else in the block had complained,which is not true. The police said they cou[dn't {9 do/give/make/take)any action unless they had (10 evidence/examples/proofs/signs) thatthe neighbours rnade mcre than the legaI tevel of noise"

7 2

1 3

7 4

1 5

No sooner

Page 124: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

hn{W

7 tttatch each of these words with two wordsfrom the box.

big, coLd, hungry, laugh, [ook, rich, say, walk

chilly, chuckle, freezing, giggle. glance, huge,massive, peckish, shout, stare, starving, stro|.[,trudge, wealthy, weft-off, whisper

Pronunciuf ion

O 8 litt.n and repeat these rryords. Which aredifficult for you to say?

arch i tectu re, b reathtaki n g, expendi tu re, orp losio n,fea r, g reed, negotiation, outstandi ng, pride,acism. s'ixteenth, soldier, suggestion, throughout,vicious. withdnwalpainting by

Grosz

5 Comptete each gap with one unrd.

The golden 1 - of Berlin was in the 1920s whenthere was an exptosion of ? in the arts. The citywas in a state of 3 -- after the First World War andwas 4 - through major social and economicchanges. The most 5 - of the arts were the theatreand cinema with 6 playwrights tike Bertol.t Brechtand film directors tike Fritz Lang. There was also a7 - of literary activi\r with novelists tike Al.fredDtibLin and.Thomas Mann. Bolh architecture and painting also

with the inftuence of the Bauhaus school andexpressionist painters like George Grosz. Wiqr did this creativeI -- occur? For a very short time, before the rise ofHitLer, Berlin acted as a 10 _- for talented artists inGermany and Europe, such as the fzech ff[m director Janowitz.Technology also had an importani 11 -- on both thetheatre and cinema and there was a lot of cross-fertilisationbetween att of the 72 ---�. such as painting andcinema.

6 Comptete each sentence with the correct word, a, b, cor d.

1 The number of cases of violent crime has recentty.a expanded b gained c risen d raised

2 The top 20 percent of the working populationmore money than twenty yeals ago.a achieve b earn c gain d win

people are generally better off, the gapbetween rich and poor has widened.a Although b Despite c However d WhereasMore people have a than five years ago.a employment b job c living d workThere was a slight between the twogovernments.a argument b clash c disagreement d quarrel

Q 9 litt*n and repeat these sentences.

1 He was an outstanding soldier throughoutthe war.

2 They agreed with our suggestion forincreased expenditu re.

3 There was an exptosion of outstandingarchitecture in the sixteenth century.

4 They agreed to a withdrawal after negotiations.5 Racism is often based on fear.

10 t-oot through the Lercicon and choose firrewords that are difficuLt for you to say Thenwork in pairs. f,ompare your words with lpurpartner's. Try to think of synonyms so lfou canavoid saying the words.

Trunslolion

I 1 Translate the sentences into Engtish.

1 EH 3AopoBo yAaBantoct oorrnHflTr BcflKHeue6rnuuu.

2 f.qe rbr HaxBaraJrcff orHX cJroB?3 Mou AerH y)KacHbrc npoKa"aruKul Bqepa,

HanpHMep, Hapnlnnncb npHBHAeHr,rflMH HHanynaru 6a6yuxy.

a |Iocne oqepealon c:TbrrrKu c 6pa.ronr ouapeuHJra oToMcTHTb eMy H pacKpb|Tb eroTArzHy.

3a pacnpocrpaHeuue HapKorHKoB BHeKOTOpbTX frpaHax npHrCIBapHBaroT KcMeprHorl Ka3HH.Korga coJrAarbr Ygr{ronn Ha{BpraloIrlnecflHA HHX BpilKecKr.{e Tar{KH, OHil n0HflJil,r,rrro HM npe{Grour rsxeJrbrrr 60n.MHorne flloru cquTar,or cMeprHbfinpuroBop cJrHurKoM cypoBoH Mepofr prnplr3brBaroT BJr&CTl,r OTMeHHTb BbKlrrynMepy HaKa3aHHfl.

Page 125: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

THn Srnnxcr Cn OFSE' D o l;ifidiANffiHJ;- . - i + + r J

:':::':":::und no,es and answe*hese ffiquestions.

1 What countries did Stevenson travel to?2 Why did he decide to settte in Samoa?3 What are the two main themes of The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hydel

Reuding ond l is lening

O 2 Read and listen to the story. Are the statements below true (T) or fatse

1 f The butl"er asked Mr Utterson to come to Dr Jekytt 's house.2 Z Utterson and the butter heard Dr Jekytl. 's voice in the studv.3 fl They found Hyde's dead body wearing Dr JekyLL's clothes.4 l l Dr JekyLt's new wit[ was made out to Edward Hyde.5 I In his note. Dr JekytL exptained how he changed identity.6 fl His other personality was simitar to his origina[ one.7 fl When he was Mr Hyde, Dr Jekytl committed crimes.8 I After some time, Dr Jekytl. coul"dn't control the changes of identity.

3 Ans*er these guestions.

1 Why djd Mr Hyde have the key to Dr Jekytt 's house?2 Why did Utterson say 'Dr Jekytl woutd not be pteased'?3 What d id Poote mean when he said h is master was'got r id of?4 What do you think had been in the bott[e next to the body of Mr Hyde?5 Why were Mr Hyde's clothes 'fur too big for him'?6 After he had read the note, where did Utterson think Dr JekyLt was?7 How did things get out of control for Dr Jekytl?8 Why did Dr Jekytt say in his statement that it was 'my true hour of death'?

4 Compl.ete the sentences with a word formed from the word in brackets.

1 Dr Jekyt l . was a respected and _ man. (honour)2 Dr Jekyt l . regained h is _ when he took the mixture again. (h igh)3 Mr Hyde was completely -_-- - nobody had heard of him. (know)4 The drugs began to have _ effects. (predict)5 The second time Utterson asks to enter, he won't accept Mr Hyde,s

(refuse)6 Before he reads the statement, Utterson cannot exptain the _ of Dr Jekytt,

(disappear)

Tqlkbock

5 In groups. or with the whote class, discuss the fottowing.

1 What do you th ink the servants were ta lk ing about when they weretogether in the ha[ [?

2 How do you th ink Dr Jekyl l was feel ing when he wrote h is f ina l note?3 What quest ions do you imagine that Mr Ut terson would [ ike to ask Dr

Jekytl. i f Jekytl were ative to answer them?

Page 126: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

!(1€,q,;^

, , ' .

i f i

. ' . .Dr Henry Jefryll is a successful andLondon docror tuho b liftedfor ltis pleasant character

ft? dear,Z,tttersoz,

and respectedfor his uorfr; The mysterious Mr Edeuard Hyde, on theother hand, appears to be a tltorougltly bad man, ahhough he iscompletely unrtnotun in London society. A uell,ftnou,n man ismurdered and Eduard Hyde seems to be responsible. So hoou doesMr Hyde come to haue the ftey of Dr Jertylk house? And w/ey doesDr Je\1t/l giue his laruye4 Mr (Jtterson, a neeu cuill in uhich he leaueseuerything to Mr Hyde? One night, Poole, Dr ftrtytll's butler, uisitsMr Utterson and asfts him to come quicftly to Dr fefotll's lrouse.

When they arrived, the butler knocked gently on the door anda voice inside asked: ' Is that you, Poolel ''Yes, it's all right,' said Poole. 'Open the door.'They entered the brightly lit hall. All the servanrs were crowdedtogether there like frightened sheep.'Why

are you all herel' asked lJtterson. 'Dr Jekyll would not be

pleased.''They're

all afraid,' said Poole. 'And now,' he said, addressing

a kitchen boy, 'bring me a candle and we'll get this done

immediately.'Then he begged Mr lJrterson to follow him ro Dr|ekyl l 's study.Poole knocked on the study door and said, 'Mr lJtterson is here,si r . ''Tell him I can't see anyone,' said a voice from inside.Poole led {Jtterson in silence back to the kitchen. 'Sir,' he said,looking Mr Utterson in the eyes, 'was that my master's voice ?''It seems much changed,' replied the lawyer, very pale.'Changedl

No, sir. That is not my master. FIe was got rid of eightdays ago when we heard him cry out in the name of God. Andwho's there instead of himl ''This is a strange srory, Poole,' said Mr lJrterson, biting his finge r.'Suppose Dr fekyll was murdered. What could persuade themurderer to stayl That doesn't make sense. '

Euentually, Utterson returns to the study and demands to enter. Theuoicefrom inside refuses and Utterson realises it is Mr Hydes uoice.Poole and Utterson decide to breaftinto the study.

They looked into the room. The re it lay in the quiet lamplight,a good fire burning, papers set neatly on the desk and thingsarranged for tea. Right in the middle, there lay the body of aman, horribly twisted and nor yet quite still. They wenr rowardsit care fully and recognised the face of Edward Hyde. He wasdressed in clothes thar were far roo big for him, clothes of thedoctor's size. The muscles of his face still moved but life wasquite gone; there was a broken bottle in his hand.

The two men turned to the desk. On it they found an envelopeaddressed to Mr Utterson. The lawyer opened it and severalpapers fell to the floor, including a new will from Dr fekyll - butin place of the name of Edward Hyde, the lawyer read his ownna me-'I don't understand,' said Utterson. 'Hyde has been here for days.He must have been angry ro see my name ins tead o f h is bur hedidn't destroy this paper.''Why

don't you read ,h", ,rot., sirl' asked Poole.'Because I'm afraid to,' replied the lawyer. And with that he fixed

*:;##mrT#y:,,W!f",,#rcXffi"f,h77;nfTaon' zfyou'"t /L tu hz,,;i"ir! :'*

ooz ̂ *r J^,?u, a'horoozz;::*","

the rtoy ofutz on"tury7ftena,'

wwagJ'tiyrzz.

'We'd better say nothing about this,'t"ta UiiHffiall the papers in his pocket. 'If your master has ru.n awayor is dead, we may at least save his good name. I must gohole a3d read these papers but I shall be back beforemidnight, when we shal l send for rhe pol ice. '

When (Jttersotn returned home, he read Henry Jekvtl's fultstaternent.afthe case.

J

his eyes on the paper and read the

1 toa* born' ittto a' rkhfaut/y an)' nat iiftd' ultlr' e'xcellc'tt't

abi/.itiz's; so 7 ulat czrtain, 7ow wjht fuw tbryht' to becowte a

ruFe*ed' ani, h"onowablo man. Rut 7 beJa't'tl ka"d' a" fuublz lifo

t di/' oxyertuaznts urith' a' ntLxtwre of lru1s til* oowb cfuryo wy

bld/ a/4/' wij4l' atd' utou'll' ruhzTo th*n in a' nzar wa7'

T hp,futt tiu4r' z drank' th-e pdxtur+ 7 os<Teriznrzl' te/ribb'f)*',

a"n/' z ltst hctlht; but thzn z fekyouryer nd' @

t al'ro feltL,hz dz.r ire to d"0 e"il'. W hat't Z ln oked' in thz w)r ro r, 7 saar fo r th*'

fust tinz th"e' aTyenranzo tf tut 3?d*' 'wh2t, 7 took th*' tnLxtuto

ayiw, 7 b enao ste.wy I eky U o oxe' w ro' S o ru ur 7 hal' tt'<to

ilzntitie.t; w7 originn^t setf, an"d' a' rtwyletelT c"1L id'�nttt/' Thi'r n'ear

idtwt4t war tko clear otcy+usbn of thz l"oute'rt yalitizr of ̂ / *il'

z re7+ztd'tlu' ox'Terintttt m.anV tinzs anil' a'r tutu *f7dz, t dd'

unt*)nl<abb crinpe. Euert ft.out z u*' h^ard/7 be/i*te t ild'ilua''

B ut thz lrug s b eyn to h-atn un7+etktab lz e{feh' o nn 7 welt t0

bd' a.r OrJ&yU au"d' woko u7 a'r tur e/det tu7 ha'n/'s bera*uz botty

an/' coue'rd' in hai"r. ffurys we'roy*iry out of control an'/"

epet/lu.e kltr ow t'uy tratk; 7 oa's huttd', n kruuT wt'rdcrer' utith'

a, swo utd, ow a' harymans ro7o.

z haw beew a' Vri'roro i- */ ourn satd7, wro often intAo th"f 'f

tu{t g?d". fho wbxtwo of drugs fuuwt seet'tt' .b

t'.uork' a'n7w"ore'

7 h"aro berow*' serbu's/ ne*, anl'fenri'slr' i" kd/ akl' fu41"

Nobody htr en'r suffered' in suth a'teniblo wa/' z an+ wwfzish'ing

tht r statent*t. tt i Ttobabty the latt dw' d4^at t+exry lekytl cm'

r,hixk hls oumt-htulhts or seo hi'r om'farp. 7 rutrt htury' ?f 37d"

fu4lt tl4is stotewent, hp urilL tear it to /luzt efa/f a''1' h"our frow

uau4 1 kwur htur t/-e' oill sit shakiry an"d' cry*t1 w t'uy ch"atr or

w"aroh' u/.le*sl7 or7 a*"d' doum' til.r roow lt)stenin4 in terror for az7

s o u*t/' of dzry er.'l'/ A 3? d", b e' hil4t d' o n' t{uo h"ary ntwt's r o7o ? o r

ulilL ht'fld,thp coulaiotl takz hi's ouru hfez

7 /.o wt care. 'rhtt k ta7 truo h"ou.r of /**h', an"d' w*^atfoLoun

c.vnLerft.t tjertltt' uth^o i* wt wytelf. gtero thzn, ar z lay d^oun' th'e

F*, 7(r*! ttu' 1* 0f thtt u41a/// e+enryJekVll'to an ud''

Page 127: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

TottottBefiore you stort

1 Reaa the explanations of words in the backgroundinformation and check you understand them. Do poets usesimi lar techniques in your language?

Reoding2 Read the Strategies again in Lesson 13. Read the poems on theopposite page. Match the poems with these themes:

the first touch of two lovers, a lover leaving, a description of a lover,a lifetong love

3 ReaU each poem again and answer these questions.

A eo/.q,"wt; o ot of I o*'*

1 'I ' tL love you for eternity' js a romantic cLich6. Find three moreexpressions of th is k ind.

2 What is normat ly reduced for 'good behaviour '?3 What does 'such accessories' refer to?4 What technique does the poet use to make the poem funny?5 What is i ronic about the [ast three [ ines?

Loo,w 9or4{D* 4/xx

6 How old do you th ink the poet was when she wrote th is? Give reasons.7 Watker's husband was an interior decorator. What mention is there to

th is?8 What images are used for passion?9 What image is used to show how the past uni tes the poet and her

lover?

| .at;tLl bta,A ilaf,fi-t| /-,y

10 Why do you th ink the poet couldn ' t remember the meet ing?11 What metaphor does she use for the devetopment of her [ove?12 What s imi te is used to show that there is no s iqn or t race of

somethi ng?

/l y o'ittaztt' "?t ** roh"+ b[u tlu rt'*

73 How would you descr ibe the tone of the poem?14 What is the rhyming scheme of the poem?15 What th ings are used to compare wi th the woman's appearance?16 Why does the poet th ink that h is love is speciat?

Recding ond Listening

o 4 ReaU and listen to theyou prefer? Tell the class.

poems. Which one do

Page 128: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

tatqho* of l4tou'b bY Steve Turner

Tirner is a British poet' brographer#*,fr1'ili""Tilllllue Tirner is a tsrtusn p::'i;"f"i;oth

adults and children'

*::i,:'#,1*T5:-"Jl*";l;;;l'o'i'unatiographiesor

She said she'dlove me for eternity,but managed to reduceit to eight monthsfor good behaviour.She said we fittedlike a hand in a glove,but then the hotweather came and suchaccessories weren't needed,She said the futurewas ours, but the deeds *

were made out inher name.She said I wasthe only one whounderstood completely,

and then she left meand said she knewthat I'd understand completely.

* deeds written agreements

;- '4€,u'

[ - . :

ffi lIII!

II

Lu*v |ot?{b* 4h-, by Margaret WalkerMargaret Walker ( 1 9 I 5-1 998) was an African Americanpoet from BirmingharrL Alabarna.Many of her poems ar€ about the experiences andstruggles ofAfricanAmericans in the Deep South of the USA.

My monkey-wrench' man is my sweet patootier; 1

the lover of my 1ife, my youth and age.My heart belongs to him and to him only;the children of my flesh are his and bear his rageNow grown to years advancing through the dozensthe honeyed kiss, the lips of wine and firefade blissfully into the distant years of yonder'but all my days of Happiness and wonderare cradled in his arms and eyes entirea.They carry us under the waters of the worldout past the starpostss of a distant planetAnd creeping through the seaweedo of the oceanthey tangleT us with ropes and yarn8 of memorieswhere we have been togetheq you and L

I nonkey-wench adjustable spanner2 sweet patootie (American) sweetheart, darling3 yonder the past4 entirc completely5 starposts - invented word: rrixing star and outpost6 seawecd plants growing in the sea7 tangle to join

8 yarn - naterial to makc ropc

I a&f co,'ul/' blarfintla4by Christina Rossetti

Christina Rossetti (1830-1874) was born in London' She was

a frolific writer and poet and her most famous collection is

'G'oblin Market and Other Poems' ( 1 862)' Her brother' Dante

Gabriel. was a famous Pre-Raphaelite palnter'

/L/? orittrztt, eqquy wirriu- -i^&"T ***? /;{a il* t,,n.

*,ffi*flffi*:ffif##,frFI wish I could remember that first day,First hour. first moment of you meeting me.If bright or dim the season, it might beSummer or winter for aught' I can say;So unrecorded did it slip away,So blind was I to see and to foresee,So dull to mark the budding' of my treeThat would not blossom3 yet for many a May.Ifonly I could recollect it, suchA day of days! I 1et it come and goAs tracelessl as thawr of bygone6 snow;It seemed to mean so little, meant so much;Ifonly now I could recall that touch,First touch of hand in hand - Did one but know!

1 aught - anything (poetic)2 budding * to start growing leaves3 blossom - 1o flower4 tmceless - without any sign5 thaw - to melt6 bygone - past

,;:ri: [i rn.fi.;;:';:: l;i;,fi :, ",ilillltt'";-ilit'tltu'tttn"'b'"u''l'""dun'

fl i [',",1 .,"".tr 1T r,ixi..trl;. ; ffi :l *'

il;' ; ',?H i":lf il:; ;.:tl.'.'"o".."0",,,n,

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n"o' n o

li: i,l,.?,:ff ";i lil]:Irffi ,f xjf g r' u n d :I dun du l l b ruun co lourj."#l'].fff:" - an olJ variety orrose

'

:l hath - has ( I 6th centurv.t: grarrt to admit/confcss

;::,:.^1,^ *',.n ro futl. i i l ernecrarons, . . i i ,pd , ( . compar ison { lOth ccn tury ]

%,ffiL

Page 129: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Science f ict ion is a genre in which

scienti f ic knowtedge is used as a basisfor imaginative f ict ion. The 19th

century French writer, Jules Verne, is

often seen as the futher of sciencefict ion. He used his knowledge of

engineering to write storjes aboutt r ips to the moon or under the sea(Journey to the Centre of the Earth

1864). Later in the century, H.G.Wetts

exptored the themes of t jme traveI as

wetl as space travel and wrote aboutan invasion from Mars (The Wor of theWorlds 1898). From the beginning ofthe 2Oth century, scjence f ict ions tar ted to become poputar and 'pu tp '

science f ict ion magazines sotd widety.Serious authors atso began to beinterested in the genre, such asAldous Huxley with hjs perceptive

account of life in the future (Brove

New World 1932). In the middl.e of thecentury a golden age for sci-f i beganwith outstanding writers such as thescientist Isaac Asimov, Arthur C.

Clarke and Ray Bradbury. Their stories

not on[y looked at l i fe in the future

but examined the possible destiny ofthe human race .

Ray Bradbury was born in I l .Ljnois in1920. He began h is career wr i t ing

stories for sci-f i magazines in the

1940s. His most fumous novets are

The Martion ChronicLes, which

describes the colonisation of Mars bythe Earth peopte, and Fohrenheit 451.

set in a future where the writ ten wordis forbidden.

Belore you stsrt

1 nead the background notes.

1 What is the difference between science fiction and other fiction?2 Why do you th ink sc ience f ic t ion star ted to become poputar in the ear ly

2Oth century?3 Which of the books ment ioned would you most [ ike to read? Why?

Reoding and Listening

Q Z Read and listen to the story. Are these statements true (T)or fatse (F)?

1 ! Mr and Mrs K l ived on Mars in a house near a red sea.2 , l Mr K L iked l is tening to o ld songs about Mars.3 I Martians were sma[[ with narrow yetlow eyes.4 = Mrs K had a very Long. s t range dream.5 [-] She dreamt about a very large aLjen with btue eyes and brown skin.6 i l The a l ien 's spaceship looked qui te s t range to Mrs K.7 I Mrs K used teLepathy to understand the at ien.8 :l Martian scientists said that l i fe on Earth was possib[e.

3 ReaO the story again. Answer these questions.

1 Why were Mr and Mrs K not very happy?2 Why d jd Mrs K [ook in to the sky?3 Why was Mr K i r r i ta ted when h is w' i fe cr ied out in her dream?4 How did Mr K react to her descr ipt ion of the man?5 Why d id Mr K th ink h is wi fe had made up the man?6 Why d id Mrs K enjoy the dream?7 How were Mr and Mrs K's reactions to the idea of aLien l ife different?8 Do you th ink i t was a dream or d id Mrs K real ty meet the man somehow?

What do you th ink happens next in the story?

Tulkbock

4 Wort in pairs. List the differencesmentioned in the story between Mars andEarth. Think of these things:

. the houses . the peopte . the landscape,. leisure activities . the food

Te[[ the class.

5 Wort in pairs. Think ofyour own imaginary ptanet.Describe it to your partner.

b-e\

Page 130: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

hey had a house o f c rys ta l p i lLars on the p tanet Mars by theedge o f an empty sea, and every morn ing you cou ld see Mrs l (ea t ing the go lden f ru i ts tha t g rew f rom the c rys ta l wa l ls o r

c l e a n i n g t h e h o u s e w i t h h a n d f u l s o f m a g n e t i c d u s t w h i c h , t a k i n gatL the d i r t w i th i t , b tew away on the ho t w ind . A f te rnoons, whent h e f o s s i I s e a w a s w a r m a n d m o t i o n l e s s , a n d t h e w i n e t r e e s s t o o ds t i f f in the yard , and the t i t t le Mar t ian bone town was a t le n c t o s e d , a n d n o o n e d r i f t e d o u t t h e i r d o o r s , y o u c o u l d s e e M r Kh imset f in h is room, read ing f rom a meta i book w i th ra isedh i e r o g t y p h s o v e r w h i c h h e b r u s h e d h i s h a n d , a s o n e m i g h t p l a y ah a - p . A n d i r o m t h e b o o l < , a s h i s f i n g e r s s t r o k e d , a v o i c e s a n g . aso f t anc ien t vo ice , wh ich to ld ta les o f when the sea was reds t e a m o n t h e s h o r e a n d a n c i e n t m e n h a d c a r r i e d c l o u d s o f m e t a l' n \ e . t s

a n d e l e c f r i c s n i d e r s i n I o b a t t l e .Mr and Mrs l ( had t i ved by the dead sea fo r twenty years and

the i r ances tors had l i ved in the same house, wh ich tu rned andfo l lowed the sun, f lower - l i l<e , fo r ten centur ies .

Mr and Mrs K were no t o ld . They had the fa i r , b rown ish s l< in o fthe t rue Mar t ian , the ye lLow co in eyes , the so f t mus ica l vo ices .O n c e t h e y h a d l i k e d p a i n t i n g p i c t u r e s w i t h c h e m i c a l f i r e ,s w i m m i n g i n t h e c a n a l s i n t h e s e a s o n s w h e n t h e w i n e t r e e s f i t t e dthem wi th g reen I iquors , and ta tk ing in to the dawn together bythe b lue phosphorous por t ra i ts in the speak ing- room.

They were no t happy now.Th is morn ing Mrs K s tood be tween the p i l ta rs , [ i s ten ing to the

deqor f candc hoat mo l t in tO ye l tOW WaX, and Seeming ly rUn Ont h e h o r i z o n .

Someth ing grea t was go ing to happen.S h e w a i t e d .She watched the b lue sky o f Mars as i f i t m igh t a t any moment

gr ip in on i t se l f , con t rac t . and expe l a sh in ing mi rac le down upont h e s a n d .

N o t h i n g h a p p e n e d .T i red o f wa i t ing , she wa lked th rough the mis t ing p i l la rs . A

gent le ra in sprang f rom the f lu ted p i l ta r - tops , coo l ing thescorch ing a i r , fa t l ing gent ly on her . On ho t days i t was l i ke wa lk ingin a c reek . The f loors o f the house g l i t te red w i th coo l s t reams. Inthe d is tance she heard her husband p lay ing h is boo l< s tead i l y , h isf ingers never t i r ing o f the o ld songs . Qu ie t l y she w ished he migh to n e d a y a g a i n s p e n d a s m u c h t i m e h o l d i n g a n d t o u c h i n g h e r l i l < ea l i t tLe harp as he d id h is inc red ib te books .

But no . She shook her head, an impercept ib le , fo rg iv ing shrug .Her eyeL ids c losed so f t l y down upon her go lden eyes . Mar r iagemade peopte o ld and fami l ia r , wh i te s t i l l young.

She lay bac l< in a cha i r tha t moved to take her shape even asshe moved. She c tosed her eyes t igh t ly and nervous ly .

The dream occur red .Her b rown f ingers t rembled , came up, g rasped a t the a i r . A

moment la te r she sa t up , s ta r t led , gasp ing .She g tanced about sw i f t l y , as i f expec t ing someone there

before her . She seemed d isappo in ted ; the space be tween theo i lLars was emotv .

H e r h u s b a n d a p p e a r e d i n a t r i a n g u l a r d o o r . ' D i d y o u c a l l ? ' h easked i r r i tab ly .

' N o l ' s h e c r i e d .' l thought I heard you c ry ou t . ''D id l? I was a lmost as leep and had a dreaml '' l n the day t ime? You don ' t o f ten do tha t . 'She sa t as i f s t ruc l< in the face by the dream. 'How s t range, how

very s t range, 'she murmured. 'The dream. ''Oh? ' He ev ident lV w ished to re tu rn to h is boo l< .' l d reanred about a man. ''A man? ''A ta t l man, s ix foo t one inch taL l . ''How absurd ; a g ian t , a misshapen g ian t . ''Somehow' - she t r ied the words - 'he [oo l<ed aL l r igh t . ln sp i te

o f b e i n g t a l l . A n d h e h a d - o h , I l < n o w y o u ' l l t h i n l < i t s i l t y - h e h a db lue eyes ! '

'B tue eyes l Gods! ' c r ied Mr K . 'What ' l t you dream o f nex t? Isuppose he had b tac l< ha i r? '

'How d id you guess? ' She was exc i ted .' l p icked the most un t i l<e ly co lour , 'he rep l ied co ld ly .'Wet l b lac l< i t was ! ' she c r ied . 'And he had a very wh i te s l< in ; oh ,

he was most unusua l l He was dressed in a s t range un i fo rm andhe came down out o f the sky and spo l<e p leasant ly to me. ' Shes m i l e d .

'Out o f the sky ; what nonsense l ''He came in a b r igh t meta l th ing tha t g t i t te red in the sun, ' she

r e m e m b e r e d . S h e c l o s e d h e r e y e s t o s h a p e i t a g a i n . ' l d r e a m e dthere was the sky and someth ing spar l< led l i l<e a co in th rown in tothe a i r , and sudden ly i t g rew la rge and fe t t down so f t l y to land, atong s i l ver c ra f t , round and a t ien . And a door opened in the s ideof the s i l ver ob jec t and th is ta t l man s tepped ou t . '

' l f you wor l<ed harder you woutdn ' t have these s i l t y d reams. '' l ra ther en foyed i t , ' she rep l ied , l y ing bac l< . ' l never suspec ted

myse l f o f such imag ina t ion . B lac l< ha i r , b lue eyes , and wh i te sk in !What a s t range man, and ye t - qu i te handsome. '

'Wish fu l th ink ing . ''You ' re unk ind . I d idn ' t th in l< h im up on purpose; he jus t came

in to my mind wh i le I d rowsed. l t wasn ' t l i ke a d ream. l t was sounexpected and d i f fe ren t . He tooked a t me and he sa id , " l ' ve

come f rom the th i rd p lanet in my sh ip . My name is Nathan ie lYork."

'A s tup id name; i t ' s no name a t a t l , ' ob iec ted the husband.' O f c o u r s e i t ' s s t u p i d , b e c a u s e i t ' s a d r e a m , ' s h e e x p l a i n e d

sof t l y . 'And he sa id , "Th is i s the f i rs t t r ip across space" There areon ly two o f us in our sh ip , myse l f and my f r iend Ber t . " '

'Another s tup id name. ''And he sa id , "We ' re f rom Ear th ; tha t ' s the name o f our

p lanet , " ' con t inued Mrs K. 'That ' s what he sa id . "Ear th . " was thename he spoke. And he used another ianguage. Somehow Iunders tood h im. Wi th my mind. Te tepathy , I suppose. '

Mr l( turned away. She stopped him with a word 'Ylt?' shecat led qu ie t l y . 'Do you ever wonder i f - we l l , i f there are peop let i v ing on the th i rd p lanet? '

'The th i rd p lanet i s incapab le o f suppor t ing l i fe , ' s ta ted thehusband pa t ien t ty . 'Our sc ien t is ts have sa id there 's fa r too muchoxygen in the i r a tmosphere . '

'Bu t woutdn ' t i t be fasc ina t ing i f there were peop le? And theyt rave l led th rough space in some sor t o f sh ip? '

'Reat ly , Y l la , you l<now how I ha te th is emot iona l wa i l ing . Le t ' sge t on w i th our wor l< . '

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Page 131: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

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Which of the t ravel wr i ters ment ioned wou[d Vou most l ike to read about?whv?Which two of the writers [isted mixed fuct and fiction?When did travel l i terature first become popular?What in Dr Johnson's opin ion makes a qood t ravel book?

Reuding ond l i r lening

O e Read and listen to the story. 0rder these events.

a The wri ter gave the shepherd a cup of tea.b The shepherd started to tatk louder.c The shepherd got a b i t f rust rated because she couldn ' t understand.d The wr i ter made breakfast and went outs ide.e The shepherd t r ied to show that he wanted a cup

of tea.f The wr i ter asked the shepherd quest ions.g The shepherd used h is cane to d ismount f rom his donkey.h The shepherd star ted Laughing a [ot .i The shepherd and h js donkey came into the garden.

3 ReaU the story again and answer these questions.

1 Why d id the wr i ter sp i [ [ her tea?2 Why d id the shepherd use the cane to d ismount?3 What d id the wr i ter most not ice about the is landers?4 How did the shepherd f inat ly expta ' in what he wants?5 How did the wr i ter th ink you can learn a language?6 Why d id the shepherd [augh so much?

4 tutatch the objects with the writer's descriptions of them (a-f).

a cup of tea, a [augh, the sea, the [and, a sound, the sky

a l ike wide b lue hands b bear ish c cradled in my handsd lassoing the ent i re is tand e the curved and p lummett ing bodyf rumbtes

Tulkhuck5 Worl in pairs. Which of these things would you t ike to do? Why?

visi t the Greek istand, meet the is landers, l ive abroad for a whi le, wri te atravel book, learn another [anguage (not Engt ish), know more words in Engt ish

234

trfo# ,Before you stsrt

1 ReaA the background notes and answer these questions.

There is a [ong t radi t ion of t ravel wr i t ingin EngLish, which dates back to the 14thcentury with Sir John Mandevi[[e's lravels,an extraordinary mjxture of fact andfantast ic informat ion about monsters andtwo-headed men. More ser ious was thecoLLect ion by R' ichard Hakluyt ofdescr ipt ions of the voyages made byEngl ish merchants and explorers in the16th and ear ly 17th century. In the 18thcentury, travel aiterature started tobecome a popular genre as great novel is tsLike Henry FieLding and Laurence Sternedescr ibed their t r ips around Europe.In the foltowing century, classic traveIl i terature includes: the wr i t ings of theintrepid expLorer Mary Kingsley descr ib ingher t raveLs in West Afr ica; Chartes Darwin 'saccount of h is t r ip around South America;the naturaList Henry Bates 'descr ipt ion ofhis research in the Amazon. Among greatt raveI wr i ters of the 20th century were:Robert Byron who journeyed across CentraIAsia; Freya Stark who travelted widely inArab countr ies; Bruce Chatwin whosetraveI books such as Jn Pafogonia are amixture of anthropotogy, phi losophy andf ic t ion. Famous contemporary t ravelwr i ters incLude the Tr in idadian novet is t ,V.S. Naipaul and the Americans, PauITheroux and Bi l l Bryson.

Good t ravel l i terature combinesobservat ion wi th imaginat ion and can giveprofound insights into the humancondi t ion. However, as the great DoctorJohnson said: 'Books of t rave[s wi [ [ begood in proport ion to what a man haspreviousLy in h is mind; h is knowing whatto observei h is power of contrast ing onemode of t i fe wi th another. 'As the Spanishproverb says, 'He, who would br ing homethe wea l t h o f t he I nd ies , mus t ca r r y t heweaLth of the Indies wi th h im. '

Karen ConneL[y was born in ALberta inCanada and now Lives in Greece. She haspubLished award-winning t ravel bookssuch as Iouch the Dragon: A Thai Journa[and One Room in a Castle. She is aLso theauthor of two works of poetry.

Page 132: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

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The sleek black donkey is called Marcos, and theold man who rides him is called Andreas. Thevappear early one morning while I am sittingoutside, my back against the wall of the spitaki, acup of tea cradled in my hands. The gate is on theother side of the house, out of immediate view. Ihear hooves knock against the stones that mark the

threshold of the gate. To give me warning, the old manshouts some unintelligible greeting that scares me out of

, "',my wits. I spill tea on my lap.

'Kaleemera,' he says gruffly, with a cautious smile.'Kaleemera,' I return the greeting and reach for my dictionary,

He pulls his cane from its resting place in the ropes of the saddle, maneuvers Marcos to a stone, wherehe aims the cane, then slides off the donkey's back. His lower left leg and foot are deformed; the foot fitsinto a black boot cut open to accommodate its dimensions. How to describe Barba Andreas, the oldshepherd? A yellow piece of cloth is wrapped around his head of white hair. He has a big whitemoustache, blue eyes, a dandy's flower stuck in the lapel of his green army jacket. Hands. What will Ilove most here, what will I dream about years later, to return me to this place? The hands of theislanders. Their thickness, their roughness, their ugliness. Nails broken below the quick. Scars. Missingfingertips and lines of dirt.

Barba Andreas names the plants for me, pointing with his cane and leaning down to pluck off thechamomile blooms. Sitting on a milk crate, he lifts his bad leg up to rest on a stone. I remain sittingagainst the house in the shade. We both take in the view before us: slender Marcos, eating my melonrinds and shifting in what is, effectively my front yard: poppies; olive trees; the curved and plummettingbody of the land, its shapes of green, sage-green, yellow, almond; rose and purple and gray shadow. Thesky opens over everything like wide blue hands. And all around us, lassoing the entire island, the sea.

A bearish sound comes from Barba Andreas' throat. As though bored with the view - how familiar itmust be to him - he turns back to me and says something I don't understand. He points in my directionwith his cane. Is he pointing to the low table between us? I look at the table. Is he pointing to my bookson the table? I offer him a book, which he wisely refuses to touch. He pantomimes a motion but I don'tunderstand. Once more, he directly asks for something and pokes his finger against his chest. I don'tunderstand. Finally, smiling but clearly frustrated, he grabs the tea-pot with one large hand, pours teainto the palm of the other, and raises it to his lips. 'Ena poteeri!' he cries, and bangs his cane on theground, demanding a cup.

Embaruassed, I jump up and into the little house for another cup. I come out, pour tea, hand it to him.He waves away my apologies. He drinks the tea in one go. How many Greek words do I know now?How many? Not enough, never enough. To learn another language one must re-acquire the greedy hungero fach i ld . Iwant , Iwant , Iwant .Everydes i rebeg insandendswi thaword . Iw ; rn t toaskathousandquestions. Where does the path behind the house lead and who lived here before ald how do you makecheese and are the sheep in the neighboring field yours and what is this place, truly, and how do I go tothe mountains behind the house? Because there is a gate closing off the field that leads to the mountains,and I am afraid to walk through it.

He understands my last, garbled question. 'How do you go to the mountains?' he pa-rrots back to me,almost shouting. It is an international assumption that when people don't hear and understand ourlanguage, we think they can't hear at all. 'How do you go up to the mountains?'Now a slow laughrumbles in his throat. 'Me ta podia!' he cries. Every line of his face proclaims laughter. He slaps hisknees, guffawing.

How do you go to the mountains?Me ta podia. With your/eel.

Open the gate, go through it, close it behind you. And walk to the mountains.

spitaki - is the Greek word for a one-roomed shepherd's house

Page 133: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

No Cr ime i n t he Moun ta ins

Before you slort

1 ReaA about Raymond Chandter. Have you ever read or would you like toread one of his books? Why/Why not?

Listening ond Reoding() Z Listen and read the extracts from the story. Order these events.

a Evans spoke to Mrs Lacey on the telephone. "n a.nk*,r*,. . !* ' ' jb He arrived in Puma Point and went to the hotet. ie.* f | * L30c He drove round the take and stopped. & t tr- F

.,**ue@d He found the body of Mr Lacey under a tree.

{s&*€dwsmvr'I

e He spoke to the girl in the phone office.f He smoked h is p ipe and watched the boats in the [ake.g He had lunch and drove to the mountains.h A letter arrived at Evans'office from Mr Lacev.

3 neaU the story again and choose the best answer to these questions.

1 How did Evans feel when he got the letter?a worried b re[ieved c suspicious

2 How did he feet by the time he got to the hotel?a hot and tired b hungry c nervous

3 What sort of a hotel was it?a luxur ious b basic c cheap

4 How did Mrs Lacey react to Evans?a angrily b suspiciousty c cold[y

5 What was the girL in the phone office [ike?a suspicious b friendl.y c bored 'r.:: 'TW

6 How did Evans feel when he was smoking h is p ipe?a worried b retaxed c thoughtful.

7 How did he find the body?a by accident b by being observant c by looking under the tree

8 What did the dead man Look Like?a k ind b qui te young c prosperous

4 Wtrtctr of these adjectives would you use to describe the detective? danxious, tough, observant, friendty, direct, decisive, independent, potite,i ronic , weak

5 finA examptes of Chandler's styte in the text.

. his use of i rony

. h is use of metaphor and s imi te

. his detailed description

. h is naturaI d ia loques

O 0 Listen to the rest of the story and find outwhat happens in the end.

Wryfis

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Page 134: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

The letter came just before noon, special delivery, a dime-store erwelope with the return address F.$. Lacey, PumaPoint, California. Inside was a check for a hundred dollars,made out to cash and sigmed Frederick S. Lacy, and a sheetof plain white bond paper typed with a number ofstrikeovers. It said:

'.j'.].,].n:]::]1il..r!Nt.'iixi'!lrijjis*]#:EsiLi!rdi1##!i'i4:di!J!$iiiiilii|ii:i]tis;;�l-d;-l�1ifij.].|j]i[lu|:;*H!�Ml$iMl

I [ r John Evans ,

Dea r S i r ,

f have your name from Len Estersala l . i ty business

is urgent ant l er t remely conf ident ia l . f inc lose a

re ta i ne r . P l ease oome to Puma Po in t Thu rs r l ay

af ternoon or evening, i f at a l l possib le, register at

t he I nd ian Head Ho te l , anc l ca l l me a t 2305 .

There hadn't been any business in a week but this made ita nice day. The bank on which the check was drawn wasabout six blocks away, I went over and cashed it, ate lunch,and got the car out and started off.

It was hot in the valley, hotter still in San Bernadino and itwas still hot at five thousand feet, fifteen miles up the high-grear road to Puma Lake. I had done forty of the fifty miles ofcurving twisting highway before it started to cool off but itdidn't really get cool until I reached the dam and startedalong the south shore of the lake past the piled-up graniteboulders and the sprawled camps in the flats beyond. It wasearly evening when I reached Puma Point and I was asempty as a gutted fish.

The Indian Head Hote1 was a brown building on a corner,opposite a dance hall. I registered, carried my suitcaseupstairs and dropped it in a bleak, hard-looking room withan oval rug on the floor, a double bed in the corner andnothing on the bare pine wall but a hardware-store calendarall curled up from the dry mountain sununer. I washed myface and hands and went downstairs to eat ...I gobbled down what they called the regnrlar dinner, dranka brandy to sit on it, and went out ...The phone office was a log cabin, and there was a booth inthe corner with a coin-in-the-slot telephone. I shut myselfinside and dropped my nickel and dialled 2306. A woman'svoice answered.

I said,'Is Mr Fred Lacey there?''Who is calling, please?''Evans is the name.''Mr Lacey is not here right now, Mr Evans. Is he expecting

you?'That gave her two questions to my one. I didn't like it.

I said,'Are you Mrs tacey?''Yes. I am Mrs Lacey.'I thought her voice sounded taut andrer-strungl, but some voices are like that all the time.'It's a business matter.'I said.'When will he be back.''I don't know exactly. Sometime this evening, I suppose.

What did you ...''\Mhere is your cabin, Mrs Lacey?''It's ... it's on Ball Sage Point, about two miles west of

village. Are you calling from the village? [Did you .. .?' e,{

'I'll call back in an hour,Mrs Lacey,'I said and hung up.

I stepped out of the booth.In the other corner of the room a dark girl in slacks waswriting in some kind of account book at a little desk. Shelooked up and smiled and said,'How do you like thernountains?'

I said,'Fine.''lt's very quiet up here,'she said.'Very restful.''Yeah. Do you know anybody named Fred Lacey?''Lacey? Oh, yes, they just had a phone put in. They bought

the Baldwin cabin. It was vacant for two years and they justbought it. It's out at the end of Ball Sage Point, a big cabin onhigh ground, looking out over the lake. It has a marvelousview. Do you know Mr tacey?'

'No,'I said, and went out of there- I walked back to theIndian Head and got into my c.u ...

I stopped the car on the tip of the point and walked over toa huge tree fallen with its roots twelve feet in the air. I satdov'rn against it on the bone-dry ground and lit a pipe. It waspeaceful and guiet and far from everything. On the far side ofthe lake, a couple of speedboats played tag, but on my sidethere was nothing but silent water, very slowly getting dark inthe mountain dusk, I wondered who the hell Fred Lacey wasand what he wanted and why he didn't want to stay home orleave a message if his business was so urgent ...

At the end ofhalf an hour I got up and dug a hole in the softground with my heel and knocked my pipe out and stampeddown the dirt over the ashes. For no reason at all, I walked afew steps toward the lake and that brought me to the end ofthe tree. So I saw the foot ...

The man was middle-aged, half bald, had a good coat of tanand a line mustache shaved up from the lip. His lips werethick and his mouth, a little open as they usually are, showedbig strong teeth. He had the kind of face that goes withplenty of food and not too much worry. His eyes were lookingat the sky. I couldn't seem to meet them.

The left side of the green sport shirt was sodden with bloodin a patch as big as a dinner plate. In the middle of the patchthere might have been a scorched hole. I couldn't be sure.The light was getting a little tricky ...

There was twelve dollars in his wallet and some cards butwhat interested me, was the narne on his photostat driver'slicense. I lit a match to make sure I read it right in the fadinglight.

The name on the license was Frederick Shield Lacey.

Page 135: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Student ActiviliesModule 2. Lesson 7" Exercise IStudent ARead the cues below and check vocabulary. Then, tet l the joke to yourpartner.

. an o ld coup le go in to a ca f6 fo r a cup o f tea ; they s i t down; a ch impanzeewatks in

. the ch impanzee is wear jng a su i t and car ry ing a newspaper

. the ch impanzee s i ts down and orders a cup o f tea and a cheese sandwich

. the ch impanzee f in ishes h is tea and sandwich , pays and wa lks ou t

. the coupte go to a waiter; the woman says, ' I 've never seen anything [ ikethat beforel '

. the waiter rep[ies, 'Yes, very strange. He norma[ty has a salad sandwich. '

Mcdute 5, Lesson 17. Exerciss I ,A Sc ience Qu izStudent AAsk your partner these questions. The correct answer is underl ined.

1 Who djscovered the three laws of motion in the 17th century?a Copernicus b .[l€vv!S! c GaU[eo

2 Who developed the periodic table of etements in chemistry?a Mende l b l4ende levey c Mendetssohn

3 Who djscovered the practicaI uses of radio waves?a Sony b M_arconi c Hertz

4 Who discovered that electr ici ty existed as a current?a Ampere b Vol"ta c Faraday

5 Who proposed the exjstence of the atom?a Rutherford b E'instein c !emqr1{q5

Can you add a question of your own?

Module 5, Lesson 19, f lxercise 4Student AA robot guard dog

. qu i te smat l . (80 cm h igh / we igh t 25 k i tos )

. made o f metaL (s tee I and a tumin ium)

. moves fust (moves at 40 kph on ftat surfaces)

. uses wheets ( ten smat [ whee ls a t the bo t tom)

. goes up stairs (uses spring actjon [ ike a kangaroo)

. recognises peop[e and fr iends (can recognise peop[e's voices)

. detects jntruders to a house (uses 3 high-resotut ion cameras and nojsesensors on i t s 'head ' )

. 'bi tes' intruders or burgtars (uses two metatt ic claws to immobjL' isei ntruders)

. use fu I fo r guard ing the home (cheaper and more re t iab le than a rea Iguard dog; doesn ' t need to be fed)

. makes a loud no ise (a Loud bark o r s i ren depend ing on op t ions)

. i f probLems, cal ls for hetp (direct l .y phones the potice)

. is i t intet l igent? (not rea[y - j t rel ies on programming but cleverer thanthe average Rottweiler)

Module 10, Lesssn 37, Exercise 1, A QuieAnswer Key : 1 . b ,2 a ,3 b , 4 c ,5 b , 6 a , t c . 8 b , 9 a

Modu[e 7. Lesson 27, Exerc ise 7

Student A

Use the Speaking Strategies on page 83 andtake turns to be the tourist and the hotelreceptionist. When you are the receptionist,refuse some of the requests pol i tety. Thinkof other (more dif f icult) requests to make.

You are checking into a hotel. Prepare to ask forthese things pol. i teLy.

. a doub[e room on the f i rs t f toor

. a wake-up ca [ [ a t 7 .30

. a futt Engl. ish breakfast in your room at 8.15

. a map of the city

. a taxr a t g .uu

tcmgw*gm &wsu'*russru 1End of Story

Af te r tha t , Hotmes expta ined a tL the c [uesabout the ha t to Watson. Then Petersoncame in to the room car ry ing an enormousd iamond wh ich h is w i fe had found ins ide thegoose. HoLmes rea t ised tha t th js was thefamous d iamond s to ten f rom a countesswhen she was s tay ing a t a London ho te l .Two hoteL servants had been invoLved. 0newas the bu t le r , James Ryder and the o therwas John Horner , a p lumber . Horner hadbeen work ing in the countess 's room whenRyder no t iced tha t the d jamond had beensto [en . S ince then, Horner had been inprison for severaL days.Sherlock Holmes decided to advert ise for thegoose and ha t jn the newspapers . Thateven ing a man appeared; i t was Baker . Bakerd id no t know any th ing about the d jamondbut he to [d Hotmes and Watson where hehad bought the goose. They went there andsaw a man, who tu rned ou t to be Ryder , thehoteL bu t te r . ask ing about the goose. Ho lmesinv i ted h im back to h is house ano wnenHolmes ment ioned the d iamond, Ryderconfessed that he had sto[en i t . AfterHorner 's a r res t , Ryder had gone to h iss is te r ' s house to h ide the d iamond. Therehad been some geese in the garden andRyder had pu t the d iamond in to i t s mouthand then asked h is s js te r fo r th is goose fo rChr js tmas. La ter , he had taken the gooseaway and k iL ted j t bu t there was no d iamondas he had chosen the wrong goose l Hotmeshad enough proo f to pu t Ryder in to p r isonbut he dec ided to [e t the man go. In theend, Horner was re leased f rom pr ison andthe d iamond re tu rned to the countess .

Page 136: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

AnswersModule L , Lesson L

Background in fo rmat ion about the tex ts in Lesson 1 .

Anne Frank (1,929-1.945) Anne's Jewjsh famiLy moved from

Germany to Hot land when H i t [e r came to power . Then, in 1 '942 '

the Germans began in te rn ing Jews and the Franks went in to

h id ing a t the top o f the house where 14r Frank had h is o f f i ce .

They were he tped by some Dutch f r iends and empLoyees o f

l r4 r Frank . The en t rance to the i r ' secre t Annexe 'was h idden by

a mov ing booksheLf . They were jo ined by another famiLy w i th

the i r son , Peter . Anne was th i r teen a t the t ime and s tayed there

for over two years where she wro te her d ia ry . In August1944,

they were found by the Germans. Anne and her famiLy were

depor ted to Auschwi tz and then to Bergen-BeLsen. where she

d ied shor t l y be fore her 16 th b i r thday .

Heten Ket le r (1880-1967) was deaf , b | . ind and severe ty speech-

impa i red when she met her teacher Anne Sut l i van . Su l l i van

taught her to communica te by f inger -spe l l ing words . HeLen

Kel le r learn t French, German and La t in and graduated f rom

Radct i f fe CoL lege jn the USA. As an aduLt , HeLen Ke l le r wro te and

Lectured for the deaf and bLind. Her autobiography, The Story of

My Life, was pubLished white she was at university.

Modute 1, Lesson 2, Exercise 2

Answer Key: a - fext2, b - Text 3, c - Text 1

ModuLe 1, Lesson 2. Hxercise 3

Handwr i t ing ana lys is

connected [e t te rs = Log ica t , ra t ionaIunconnected Le t te rs = no t very coopera t ive , ind iv idua[ is t i c

break after 1st letter in a word = a good observer of peop[e

|,arge writ ing = ambit ious, jdeaList ic

wr i t ing o f average s ize = convent ionaI

sma[L wr i t ing = accura te , a per fec t ion is t

nar row wr i t ing = shy

( In fo rmat ion f rom the Br i t i sh Ins t i tu te o f GraphoLogy)

Module 5, Lesson ]"9. Exercise 1

Answer Key

Computers and robots can do these th ings :

. robots and computers can work in fac to r ies ;

. robots can pLay foo tbaL[ ( though no t very we[ l ) ; every year a

robot WorLd CuP is he td ;. computers can cont ro l cars and p tanes ;. computers can beat us a t chess : the worLd champion Gary

Kasparov was beaten by the computer , Deep B lue .. computers can compose mus ic ; a p rogramme enabL ing

computers to compose mus ic , has been devetoped by the

Amer ican composer , Wi [L iam CoPe;. computers can g ive us the news (see Exerc ise 2 in Lesson

1 e ) ;. computers can speak to us : computers can now s imu la te the

s o u n d s o f h u m a n s P e e c h .

However , robots and computers cannot have a reaL conversa t ion

and do no t have fee t ings (Yet l ) .

Modute 6, Warm-up, Exercise 3

Check your answers to the ques t ionna i re .

1 a You probabty a ren ' t ge t t ing enough s leep.

1 b Seven or e igh t hours per n igh t i s su f f i c ien t fo r most peopLe.

1 c You are a s leepy head, a ren ' t You l

a Once a day is no t enough lb 0nce jn the morn ing and once a t n igh t i s p robabLy 0K.

c Very good. Dent is ts recommend c tean ing tee th a f te r

every meal.

a You shoutd take up some k jnd o f spor t l

b Good - once a week is be t te r than never l

c Excel lentl You must be verY f i t .

4 a WeLt done l You probab[y save lo ts o f money on dent is t b iL [s .

4 b Wei l . . every now and then is 0K.

4 c Y o u s h o u [ d c u t d o w n :

5 a Good. As they say - an app le a day keeps the doc tor away l

5 b Very good. Doctors recommend severaL pieces of fruit per day.

5 c You reaLLy shou[d try to eat more fresh fruit .

Modute 6, Lesson 21, Exercise 2

A[[ the statements are, unfortunate[y, true.

Modu[e 6. Cul ture Corner 3, Exercise /+,

A Qu izA n s w e r K e y : 1 d , 2 c , 3 a , 4 e , 5 b

Modute 7, Warrn-up, Exercise 1A The Taj f .4ahat (India) B The Berd River (western Siberia)

C Hong Kong D R io de Jane i ro

Module I , Cul ture Corner 4, Exercise 4,A Mus ic Qu izAnswer Key:1 M a d o n n a - U S A ; 2 E r i c C l a p t o n - U K ; 3 R o b b i e W i l t i a m s - U K ;

4 Britney Spears - USA; 5 Ricky Mart in - Puerto Rico;

6 Enr ique IgLes ias - Spa in ; 7 Cher - USA;

8 ELton John - UK; 9 Laura Paus in i - I ta ly ;

10 Jon Bon Jov i - USA

Modute 9, Lesson 33, Exercise L

Answer Key:a 4 , b 6 , c 2 , d 1 . , e 3 , f 5

Modu[e 9, Lesson 33, Exercise 4

So what was the key to the creatjve outbursts of these cjt jes?

F i rs t o f a [1 . A thens , F to rence and London were aL [ impor tan t

t rad ing cent res w i th surpLus money to be spent on cuLture . They

aLt acted as cuLturaL magnets, attract ing ta[ented indjviduaLs

f rom fa r and w ide . Above a [1 , they were no t s tab [e o r

conservative societ ies. ALI three were dynamic ptaces Living

through major changes, burs t ing w i th new oppor tun i t ies and new

ideas .

222

333

Page 137: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I

A n S W e r SModule X.0, Lessotr 37, Exerc.!se X, A eufzDecide i f the War Facts below refer to:

a wor ld war I (1914-18) b wor td war I I (1939-45) c The V ie tnam war (1 ,954-75)

War Facts1 The USA ended the war in the Far Eas t by d ropp ing two a tomic bombs on Japan.2 The main count r ies jnvo lved were : Br i ta in , F rance and Russ ia aga ins t Germany, Aus t r ja ,

Hungary and Turkey .3 The war began when Germany invaded po tand.4 The count ry was d iv ided in to the communis t Nor th . suppor ted by Russ ia and Ch jna , and

the South , suppor ted by the USA.5 The majn count r ies jnvo lved were : Br j ta jn , Russ ia and the USA aga ins t Germany, I taLy and

J a p a n .6 Most of the batt les were fought in Bel"gium and France.7 The USA secre t ty bombed Cambod ia dur ing the war .8 More c iv i l jans d ied than so [d ie rs in th is war , inc tud ing 6 mi t l ion Jews jn concent ra t ion camps.9 Po json gas was f i rs t used in th js war .

Check your answers on page 134.

Module 1"0 . Lesson 39 ,Exercise ?Answer Key

Answers 'a ' show you are asser t i ve .You are setf-confident and try toreso tve conf t i c t s i tua t ions in asensibLe and constructive way.

Answers 'b' show that you are veryasser t i ve bu t you probabty reac ttoo aggressive[y to confl icts i tuatio ns.

Answers 'c ' show you are no tassert jve. You perhaps [ack setf-con f idence; look a t the 'a ' answersfor some ideas on how to reacr toconfl ict si tuations.

Studenf ActivitiesModule 2, Lesson 7, Exercise IStudent BRead the cues betow and check vocabulary. Then,tet l the joke to your partner.

. scientjsts in a [aboratory are test ing the effects ofcigarette smoke on rabbjts

. two rabbits escape from the [aboratory; have a greart jme in f ietds, eat lovely carrots and lettuce; theymeet lots of rabbit fr iends

. one of the rabbits says, ' I 'm going back to theLaboratoryl

. the other rabbit says, 'Why? Are you crazy?,

. the f irst rabbit says, 'No. j t 's just that I reatty need aciga rette | '

Modute 5, Lesson 12, Hxercise E,A Sc ience Qu izStudent BAsk your partner these questions. The correctanswer i s under l ined .

1 Who discovered the fundamentat principles of genetics?a Darwin b Lamark c Mende l

2 Who d iscovered tha t L igh t i s made up o f a mix tu re o fcotoured l ight?a Maxwell b Einstejn c Newlqr

3 Who discovered the existence of radioactivi ty?a Bequerel b Pjerre Curie c Marie Curie

4 Who es tab t ished the pr inc ip tes fo r naming andc[assifoing plants?a Lamarck b Darwjn c !l!.nqq$

5 Who d iscovered tha t the Ear th o rb i ts the Sun?a lopeqicl5 b Newton c Galjl.eo

Can you add a question of your own?

BModule 5, Lesson 19" Exercise 4 Student BA robot fr iend

. size is variab[e (you can choose three options: basketbaU. ptayer.norma[, chi l"d-size)

. made of meta[ (Looks t ike a tradit ionat robot, with metaI head, arms andtegs)

. recognises i ts owner's moods (uses cameras ano sensors to seefaciaI expressions and body Language)

. ta lks to peopte (has a cho ice o f ten [anguages)

. talks about anything (t ist of options are supptied, e.g. sport, popmusic, f i tms)

. reacts to peop[e ( i ts conversation depends on the owner,s mood)

. is a good [ istener (sympathetic and gives the advice j ts ownerwants to hear)

. te t l s jokes to cheer peopte up (has 1 ,000 jokes programmed)

. does personalised homework (teachers can,t tet l the djf ference)

. does smat [ domest ic chores (e .g . makes your bed, takes the dog ou t )

. accompanies owner (enjoys the cinema, footbal"L matches, etc.)

. can lose to the owner at a variety of games (e.g. chess, draughts,Monopoty)

. is i t intel. t igent? (probabl"y more so than us)

Module 7, Lesson 27, Exercise 7 Student BUse the Speaking Strategies on page g3 and take turns to be thetourist and the hotel receptionist. When you are the receptionist,refuse some of the requests potitety. Think of other (more diff icutt)requests to make.

You are checking into a hotet. prepare to ask for these things potitety.. a room wi th an en sui te bathroom. a tab[e for twetve in the hotel restaurant at g.30. some stamps for postcards. a morning newspaper with your breakfast. in format ion about museums

Page 138: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Wrifing HelpI A le f ter (poge l2)

Layout

A Formal Letter (to a language schoot)

GreetingDear Ms Dutton, (when you know the person's name)Dear Sir / Madan, (when you don't know the s name)

Paragraph 1: IntroductionThank you for your letter of ...I am writing with reference to your Letter of ...I wouLd definiteLy Like to go on the course.

Paragraph 2: PersonaI informationbasic information about yourself and your family: whereyou [ ive and who you l ive with, school you go to, yourinterests

Paragraph 3: Experience as learneryears studied, current levet, exams passed, areas you havemost probtems with

FormaI endingI Look forward to heaing from you soon.Yours sincereLy, (if you started your letter Dear Ms Dutton)Yours faithfuLly, (if you started your letter Dear Sir / Madam)Your signaturePrint your name clearly.

An InformaI Letter (to a pen friend / relative)

GreetingDear .. . , / Hi . . . , / Hi there!

Paragraphs 7/2/3information about yoursetf, your famiLy and your fr iends

StyteRequestsFormal styte: I would be qratefuL if vou could write us a letter.CouLd vou please telL us about yourself?Informal stylez Can vou do me a favour? It'd be qreat if youcouLd . . .PunctuationInformaI style:. use of contractions - I'm a cousin of yours.. use of exclamation marks - Get in touch soon!

GrammarInformal style: dropping of the subject in very informaIcorrespondence (e.9. postcards, emails, very informa[ letters) -(Q Don't know if you got my first message.VocabutaryFormal style: forma[ language - teachinq staff (= teachers) /I enclose (= here is . . . with the tetter)Informal styte:. vague language - I'm kind of interested ... / Whot sort of thinq

ore you interested in?. colloquial expressions - our foLl<s (= fumity) back in the old

e9!-0!ry (= our country of origin)._ abbreviat jons - info (= jnformation), qrandad (= grandfather)Linking wordsFormal style: If is o smaLL schooL. However, we have goodfacilities. In addition, we hove an exceLlent teachinq staff.Informal styte: .If's o nice place to visit. Bu! it's &peniive. /Well, how are you? f S-g everyone's weLI here. / Nlywga, I mustbe going. / She's getting on well, too.

UsefuI VocabularyFamif.y: members of the family; relatives (peopLe in your fanilyyou don't live with, e-9. uncles, aunts, cousins); in-laws (fonily bym o rri a g e ) ; ste p m oth e r, stepfath ef step b roth e r, ste p si ste r ( re Latednot by birth but because your parent has remorried); oncestor(someone in your family who lived a Long tine ago)Language school: class size (number of students in a class);excursions; generol courses, exom courses, business Englishcourses; fociLities, e.g. Ianguage laboratory, seLf-access centre(o pLace where you can study on your own)Free time: stay in; go out, go to a gig f concert, go clubbing, goto o cLub (a pLoce to donce); go shopping; go for a jog; meet upwith friends

Linking

Timez When he arrived, there were very few peaple. / Mgt hearrived, some people came. f After lunch, we went out.Addition: I an aLso interested in music. / I am interested inmusic, too. / e,Vg!_Slthot there are excursions to London. /There are excursions to London as welL. / As weLL as organisingexcursions to London we organise them to Oxfurd and Cambidge. /In addition, there ore excursions to 1xford and Cambidge. / Thereis a seLf-access centre plus a languoge laboratory.Contrast: Althouqh the school is smolL, the atmosphere is fiendly./ The school is small. However, the otmosphere is fiendty. /Despite being smalL, the school has good faciLities.Reason: Can you complete the test, so that we can Juage yourlevel? / Bring on umbrelLa in case it rains.Causez I'm Late because of the traffic. / Because of thot, I arrivednte.Example: We orgonise activities such as horse-iding.

CheckingStyle: Have you used formaI or informat style?Have you used formaI or informaI words and expressions?Have you used formaI or in formaI greet ings or endings?

InformaI endingThat's all for now. / I hope to hear from you soon. /Get in touch soon. f Look forword to heaing aLL about you. /Wite soon. / Give my regards to ... / Please keep in touch.AIL the best, f Yours, / With Love, / Love, / Cheers,Your name

Page 139: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

l,lntrry #eQ

2 A Book Review (poge 23)Layout

Paragraph 1Give some basic information about the book.'Possession' by A.S.Byatt won the Booker Prize in 1990. Sinceits first pubLication in 1990, the book has not only won manyreaders but has aLso been fiLmed starring Gwyneth Paltrow.

Paragraph 2Give a brief summary of the ptot.

Two main characters in the book are young scholars who areresearching Lives of two Victorian poets. As they uncover theirLetters, journals and poems, they unexpectedLy come across astory of mystery and great passion.

Paragraph 3Give your opinions and present good and bad things aboutthe book .

The book is a fascinating Love-story which combines twohistoricaL settings in a very cLever way, contemporary andVictorian. Howeven its complexity may discourage some readers.

Paragraph 4Conctusions and recommendations.

The book is certainly worth reading. It wilL appeaL both toreaders who like contemporary Literature as weLL as those whoprefer a good traditional Victorian novel.

Styl.e

Most of your review shou[d be writ ten using present tenses:The novel is set in both the nineteenth and twentieth century.0ne day he comes across a piece of paper stuck between the pagesof an old book.

You shoutd aim for a neutraI styte. not too formaI and not tooco [[oq uia [ :Although the book is rather Long, you won't find it lacking intension and surprising turns of action.

Useful VocabularyThe book iSsg!in the 1"950s / in the seventeenth century / duringthe Vfctorian period.Its main characters are two young students.The pLot fs organised around one important event: Losing ondrecovering a famiLy treasure.The A[ryq4 comes when aLI the peopLe involved in the nystery gettogether Late at night in the cemetery.The book is written_in a complex / simpLe / modern / traditional /nnof ir / rpnl i<f i r <fvlo

}ne of the book's great sJlglSths is charactgisatipn: [ero95 qng!

hgrcUe; may seem lqge1 thon life but they are also so deepLvhuman.The book's WeSllelS / rypt egntrgyeLStglqtpect is its Length.It is w.o1[! 199t!j!9,.I t can be recommended to peopLe who want good fun.

L ink ing

Summarising the plot:}ne dsy Roland comes across o mysterious Letter.After that, he finds himseLf spied on by a rival scholar.Eventually, he realises that the spy is in fact his best friend.I! !!e elld, they faLL in Love with each other.

Giving examples:There are some truly exciting moments, e1pellS@ when theydiscover the journol hidden in the doLL's house.The book contains Victorian texts, 5vch..q5 the poems written bythe two poets.

Contrasting:ALthough the book is rather Long, the reader finds it gripping fromthe first to the Last page.'Possession' is about a specialist study of Literature.never boing.De;ptle being about a speciaList study of Literature, it is neverboing.

Adding points:Apart freL being a fascinating noveL, the book is fuLI of beautiful'Victorian poems.Roland and Maud are both schoLors interested in the sane type oJliterature. What's moy.e., they are al5-o quite simiLar as peopLe.

Conctuding:A!!j! sJ! / 4tl thug;tpt;tdgJei / Ip:tryM, the book is a realmasterpiece.

Checking

Layout: Have you fot[owed the suggestions for paragraphs?Linking: Have you jncluded a variety of Linking words?

However. it is

6AJ

Page 140: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

3 A Descript ion 0f A Pluce (poge 37)Layout

Paragraph 1Introduce the ptace.

After living for many years in an old country house, I've justmoved to the city. Now I Live in a modern fLat which ...

Paragraph 2Give a generaI descript ion of the ptace.

It is spocious and fuLL of Light. There are two rooms downstairs, ...

Paragraph 3Focus on one room / one special feature in more detai[ .

My study upstairs has got a very relaxed atmosphere.ltly favourite piece of furniture is ...

Paragraph 4Give a f inat/persona[ comment on the place.

Although I sometimes miss my old house. there are many thingsabout my new home thot I reaLLy Like, such as .. .

StyteFor thjs type of composit ion, you shoutd wrjte jn a neutraI styte.Below are exampLes of dif ferent styles.Formal styte: Ihe house, with numerous rooms and on extensivegarden, is situated in the cauntry.Neutral style: She has just moved into a big house in the countrywith a huge garden.Cotf.oquial style: Her new house is massive with a great big garden.

UsefuI Vocabu[aryHouse featuresz armchair, bookshelf, carpet, clock, coffee table,cu rtai n s, c u s hi o n s, fi re p Lo ce, La m p, La n p s h a d e, n a nteLpi ece, mi rro r,pointing, rug, sideboard, sofa, stove, tiles

Describing a ptace/objectz cLuttered (with), comfortable, cosy,covered (with), enormous, foir-sized, huge, marvellous, massive,oLd-fashioned, reLaxing, spacious, tasteless, warm, wooden

Lin king

Result: Her desk is so cLuttered with papers tbat she cannot findher computer mouse. (so * adj. * 'that' cLause)The house has got such LoveLy views of the countryside that it is awonderful pLace to be in. (such + adj. + noun + 'that' clause)It is too big for one person to Live in. (too * adj. * 'to'infinitive)

The kitchen is biq enouqh lo.q!t in. (adj. + snounl ' , + ' to' inf inj t ive)

Comparison: It is not as big as other rooms.The living room is a bit smaLLer.It is a,Lot bigger than her previous house.1ne of the biggest attractions is a huge garden.

Giving examptes: Ihe house is full of old features, such os ancientfireplaces.It is a perfect pLace for people LiNe you and me.It is full of Light, LqftlellS{y earLy in the morning.It can be used for many purposes. fq gxqApJg it can be turnedin to a spare bedroom.

Check i ngLayout: Have you fo[towed the paragraph ptan?L ink ing : Have you incLuded [ ink ing words and express ions?UsefuI vocabulary: Have you incLuded adjectives describingpart icutar features of the ptace?

fu'rtrng #ep

4 A Fi lm Review (poge 4/)Layout

Paragraph 1Give some basic information about the f i | .m.'Dances With WoLves' won an 1scar in 1"990. It was directed bvKevin Costner.

Paragraph 2Give a brief summary of the pl.ot.He is sent by the arny to Live on the edge of Indion territory.

Paragraph 3Give your opinions - good and bad things about the f i lm.The film is very realistic in the woy it shows us the everydayLife of the Indians.

Paragraph 4Conclusion and recommendation.It is a histoical fiLm with an obvious messoge. It speaks topeopLe of all ages.

Style

Most ofyour review shou[d be writ ten using present tenses:It is set in the nineteenth century.One day he meets an Indian.You shoutd aim for a neutraI style, not too formaL and not tooco [[o o uia [.Despite being very long, there isn't o dulL moment. (neutral" styte)

UsefuI VocabutaryIt is set in the 1920s / in the sixteenth century f during theFrench Revolution.It i5_.b,a,sed on a story/play/book by ...T h e s p e ci a L eff.gg[5 a re i m p re s si ve f di s a p p oi n ti n g.The 5qepqry is often breathtaking with wonderfuL plplpSrqp|y.The dj4logAe is often exceLlentf weak.X plavs the por! of ... / X is maqnifice1t/unconvinc.ingin the yo.Le,of . .

Lin ki ng

Summarising the plot:QIC_dSy, Costnerfinds himseLf being watched by ...nfter thg,t, the plot begins to get compLicated.EventuoLlv, he manages to convince the chief he is not dangerous.In .the end, they move north to Cqnado.Giving examptes:There are some sad moments, especialy when ...The directar pays great attention to detaiLs, such as the authenticcostumes.Contrasting:De;pile- beinq vsry Long, there isn't a duLI moment.I'd recommend the fiLm for everyone, althouqh some scenes orequite violent.Adding points:Theirfamily Life is very realistic. The hunting scenes are aLso veryconvincing.The scenery is beautifuL. Uptep_yS-t the background music isperfect.ConcIuding:f,Ll thinqs QQnsidered, this is a reaL masterpiece.

CheckingLayout: Have you fol lowed the suggestions for paragraphs?Linking: Have you included a variety of [ inking words?

Page 141: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ttrtttry #eft

5 A Descr ip l ion of on Evenf (poge 6 l )

Layout

Paragraph 1Introduce the event.

When I was in Spain last summer, I decided to go to a footbaLLmatch between FC BarceLona and Juventus Turin . It turned outto be one of the highLights of my hoLidoy.

Paragraph 2Give a brief summary of the event.

It alL started with a spectacuLar fiesta four hours before theactual match.After that, the members of both teoms were introduced to thecrowd. BorceLona scored first but Juventus eventuaLLy won.

Paragraph 3Focus on one particular aspect of the event.

What I found reaLLy amazing was the behaviour of the fans.They weren't hostile to eoch other and Looked as if they werehaving a great time together. The match started and ended with

fireworl<s. It was a big dispLay of technical skiLI and artisticimagination. I particularLy Iiked the colours.

Paragraph 4Give a f inal comment on the event.

ALL in aLL, it was one of the biggest attractions of my Spanishholidays. I Loved the atmosphere of the pLace ond I think theorganisation was just perfect.

StyteMost of your descript ion shoutd be wrjt ten in a neutraI styLe.What I found reaLLy amazing was the behaviour of the fans. Theyweren't hosti le.. .

To make your descript ion more vivid and interesting, useadjectives.It was a big dispLay of technical skilL and artistic imagination.The stadium was fuLL of bright Light and the dazzling colours ofboth teams.

UsefuI VocabutaryTypes of eventz class / family reunion, concert, exhibition,

fashion show, get-together of old school fiends, motch, new housewarming par7y, opening of an exhibition / shopping malL, pafty,promotionaL event, stage performance, wedding

Describing an event: a big attraction, boing, decorated with,exciting, fascinating, a highlight, good / perfect/ poororganisation, in good / bad taste, interesting, sophisticated,spectacuLar, o stepping stone, traditionoL, unique, very modern /hiqh-tech

Linking

Summarising the event:It alL started with the nationaL anthems of both teams.Then the referee bLew his whistle.After that, the Spanish team scored the first goal.FinalLv, the ltalian team managed to equaLise.In the end, the crowd went home peacefuLly.

Giving examples:There were some moving momentg etpgl4fu when both teamsheld o one-minute silence to commemorate the recent death of acoLleague.The event wos very weLI orgonised. f-qf_ggrnp19, there wereinformotion booths every fifty metres.If there were problems, such as. misbehaviour of some fons, policewere very quick to intervene.

Contrasting:Despite being very crowded, the stadium was very well organised.AEho,Ag! their team was Losing, the fans kept encouraging them altthe time.

Adding points:There were fireworl<s before the match. WhS!':_nqE, there wasanother fireworks dispLay at the end.The atmosphere before the match as well as, after it wos very

friendLy.

Concluding:ALL in oLI, it was a spectacular event.AII thinqs considered, it was a highlight of ny holidoy.

Checking

Layout: Have you fol lowed the suggestions for paragraphs?Linking: Have you inctuded a variety of l inking words?Useful vocabulary: Have you included adjectives to describe theevent?

Page 142: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

6 A D is rurs ive Essuy ( l ) (poge / l )

Layout

1 IntroductionA short paragraph to introduce the topic. Give somebackground. This may be historical or personat.Tobacco was introduced to Europe after the discovery of Ameica.My parents smoke and they have both tried to give upmany times.

Note that i f you are ' for ' something, put the arguments'against ' f i rst.I f you are 'against ' something, put the arguments ' for '

fi rst.

2 A List of arguments 'for'

Choose two or three main points. Give examptes wherepossi bte.FirstLy, it costs a Lot of money to treat smokers who getdiseases, such as heart disease or Lung cancer. Secondly, ...

3 A l^ist of arguments 'against '

Choose two or three main points. Back up your argumentswith examples.0n the other hand, if they banned smoking, the governmentwould lose a Lot of money from taxes on cigorettes.

4 ConclusionGive your own persona[ opinion about the topic.In my opinion, . . .AIL things considered, I beLieve that ...

Styl.e

Most essays are writ ten jn a formaI or neutraI style:. use fo rma[ [ inkers fo r [ i s t ing arguments ' fo r 'and 'aga ins t '

the t i tLe:A smoke-fiLled room is ql59 bad for non-smokers who have tobreathe in the snoke. Ug,lqpvq, the smeLL of smoke ... fFg4rthqrmo4e, peopLe who smoke ... / finalLy, ...

. use fo rmaI vocabuLary and phrases :

@. ( toocot loqu ia l )It is unpleasant to be in a smoke-filLed room.

@. ( toocot toqu ia l . )Some peopLe chai n-smoke.

. use pass ives when appropr ia te (see a lso ModuLe 4) :i€a.

Tobacco was introduced to Europe after the discovery of Ameica.

Useful Vocabulary

Adjectives: addictive, anti-sociaL, dangerous, dirty, gLamorous,unhealthyNouns: ashtray, bronchitis, cigarette, heart disease, Lung cancer,nicotine, no-smoking areas, public places, tobaccoIssues: cost of health treatment, dangers in pregnancy, individualfreedom of choice, passive smoking, smelL on clothing andfurniture, sports sponsors, starting fires, tqx revenue

l,ttrtrnl #ep

Linking: Contrast [ inkers

ALthouqh/Ey9! !fisugh they know the dangers, many peopLe stiL|snoke. (Although/Even though + ctause, + main clause)* Note: Sven-a+noag+

D-espile/I-l:ptle pf knowilgthe dangers, nany peopLe stil|snoke. (pe_spitg/I f ;pi le oJ +'- ing', + main clause)Despite/IJt spile oJ the dangers, many peopLe stilL smoke.(Despite/In spite of + noun, + main clause)Despite thglqet thqt / Ilspjte qf the f-qct lhat they know thedangers, many people stilL smoke. (Despite the fact that /In spite of the fact fhaf + clause, + main ctause)

' H o w e v e r ' a n d ' 0 n t h e o t h e r h a n d ' a r e u s e d t o b e g i n a n e wsentence that contrasts what came before.Many people know the dangers of cigarettes. 119y9!9!, they stilLsmoke.lvlany people know the dangers of cigarettes. 0n the other hand,they stilL smoke.

'Whereas' is used to contrast two examptes which are closetyt in ked.My parents both smoke, whereas none of their children does.You can't smoke in hospitals, Whe!eSy you can smoke in otherpubLic pLaces, such as .. .Some peopLe spend aLI their money on cigarettes, whereas Iprefer to spend my money on CDs.

Check ing

Layout: How welt does your essay f[ow? Look at the paragraphsaga in and check the s t ruc tu re o fyour a rgument .Style: Have you used words or expressions that are tooco[toquiat? If so, try to express the same ideas jn a moreformaI way.L inkers : Have you used [ inkers and [ ink ing express ions?Can you add any L inkers to jo in sentences or [ ink ideas?Grammar and spett ing: Check your essay for mjstakes ofg rammar and spe l l ing .

Page 143: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

l,il,nng #eQ

7 A Formol [et ler (poge 85)

Layout and Style

Your addressand the date17 0rchard Rise,London, NW12January 15 ,2002

Divide your queries about the hotiday into two or threeparagraphs, e.g. conditions on holiday, heatth and safety,price.

Paragraph 2Firstly, I would Like to know more about the sort of conditionson the holiday. CouLd you tell ne more obout theaccom modation provided .. .

Paragraph 3Secondly, I am sLightLy worried as I have never been on thissort of hoLiday before. Could you pLease send me informationobout the diseases and heaLth risks in the Amazon area?I would aLso be gratefuL if you could give me informotionabout heoLth and accident insurance.

Paragraph 4ThirdLy, you say that the price includes everything exceptcertain extras. Could you possibLy give me details about whatextras there miqht be?

Formal endingMost formal letters end with this sentence. Learn i t !I Look forward to hearing from

Signing offYours sincerely, (if your letter starts with Dear Mrs Smith)Yours faithful[y. (if your letter starts with Dear Sir /Madam)Sign your name and print it ctearly.R. S. WilsonR.S. WiLSON (MS)

StyteFormaI writ ten requests for information:I would be qrateful if vou could give me more informotion aboutthe accommodation.eouQ-vou please send me information about the accommodation?Could vQu possibLv teLL me what ...I yvpllet wbeiher.vou couLd pessiblv send me details about healthinsurance.You mention the need for vaccinations.D_oSSjItLaesUhg! youorganise them?Stating preferences:I__ry-ou@ UefetlS have a singLe room, if possiALq.I wo_uld glsg lfL4a. stay on for another two days, if that is at.aL!possible.

UsefuI VocabularyReservations:I would Like to reserve o pLace f to make a reservation fto confirm a reservation f to concel a reservation fmake a group booking

Price:What is included in the price? / Do you offer discounts forgroups? / Do you give reductions for students? /Are there any speciaI offers?

Accommodation:What sort of accomnodation do you provide?What kind of facilities has the hotel got?Types of accommodation:. cabin, campsite, tent, hotel rooms(singLe/doubLe room, suite), self-cateing flat

Food:What is the LocaL food like? / Is the water drinkabLe? /Do you offer fuLI or haLf board? /Are there any faciLities for seLf-cateing?

Transport:Kinds of transport: balloon, boat, comel, canoe, cruise, excursion,tour, transportfshuttLe service to and from the airpoft, trek, trip

Baggage / Luggage:What is the weight limit? How much does excess baggage cost?Kinds of baggage/tuggage: backpack, holdall, overnight bag,ruclcsack, suitcase, pock

Ctothes:anorok, diving suit, swimsuit, trainers, waLking boots,waterproof jacket

L ink ing

Condit ions:It is not cLear ifJwhether your company only orranges flights fromLondon.I would Like to reserve a room, as Lonq os/provided that it has amodern shower and toiLet faciLities.I would prefer not to share a cabin gnlg:tlexcept if I have to.

Listing:Firstlv, I wouLd like to ... / Seconlfu, could you ... /ThirdLv, I wouLd be ... / fUSlU, I would like to ...In addition to that, couLd you ...Another query I have is about.. .Somethinq eke I would Like to ask obout is transport from theairport.

Checking

Styl.e: Check your letter for style, e.g. start ing. f inishing theletter, po[ite requests.Grammar: Check whether a[[ your questions are grammaticaltyco rrect.

GreetingDear Mrs Smith, (it you know the person's name)Dear Sir / Madam, (if you don't know the person's name)

Paragraph 1Give your reason for writing the tetter. Say where you sawthe advert isement. Give some information about you andother people interested in the hotiday.I am writing to osk for more information about theAmozonian Adventure' holiday which I saw advertised inThe Mirror. My sister and I are both university students. We areinterested in the holidav but I would like some more details.

Page 144: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

I A [el ter of Appl icot ion (poge 95)

Layout

G reeting

Dear Ms Snith, ( i f you know the person's name)Dear Sir / Madam, ( i f you don't know the person's name)

Paragraph 1Give reasons for your writ ing. Say where you saw anadvert isement.

I am writing in connection with the advertisement in today's'Gazette'. I am a professionaL nurse and I would Like to join thecampaign to save chfldren in poor countries of Africa.

Paragraph 2Give some information about you.

I am a professionaL nurse. I graduated from the Medicol ColLegetwo years ogo. During ny studies, I took part in a number ofventures which oimed to help the people in the countries of theThird WorLd. Since I left the ColLege, I have porticipoted in threespeciaList training courses. I work in the State HospitoL in myhome town; however, I could easiLy take a two-month Leave tojoin your campaign.

Paragraph 3Suggest how you coutd hel.p.

Due to my medicaL quaLifications, I couLd deaL with all kinds ofphysical probLems the chiLdren might be suffering fron. Inoddition, I couLd act as a therapist and heLp them with mentaltrauma. Apart from that, I am sure I would cope with otherdifficuLt situations, such as taking core of the elderly ondnomercss .

Paragraph 4Ask for more information.

I wouLd be grateful if you could inform me when you wiLL beannouncing the resuLts of the applications. I wouLd also beinterested to know the pLanned departure date.

FormaI end ing

I am Looking forward to hearing from you.

gnr ng

Yours sincerely, (if your tetter starts with Dear Ms Smith)Yours faithfuLLy, (if your letter starts with Deor Sir / lvladam)

Styl.e

FormaI writ ten statements of interest:am writing in connection with.am writing in response to / wfth regard to...would Like to express my interest in...wouLd Iike to appLy for the post / position of...

FormaI writ ten requests:I wouLd be grateful if you couLd...I wouLd l ike to know more about.. .I wonder i f you couLd...Could you please send me...

Itntiny #ep

UsefuI VocabularyQuatif icat ions and work experience:I am a professionaL...(teacher)I graduated from...I attended / took part in troining courses speciaLised in... (firstaid)I participated in... (reLief missions)

0ffers of hetp:Due to my medicaL qualifications, I couLd...I think I night be usefuL in / for...I wouLd be happy to.. .

Addit ionat information:I encLose my CV / references from my previous employers.I wouLd be happy to attend an interview at your earLiestconvenience.

Linking

Giving reason:Due to my medicaL quaLificotions, I can take care of the sick andthe wounded.I took a course in therapy; as a resuLt, I can also work as otherapist.

Contrasting:Dgslllg being rather young, I have monaged to develop somep rofe ssi o n a I ex p e rti s e.

Add ing :In gldtljpl, I couLd act as a therapist.ApgJ.t from that, I an sure I would cope with other difficuLtsituations.

Check ing

Layout: Have you fot lowed the Layout for paragraphs?Styte: Check your letter for style, e.g. start ing, f inishing theletter; using formaL words and expressions.

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0lrrtrng #ep

9 A Discursive Essoy (2) (poge l0g)

Note that if you are 'for' something, put the arguments'against'f irst.

!f you are'against'something, put the arguments,for,first.

2 A list of arguments 'for'

Express the attitudes and reasons to support this point ofview. Provide examples and facts where possibl.e.(see Styte betow)

3 A tist of arguments'against'Express the attitudes and reasons to support this point ofview. Provide examptes and facts where possible.see below

4 ConctusionFinatty, give your own personal opinion about the topic.In my opinion, ... / AU things considered, I beLieve that ...

StyteIn a discursive essay i t is important to Ljst the points of view ofboth sides of an argument as objectivety as possible. 0nty inthe conclusjon can you express your own point of vjew. Noticethe use of repori structures (e.g. feel fhaf), passives and formaItinkers (e.9. moreover, furthermore) in the sentences below.List ing arguments:Uanv peopLe feeL that harder sentences should be brought back.The American system of'three stikes and you,re out, hassuppp$glt f n Britain.M.oreover, s_ole pggplgLgythat conditions in prisons are too soft._Ihge lrc_qg_uJ!9ntsfr!the restoration of the death penaLty.The wishes of victims' famiLy and fiends possibLv need tg betaken into accountThere are arguments against harder sentences and capitaLpunishment.One of the arquments aqainst Longer pison sentence is that thepisons are akeady full.jtb-er,people disaqree and think that pisons should reformoffenders.It is stronqLv felt bv nanv people that capitaL punishment is theeq uivalent of j u dici a I m u rde n}thers point to the possibiLity of judicial errors and the ristcs ofexe c uti n g i n n o cent peop Ie.Furthermore, the death penaLty is seen as savage and an affrontto humon dignity.Giving reasons, examptes and facts:Some people think that one of the beneftg of harder sentenceswouLd be to keep more dangerous criminaLs off the street.ArclLet @yStS& ,v9t1u b9J9 give people a greoter feeling ofpersonal secuity.This wotlLd b_q the best wav of reducing crime caused by a smalLgroup of professional criminals.

F_of. exampLe, many crimes are committed by peopLe Leaving pison.)the.r people feel that theteJeuk!-beltanv disadvantqqes tQ qiviDgharder sentences, because there wouLd be less cnarrce ffiigratifiprison ers i nto soci ety afterwa rds.Research hgyhpvn thst ...Describing statistics and figures: -{ Lexjcon 9, page 155

UsefuI VocabularyCrime and punishment (also see Lexicon 9, page 155):crimes: burgLary - burglas drug deaLing - drug dealer, mugging- mugger, murder - murdereL rape - rapist, shoplifting - shoplifter;to commit a crime, to be orrested, to be sentenced, to be qiven osoft/hard sentence, to be locked up, to be let off with a fi:ne, to beIet out of prison, to deter young people, to take into account thewishes of the victims, to restore (bnng back) capital punishment,to commit judicial murderthe [aw: the courts, the judges, the judiciaL system f the legalsystem, the law, judicial mistakes

LinkingCause / Result:The consumption of drugs has gone up. ConsequentLv, there hasbeen on increase in vioLent cime.The amount ofviolent crime has gone up due to an increase inconsumption of drugs.The number of coses of vioLent cime has increased as a result ofthe rising consumption of drugs.The consumption of drugs has isen. Because of this, there hasbeen an increase in vioLent cime.Because of the rise in consumption of drugs, there has been anincrease in violent cime.The increase in vioLent cime is iust because of the isingconsumption of drugs.50 U!S! money has been spent an prisons that they are now likeIuxury hoteLs.Reason:We need to reform prisoners so that they can go back into society.We need to reform prisoners in order to help them go bock intosociety.as / like:It was a very interesting articLe as it was about the arrest of agroup of drug dealers. (as = becouse)My father woil<s as a prison fficer. (worlcs os = rs)CapitaL punishment is Iike any other kind of murder (Like = simiLarto)Because of his record he was treated as a dangerous criminal. (as =in the same way as)It is due to sociaL problems, like poverty ond unempLoyment. (Like =for exampLe)It is due to social problems such as poverty and unempLoyment.(such as = for exampLe)It is not os easy as people think. (comparison)

Checking

tayout: How we[[ does your essay ftow? Use the paragraphdiagram above to check the structure of your argument.Linking: Have you used [ inking expressions? Can you add any[inking words to join sentences or [ ink ideas?Styte: Check the styte of the essay. Make sure you have onty putpersonaI op in ions in your conc tus . ion .Grammar and spelt ing: Check your essay for mistakes ofgrammar, vocabu|.ary and spelt ing.

Layout

1 IntroductionIntroduce the topic. Give some background about thesituation in your country/area. Then mention the possiblereasons for the situation.Crime is one of the most importanf rssues ...In the lastfew years, cime hos been going up/down.The most common cimes are ...The most worrying trend is the increase in ...0ne of the reasons for this is possibly the fact thatunempLoyment has isen ...Another reoson is that ...

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| 0 A lef ter 0f (omplaint (poge 1 I 9)Layout

Your address and the dateWrite your address withcorrect punctuation. Donot write your name here.24 Market Street,M idd l"eto n,Manchester, M24 6HD

J u n e L 6 . 2 0 0 3

The company's name and addressComputer World,17 Tower Road,L o n d o n , 5 W 1 2

GreetingDear Mr Scott, ( i f you know the person's name)Dear Sir / Madam, ( i f you don't know the person's name)

1 IntroductionGive your reason for writing and specific information aboutthe product or service, including where and when you boughti t .I am writ ing to you about . . . which I boughtfrom ... on .. .I enclose copies of the guarantee and the receipt.

2 Reasons for the complaintWrite one or two paragraphs saying:a) why the advert ising for the product was misteading,In your advert you claim that the watch is waterproof. fThe odveft gave the impression that the jacket would losta Lifetime.b) what went wrong with the product.However, the first time I went swimming, the watch stoppedworking. /However, after onLy one wash, the coLour had faded.

3 Reactions to your comptaintSay what happened when you took the product back orcomplained about i t the f irst t ime.When I took the ... back to the shop, the assistant said it wasmy fault and I hodn't read the instructions carefuLly.

4 Your demandsSay clearly what you want the company to do, State furtheraction that you wit l take i f your demands are not met.I wouLd like you to refund my money.Unless I receive a satisfactory repLy, I wiLL write to the ConsumerAssociation.

5 Forma[ endingThe most common ending for a formal letter is:I look forward to hearing from you.

Signing offYours sincereLy, (if your letter starts with Dear Mr Scott)Yours faithfully, (if your letter starts with Dear Sir / Madam)5ign your name and print i t clearly.P. LoweP, LOWE (MR)

tr/ittirg #eQ

StyLeWrjte a letter jn a formaI styte:. do not use contractions:

@ . . .I am writing to compLain obout ...

. use fo rma[ [ ink ing words :Uqgpyq1 the picture was not clear.Howeve!-, the first time I used it ...

Useful VocabutaryProducts: guarantee, receipt, serial number, dote of purchaseCriticisms: arrived Late, poor quality, poor service, poorworkmonship, rude empLoyees, it was so ... that I ... /i t was not . . . enough / i t wos too .. .Demands: pay compensation, refund money, replace the productThreats: go to court, go to the Consumer Association,take legaL action, write o letters to the local newspaper

L ink ing

He spoke to me as if/as. th9lgh I knew nothing about it.A9y9!91, it didn't work.Qtespite following the instructions, it didn't work.AlthpUSt! I foLlowed the instructions, it didn't work.No,t onlv did it Lose time, b,ut aLso the alarm didn't wark.4l ty,e"lL as the zip breaking, the heeLfeLL off!Just as/As soon a'/[[gn I swftched it on, it made a funny noise.Ufk:;you refund ny money, I wiLL take legal action.

CheckingStyte: Check your letter for style. Make sure that i t is not toojnformaI or does not sound too aggressive.Linking: Have you used [ inking expressions? Can you add anyl ink ing words to jo in sentences or Unk jdeas?Grammar and spelt ing: Check your essay for mistakes ofgrammar, vocabutary and spett ing.Check this:I look forward to hearing from you.

W

Page 147: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Grsmmor SummoryI Tenses (poges B-9)Present SimpteWe use the Present Simple to tatk about:. general truths and ru[es: l4ost bears hibernate in winter.. routines and habits: Do you swim every weekend?. permanent situatjons and states: lle live in Gitbert Street.. future facts: The troin leaves in twenty minutes.

Present Cont inuousWe use the Present Continuous to:. talk about act ivi t ies in progress at the t ime of speakinq:

Where's Joe? He's having a shower.. tatk about temporary activi t jes and habits:

I'm looking ofter Peter's dog while he,s oway.. ta[k about personal arrangements for the future:

We're flying back on Saturday.. show irr i tat ion about a person's bad habit:

You are aLways loosing the keys.

Present PerfectWe use the Present Perfect to tatk about:. past events and activi t ies with consequences jn the present:

0h no! The house has been burgled. phone the police.. sing[e or repeated events in the past when i t doesn't matter

when they happened:Have you ever tried Thai food?

. si tuations that started in the past and continue up t i t l now:She's been ilL since Thursday.

Present Perfect Contin uousWe use the Present Perfect Continuous to ta[k abour:. continuous or repeated activi t ies that started in the past and

aren't f inished:I've been doing a Lot of overtime recently to save money foro holiday.

. continuous or repeated act. ivi t ies from the recent past whichhave consequences in the present:You look exhausted!What have you been doing?

Past SimpteWe use the Past Simple to ta[k about single or repeated events inthe pas t when we know when they happened:I bought some nice things at the market at the weekend.I ate a lot of chocolate when I wos a student.

Past Cont inuousWe use the Past Continuous to tatk about:. act jvi t ies that continued for some t ime in the past, especiai l .y

to show a longer activi ty that was interrupted by a shorterone: I wos moking dinner when the phone rang.

. act ivi t jes that form the background, especiatty to ser a scene:We were walking along the beach chatting to one onothet.Suddenly, we heard a caLl for help.

Past PerfectWe use the Past Perfect to tal.k about events or si tuations in thepast which happened before other past events:When we got home, Jane had aLready left so we didn't manaqe tosay goodbye to her.

WiIIWe use wil l + inf ini t ive without ' to, when we want to make:. a decision at the moment of speaking: I,ll go there at once.. a predict ion based on our opinions or betiefs:

We'll probably get home after midnight.. a request: Will you wait for ne?

to be going toWe use fo be going fo + infinitive without ,to, to express:. an intention: I'm going to do an English summer course.. a predict ion based on something we can observe:

It's going to be hot todav.

2 Post Tenses (poges l8-l g)

Apart from the Past SimpLe, past Continuous and past perfect(see 1 Tenses), we use the fol" l"owing verb forms to tal.k about thepast:. would and used to + inf ini t ive without,to' to taLk about

regutar events in the past which no [onger happen; we use usedfo to talk about states and activities and would to tatk onlvabout act ivi t ies:Erica used to be o champion. (state)We would (or used to) always celebrate together. (activity)

. Past Perfect Continuous to talk about [onger activi t ies in thepast that happened before other past events:She was rescued by a mon who had been working in a nearbygarage.

3 Relot ive ond Port ic iple ( lquses(poges 32-33)

Relative ctausesThere are two types of retat ive clauses: defining anonon-defining. We use:. defining relat ive ctauses to identi fy the person or thing we

are ta lk ing about :I only pierce young peopLe who come with their parents.(Note that we do not put a comma before the defining relat jvectause. )

. non-defining relat ive ctauses to give extra information aboutthe person or thing. which is not necessary to identi fy thisperson or thing and can be left out:Mick Shonnon, who is o qualified body piercer, took me to [email protected] showed me his certificate, which was on the woll.(Note that we alwavs put a comma before a non_definjnorelat ive clause.)

We cannot not use the pronoun that or omit the relat ive pronounin non-defining retat ive clauses.

We use a speciaI type of non-defining relat ive ctauses to adda comment to what was said in the f irst part of the sentence:They don't cLean their equipnent, which shows they don,t knowwhat they're doing.In these clauses, we always use a comma and the retat ivepronoun which (not what).

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Par t i c ip le c lausesInstead of a fu[[ relat ive clause we can sometimes usea part icipte cLause. We use:. a present part icip[e to say what the person/thing is doing:

You can see mony peopLe wearing rings everywhere.. a past part icip[e to say what is/was done to the person/thing

ment ioned:I was Looking at the walls covered with photos of clients.

4 The Possive (poges 42-43)We use the Passive when:. the doer o f the ac t ion is unknown:

The bus stop has been vondalised.. we want to focus attention on the action rather than the doer:

The whole gong was arrested yesterday.. we want to put speciaI attention on the doer:

ALI these projects have been managed by the Bulqaian artisteLr:tq

. we want to avojd a very long subject of the sentence:His projects ore finonced by the sale of his drowings throughgaLleries and the Internet.

The Passive is used mainty in formaI and writ ten [anguage.It is very typicaL of the [anguage used . in newspapers anoby journa[ists.

Apart from passive forms of tenses, we can use some otherpassive forms:. passive infinitjve: It's nice to be taken seiously.. passive gerund: We aLl enjoyed being praised by the teacher.. passive perfect inf inj t ive:

The train may hove been delayed by the storm.

5 The Fulure (poges 56-5/)Apart from wiLI / may / might + jnf ini t ive without ' to' ,the Present Contjnuous, to be going to and the present Simple. weuse the foLlowing tenses and verb forms to talk about the future:

. Future ContinuousWe use the Future Continuous to talk about act ivi t ies that wittbe in progress at a certajn t ime in the future:At 9 a.m. on Saturday, I'll be listening to Duke WilLard.I'll be working alL evening so I won't be abLe to see you.

. Future PerfectWe use the Future Perfect to tatk about act ions that wi l . l . becompleted before a certajn t ime in the future:By the end of the century, we will have colonised oursolar system.He will have written two bool<s bv next summer.

. Time clausesWhen we refer to the future in t ime ctauses. aft .er when,as soon os, until, before and after we do not use r,vill. We usethe Present Simple:When you get home, you'lL receive good news.If we want to emphasise the fact that an activi ty wi i l . befinished before the other one happens, we use the presentPerfect instead of the Present Simpte:After you've done the shopping, you'll have a pLeasant surpise.I'Ll help you as soon as I've finished the washing up.

hranna hnnnuu

6 Condit ionols ondMixed Condit ionols (poges 66-67)There are four basic types of condit ionaI sentences: the ZeroCondit iona[, First Condit iona[, Second Condit ional. and theThird Condit ional".(For more information about these types of condjt ionaL sentencessee the Mini-Grammar in the Matura Powerbook.)

The term 'mixed condit iona|"s'comes from the hct that the mixedcondit ionaI sentences com bine dif ferent condit iona l" structures.

We use mixed condit ionats to talk about:. imaginary past events that cou[d have some consequences

' in the present:

If he hod broken the record, he would be famous now. (but hedjdn't break the record in the past so he isn't famous now)If they hadn't invited me to the party, I wouldn't be here.(but they invited me to the party so I 'm here now)

Form: If + Past Perfect, would + inf ini t ive without ' to'

I I(as in 3 rd cond i t iona l ) (as in 2nd cond i t iona l " )

. unreaI present si tuations, usualty imaginary states, whichcou[d have had some consequences in the pas t :If he wasf were a more skilful playen he would hqve scoredmore points. (but he isn't a ski l fuI ptayer so he didn,t scorepoi nts)If she didn't speak a few languages, she wouldn,t have gotthatjob. (but she speaks a few [anguages so she got thejob)

Form: f + Past Simple, wouLd + perfect inf inj t ive

I I(as in 2nd condit iona[) (as in 3rd condit ional)

7 Verb Pof terns: '- ing' f ormond In f in i t ive (poges S0-Bl )

used to, be used fo and get used toWe use:. used to + inf ini t ive without ' to' to talk about states

or act ivi t ies that happened regutarly in the past but they areno longer t rue :We used to go camping a Lot.He used to be a doctor.

. be used to +'- ing'form of the verb or a noun to sav that weare very fumil iar with something:We're used to getting up early.She's not used to the cold climate.

. get used to +'- ing' form of the verb or a noun to describethe process of gett ing famit iar with something:We got used to eating rice when we lived in Asia.How long did it take you to get used to the food here?

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hrannu Qannuq

Verbs of sensesWith verbs of senses such as see, hear, watch, notice we can usetwo patterns. We use:. see / heor f watch / notice somebody do something when we

want to say that we observed the who[e action (and we knowhow i t ends) :I wotched the children cross the street. (I saw them as theyreached the other side.)We heard John sing our national anthem. (We heard the whotesong. )

. see / hear / wotch / notice somebody doing something whenwe want to say that we observed the action in progress:We wotched the whales swimming off the coast of Patagonio.I saw them sunbathing on the balcony.

8 Report ing (poges 90-91)

We can use the fot lowing verbs (with the patterns given)to report what a person has said:

. verb + thot:He comploined that he was paid too LittLe.The fot l .owing verbs can be used with this pattern:add, adnit, agree, announce, beLieve, boast, claim, complain,deny, declare, explain, insist, remind, suggest, warn.

. verb + somebody + thot:They warned us that we might be stopped at the gate.The following verbs can be used with this pattern: warn, remind.

. verb + somebody to do something:We advised him to change banl<s.The fotLowing verbs can be used with this pattern:advise, beg, ordes promise.

. verb + to do something:He threatened to take Legal action.The fot lowing verbs can be used wjth thjs pattern:agree, offer, refuse, threoten.

. verb + '-ing' tormzI suggested going to the presentation.The fo[[owing verbs can be used with this pattern:admit, deny, suggest.

. verb + if/whether:She asked if it was possible to see the patient.The fo[lowing verbs can be used with this pattern: inquire, ask.

. verb + preposition + '-ing' form:He has been accused of pick-pocketing.The fottowing verb can be used with this pattern: accuse of.

We do not change the tense in the reported sentence wnen:. the report ing verb is in the present:

'I feelfeveish.'+ She says she feels feveish.

. we report something which is st j t [ true, e.g. a generaI truth:'Kangaroos live in Australia.' I The teacher said thot kongarooslive in Australia.

. we report something which is st i t t in the future at the momentof report ing:'The documents wiLI be pubLished in 2020.' + The ministryspokesperson announced that the documents will be pubLishedin 2020.

4 | t ) a G9 (omplex Senlences ( l ) : Persuosion(poges 104-. |05)We usua[[y use dif ferent forms in writ ten format Engl.. ish andspoken informal" Engtish to te[[ people what we think they shoul.ddo.

Written EngtishWe use the foi l .owing expressions to make strong suggestionswhen we write in a formaI styte:. should + infinitive without 'to':

Vle should remember that 'being' is more important that'hoving'.. ought to + infinitive without 'to':

The government ought to do something about unemployment.. demand / insist / suggest + (that) + subject + should

do something+ (that) + subject + present tense+ (that) + subject + subjunctive

(same form as inf init ive)They ore suggesting that a new school should be built inthis area.I insist that the money ittransferred into my occountimnediotely.The protesters demanded that the supermorket Qs closed.

. It's high tine (that) + subject + past tenseIt's high time the council started to think about loca!businesses.

Spoken Engt ishWe use the fot lowing expressions to make weak, tentat jvesuggestions when we ta[k to someone we know:. If I were you, I'd + infinitive without'to':

If I were you, I'd stop using so much moke-up.

To make a st ightl"y stronger suggestion, we use:. I think you should + infinitive without 'to':

I think you should take up some evening cLasses.. I think you ought to + infinitive without'to':

I think you ought to give away your old schooL bool<s.

We use the fol lowing expressions to cri t icise, reproach or advisesomebody in a strong way. These expressions are often used by aperson in authority. e.g. teacher talking to a student, parenttalking to a chj l"d.. It's about time + subject + past tense:

It's about time you got down to work.. fd e I would) rother + subject + past tense:

I'd rother you didn't go there.( ' I 'd rather you' is usua[[y fol. towed by a negative verb form)

. You'd (= You hod) better + infinitive without 'to':

You'd better start thinking about your exams.'You'd better 'coutd also be used to a fr iend to encouraqeor to persuade:You'd better hurry up or you'll be Late.

The expression I 'd sooner you + past tense is not used verymuch any more; we use I 'd rather instead. Both structures areusuatly fol lowed by a negative form:I'd sooner you didn't tell anyone obout it.

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| 0 (omplex Sentences (2): Emphusis(poges 1 . |4 - l l5 )To make something sound stronger and more emphatic, we use anegative word (e.9. seldom, rarely, never, neither, no sooner(than), not onLy) at the beginning of the sentence plus

inversion, i .e. the word order of a question. We usualty use thiskind of inversion in formaI writ ten EngLish:

He has never known anything like it. ) Never hos he knownanything Like it.The poLice arived just after the robbers had Left. 1 No soonerhad the robbers left than the police arrived.Snakes are not onLy unpleasant but they are dangerous as well. )

Not onlv are snakes unpLeasant but they are dangerous as well.

We can also use emphatic inversion in thjrd condit ionaIsentences. Note that we drop f in the inverted form. Thisstructure is common in both formaI and informa[ [anguage:If I had known they were in town, I would have phoned them. 4

Had I known they were in town, I wouLd have phoned them.

In both formaI and informa[ [anguage, we can use thesestructures to put more emphasis on some words:He is interested in money. ) It's money thot he's interested in.(we put emphasis on 'money')

I'n really upset about the noise you're making. + What I'm upsetobout is the noise you're making. (we put emphasis on 'noise')

I only need some rest. + AII I need is some rest. (we put

emphasis on 'rest ')

[onguoge Aworeness | (poge l4)Reference (1) : Determiners

We use the fottowing determiners in front of:. singutar countabte nouns: afan, the, another, the other.. uncountable nouns: the, some, ony, no, s lot of, much,

all (of the).. pturaI countable nouns: fhe, some, any, no, many, severaL,

o lot of, aLl (of the), (the) other.

We use o/an when:. we mention something for the f irst t ime:

There is o new shop assistant in the bakery.. i t does not matter which part icular person/thing we are tatking

about, e.g. when we mention this person/thing as an examp[eof a group or category:Can I hove on orange?

We use the when the person we are tatking to knows precisely

which person/thing we are tatking about and can easi ly identi fy

them,/ i t :Let's have breakfast outside on the terrace.

hrannu hnnnurt

longuoge Awsrenest 2 (poge 25)Cont inuous and Simple Tenses

We use continuous rather than simple tenses when:. we want to say that an activi ty is not f inished:

The doctor was writing a note. (she was in the process ofwriting it)The doctor wrote a note. (the note was ready)I've been reoding this book for weel<s. (I'm stitt reading it)I've resd this book. (I've finished reading it)

. we want to suggest that an activi ty is temporary rather thanpermanenr:You're breathing quite heaviLy. (for some time on[y. becauseyou're exhausted or iLL)People with heaft condition often breath quite heavily.(that 's a common characterist ic)My auntwas living here. (for some time on[y)My aunt lived here. (permanentty)

. we refer to a protonged or repeated action rather than a

singte event:The man was looking at his watch. (continuousty or repeatedty)The man looked at his watch. (once)

She dived into the pool. (once)She's been diving into the pool. (many times)

The foltowing verbs are not used in continuous tenses: know,Iike, understand, belong, resemble, reolise.

longuuge Aworeness 3 (poge 49)Reference (2) : Pronouns

Pronouns are words that we can use instead of a noun ina sentence so that we do not repeat the noun too often.Engtish has the fol lowing pronouns:. personaI pronouns:

a) subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they.b) object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, them.

. indefinite pronouns: someone, something, anywhere, nobody,nothing, etc.

. possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.

. demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those.

. reflexive pronouns: myseLf, yourself, himself, herself, itself,

o u rse Lve s, yo u rse lve s, th e m se Lve s.. retative pronouns: who, which, thot, whose, whom.

Possessive adjectives (my, youq his, hen its, our, their) are notpronouns because they cannot replace a noun.

one vs. youWe use the pronouns ane and you when we make statementsabout people in genera[, and they mean'anyone, at any t ime'.One is used in forma[ [anguage, whereasyou is informat:One has got (or You have got) nore chance of finding aninteresting job abroad nowadays.How do you get to Wembley from here?

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hrannu gnnnuq

longuoge Awureness 4 (poge /3)ModaI Verbs and Express ionsWe use modal verbs and expressions to:. tatk about obtigations and necessity:

You must cLean your teeth after every meal.We have to leave earlier to arrive on time.I hod to waLk ten miles to get home.Did you have to pay to go in?

. ta [k about permiss ion and proh ib i t jon :You can go in now.We mustn't disturb them.They can't tell me what to do.

. ta[k about [ack of obl igation:We didn't have to pay for the beer, it was free.We don't hove to think about anything, the tour operator doesit aLI.You needn't worry, everything wiLl be aLI right.You don't need to bing any food, there'll be enouqh.

. ta[k about abit i t ies:My Little daughter con sing and dance.I con't speak French.I could talk when I wss two.Con you roLler bLade?

. ta[k about possibit i ty:I can't get through to them, the line is busy.I could go there and telL then what I think.John couldn't see us in the crowd.

. make a guess and to speculate:He will be cooking Lunch now.They must have found out about the article.She might be Russian.He could be at the library.What could I have done?

. make predict ions:He'll be late, as usuaL.They nay win if they try hard.They won't come.

. make decisions:I'll taLk to Jim about it.I won't go there.

didn't need to vs. needn'tWe use didn't need to + inf ini t ive without,to.to say thatsomeone did not do something becauseit was not necessary:She didn't need to play because the match was cancelLed.He was so rich he didn't need to worry about money.

We use needn'1 + perfect inf ini t ive to say that someone didsomething atthouqh i t was unnecessary:We needn't have brought any food to the pafty - there wasplenty aLready.

longuoge Awareness 5 (pog e gl)

ImpersonaI Report StructuresWhen we report what peopte generalty bel. ieve or say we can usethe subject ft + the passive of verbs Like say, know believe,cLaim, suppose, think, fear predict:It is soid thot dolphins ore very friendLy animals.It wos feored that the pLane would crash into a skyscraper

We can atso start the sentence from the person/thing that theinformation concerns and use the structuresubject + the passive + infinitive:It is known that storl<s live in a clean environment. ) Storks oreknown to live in a clean environment.

We use an ordinary inf ini t ive i f the action reported is parai l .eIwith the t ime of report ing:It was said that ELvis Presley was the king of rock and rolL. +Elvis Presley was said to be the king of rock and rolt.It is claimed that police fficer accept bribes. + police officersare cloimed to accept bribes.

We use a perfect inf inj t ive j f the action happened before the t imeof report ing:It is supposed that the plane was hijacked. + The plane issupposed to_blve b99! tijSSkg4.It was said thot the minister had been invoLved in organised cime+ The minister was said to have been involved in organisedcrime.

[anguoge Aworeness 6 (poge I 2l)Perfective Verb FormsWe use perfect ive verb forms to say that something happenedbefore a certain t ime:I've been staying with ny famiLy on the coast. (before/until. now)They hod finished dinner when we came. (before a point inthe past)Jim will hove written the essay by 10 p.m. (before a po in t in thefutu re)Having spent every summer there,(before a time in the past)

I knew everyone in the vilLage.

They may hove eqten Lunch at school and aren't hungryr.(before a t ime in the present)

We can use the foltowing perfect ive verb forms:. Present Perfect: I've seen the Mona Lisa twice.. Present Perfect Continuous: I,ve been repoiing my bike.. Past Perfect: She died after she hdd contrscted tuberculosis.. Past Perfect Continuous: They were very dirty because

they'd been playing footbaLl in mud.. Future Perfect: We will have moved out by the end of next year.. perfect infinitive: They nay hove lost their wav.

She must hove been invited by Jonathan.. perfective '-ing' form:

I remembered having met the man a Long time sgo.Hoving parked the car on the side of the road, he went to sleelfor an hour.

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LexiconThe Lex icon conta ins impor tan t words and vocabu[ary a reas in)pportunities Upper Intermediatu. f o find other words that arenot in thjs Lexicon, useThe Longman Active Study Dict ionaryor The Longman Essential Activator.

ContentsModu[e wordsWordbui ld ing(pref ixes, suf f ixes, compunds, etc . )Col locat ion bankExpressions wjth do, get, have, makeWord pai rsWord fami l iesId iomat jc LanguagePreposi t ions bankMul t i -par t verbsPronunciation sym bo[s/Abbreviations

pages 151-155

pages 156-1,60pages 1,60-1.61.p a g e L 6 2page 1.62page 163page 1.64pages 1,65-1"69pages 170-176inside back cover

negativeambitious /am'brJas/: He's ambitious and wilL do anything to get

what he wants.boring /bcrrrrl/: She's duLL and bortng and never does anything

exciti ng.careless /keehs/: He's coreless and his work is full of unnecessary

mi sta kes.chitdish ltlaildrl:. She's childish and behoves like a ten-year-old

at times.cold ,&euld/: He's cold and so unfriendly.excitable /rk'sartabl/ She's excitable and gets excited far too

easily.impatient /rm'petJant/: You're so impatient - con't you wait even

a few minutes?i n divid ua tisti c f rndrvrd3ue'hstrk/: He's rath e r i n divi d u a Ii sti c a n d

doesn't work very weLI with other peopLe.insensitive /rn'sensetrv/: She's quite insensitive and doesn't think

obout other peopLe's feelings.intolerant /rn'tolarant/: An intolerant person doesn't accept the

way other people live. Don't be intolerant of others.moody /murdil: You're so moody! One minute you're cheerful, the

next minute you're miserabLe.nasty lnorsti/: She's such a nosty and unpleasant person.reckless /rekles/: He's reckless and doesn't care about danger.setfish lselfiJl: You're selfish - you only think about yourself.suspicious /se'sprJes/: He's suspicious of foreigners and unwilling

to accept their ways of Living.unreliabte l,rnrilarebl/: She's unreliable - never doing what she

says she'll do.vain /vern/: He's so vain - he thinl<s he's hondsome and verv

inteLligent.

neutralchatty /tJreti/: She's very chatty in fact she tolls aLL the time.competitive /kem'petetrv/: He's very competitive, even with his

fiends.conservative /ken'sgrvetrv/: She's con servative a n d doesn't

approve of young peopLe who go cLubbing.conventional lken'venJnel/: He's conventionol and hates new

ideas.emotionaI AmeuJenel/: She's emotionol and cies when she

watches ron antic films.ideatistic /ar,dre'hstrk/: He's idealistic - and his fdeas are not

practical.praud lpraud/: My dad is proud of my success.reserved lrt'zz:vdl: He's reserved and doesn't express his opinions.romantic /re'mrcntrk/: She's romantic and Loves getting flowers.serious lsreries/: He's a serious student and worl<s hard.sentimental /,sentr'mentl/: He's sentimentol and shows his gentle

and loving side easily.shy /lar/: She's shy and sometimes feels uncomfortabLe with other

peoDLe.

Module 2 - loughterH u m o u rburst out taughing /,b3rst aut ' lorf i4/ to [augh sudden[y and

toudLy:.I burst out laughing when I saw her new haircut.cackte /krekl/ rzerb to laugh loud[y and unpteasantty: She cackles

like a witch.chuck[e lt|'tkU vero to laugh quietl"y: I chuckled to myself when I

was reading that book.comedy lkomedi/ 1 noun a funny f i [m. ptay or TV programme: He

stsrs in comedies. 2 adjective amusing: I watched a goodcomedy programme Last night.

comic /komrkl odjective funny: -I Like reading comic noveLs.erack a joke /krrek e'd3euk/ verb to tetl a funny story: He's

always cracking jokes.crack (someone) up lkrrek'npl verb to make someone laugh a

lot: Herjokes crock me up.fa[[ about taughing /,fc:l ebaut'lotft4l verb to laugh a lot: We

fell about laughing when he dressed up as Superman.

Module words

Module | - identily

Pe rso n a lity adj ectives

positivea dventu ro u s /ed'ventJeras/: a n a d ventu ro u s trave lle r.ambitious /rem'brJes/: She's an ambitious girl and wiLI go far.careful /keafl/: He's careful and thinlcs before doing anything.cheerfuI ltlrcfll: She's cheerful - even on Monday mornings!co m m u ni cative lke'mjulnrke tw l A co m m u ni cotive p e r s o n g i ve s

opinions ond tall<s a lot.competitive /kem'petetrv/: He's competitive and does his best.considerate /kan'srdrat/: She's considerate - she thinl<s about

other peopLe's feeLi ngs.co-operative /keu'opretrv/: They're co-operative ond wiLLing to heLp.creative /kri'ertrv/: He's a creative student - fulL of ideas.decisive /dtsarsrv/: A decisive boss makes decisions quickLy.easy-going I,itzi'geurql:. She's easy-going and everybody likes her.hard-working /,hord 'wsrkr4/: He's hard-working and gives 100%.hel.pfut lhelpfl/: She's helpful and wilLing to lend a hand.imaginative /imedsrnetrv/: She's a very imaginative pupiL and

writes fa ntosti c stories.independent /,rndipendent/: Independent people prefer to make

their own decisions.inventive /rn'ventrv/: an inventive writenkind /karnd/: He's kind and friendLy to others.Liberal llrbrel/: Liberol peopLe respect other people's ideas and

behaviour, especiaLly new ideas.l.ikeable /larkebl/: She's likeable - peopLe find her friendly.Logicat /lod3rkll: He's logical and makes carefuL decisions.natura[ /nnt[ral.l: He's a naturol athlete and doesn't need to try

hard.outgoing /,aat'gaut4l:. She's outgoing and makes friends easiLy.potite /pe'lart/: She's polite and aLways says'Thanks'.practicaI lprektrkl/: He's practical and makes sensible decisions.realistic lne'lrstrk/: She's realistic - not trying the impossibLe.reasonabte /rt:zanabU: A reosonable parent is fair and sensible.relaxed /rflrekst/: She's reloxed and doesn't get angry easiLy.reliable lrt'larcbll: I Like reliable peopLe who do what they say

they're going to do.sensible /sensrbl/: She's sensible and never does anything silLy.sensitive /sensetrv/: A sensitive person shows sympathy towards

people who have difficuLties.sociab[e lseuJebl/: He's socioble and enjoys being with others.sympathetic /,srmpe'0etrk/: She was sympathetic when I told her

my dog had died - she listened and said she was sorrv.tolerant ltolerent/: Their behaviour was terrible but he was

tolerant and didn't compLain.unselfish /,tn'selfiJ/: He's unselfish and puts other people first. funny /f,tni/ adjective 1 amusing: That progranme is really funny

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2 strange: There's something funny about that man.giggte lgrgll verb to Laugh in a sil.ty way: The teacher wos angry

because some students couldn't stop giggling.hilarious /htleeries/ adjective very funny: The new Woody AILen

fiLm is hilarious.humorous /hju:meras/ odjective quite funny: My grandad often

tells humorous anecdotes about his chiLdhood.ironic /airontk/ adjective amusing because something happens

that is the opposite of what shoutd happen: I t was ironic thathe felL over whiLe telling me to be corefuL!

irony larereni/ noun the use of words that are the opposite ofwhat you realty mean: '0h, that was just biLIiant,' he said withirony after his team missed a penalty.

keep a straight face /kip e ,strert 'fetsl verb to hide youramusement: When he dropped his papers during the speech, IcouLdn't keep o straight face.

kid Ardl verb to make someone bel ieve somethinq that jsn't true:The dinner's burnt. No, I'm only kidding!

laugh your head off l lorf jc: 'hed of l verb to Laugh toudl"ymake someone laugh fmerk s,rmw,tn'la:f/ verb to do or say

something so that someone [aughs: Her jokes moke me lough.make/puLl a face lmerklpul a' fers/ verb to make your face look

odd or funny: He made faces at me and I laughed so much.ptay a practical joke /,pler a prrektrkl 'dseuk/ verb to do

something funny to make someone Look si l" l .y: We ployed opractical joke on him. We put a spider in his bed!

play around /,pler e'raund/ verb to do something funny: Don'tplay around during Lessons.

pul l someone's teg lpol slmwlnz ' legl verb to make someonebetieve something that isn't true: Have I reaLLy won tenpounds? 0r, are you pulling ny leg?

sarcastic /soikaestrk/ odjective saying the opposite of what youmean in order to be unkind: She's so sarcastic. She's alwavssaying how clever Sue is, but she doesn't mean it.

sense of humour fsens ev 'hju:me/ noun the abiLity to [augh ormake people laugh: He hos a good sense of humour.

take someone 's mind o f f someth ing to make someone s topth ink ing about someth ing unpteasant .

tet l (someone) a joke ftel s,rmw,rn e 'dSeuk/ yerb to tet l a funnystory: 5he tells excellent jokes.

witty /wrt i / adject ive expressing yourself in a clever and amusingway: My history teacher is always naking witty remarl<s.

Module 3 - stvleExpressing opinions

clothes/ decorationNegative: a cheap dress; tacky wollpaper; tasteless paintings; thecolours are over the topPosjtjve: a classy dress - very smart, very chic! o delicate patternI think that basebaLl hat's reaLly cool. She wore o very stylish,elegant suit, and an exquisite necklace.Modern: contemporory architecture; a trendy blouse;a fashionable jacket; up-to-dote furnitureNot modern: doted furniture; an old-fashioned hairstyLe;u n fas h i o n o b Ie ea rri n g s

plocesNegative: That ugly buiLding's on eyesore. His room's so messy.That area's unsightly because of alL the Litter.Positive: In the winter, my bedroom's really warm and cosy. It'snot very stylish but it's a very comfy sofa. Her home has a relaxedatmosphere. There are some nice views from my bedroom window.His house has very sophisticated ddcor.

people ( --+ ee nsoruelrTy ADJECTTVES. encr 151)Positive: I think he's really attractive. My cousin's very bright andalways does weLI in exams. I am quite independent and don't Likebeing toLd whatto do. I Like people who are laid-back and reLaxed.Negative: She's very scotty and absent-minded ond aLwaysforgets things. I'n totaLly useless at singing. She's so witty andmokes everybody laugh with her remarls.--+ COLLOCATION BANK. PAGE 160.

Personal oppeoroncemid-thirties f late twenties / early fortiesHe's a bit on the thin side. She always dresses casually.I don't Like dressing formally. He has just dyed his hair bLonde.Young people often have o pierced ear, Some pierce theireyebrows or nose and even their tongue, Iips or navel! Tattoosare hard to get off your skin.She hos got varnished nails,

Fashionbrand /brend/ noun a product made by one part icutar companycraze or fad l fa,d/ noun a very temporary fashion or interestdesigner tabet/dr,zarne' letbl l noun a [abel on ctothes showing a

fashionab[e manufacturerlogo /leugecr/ noun a drawing or symboI of a companychart / tJort/ noun a l ist of the most popular songs or CDstrend_/trend/ noun a styLe, colour, etc. that more and more people

prerer

Street artbitLboard /brlbcrd/ noun (also advert ising bi l lboard) a Large

picture in a street, etc. that advert ises somethingfireworks disptay /'farew:rks d1spler/ noun a show of bright

co[ours and noises at night using objects that burn or explodegraffiti /gre'fittil noun writing or drawings on watlslive statue l,lal 'stretluN noun someone who keeps stil"l" tjke a

statue for moneypavement artist /pervment ,ortrst/ noun an artjst who draws

pictures on the pavement in chatk for money

Module 4 - beoutyDescr ib ing beauty

peopleIn a generaI sense: on attroctive personi a good-looking personia handsome man or boy; a pretty woman or girl; she and he areabsolutely gorgeous.About a person who is extreme[y attractive: A very striking manor womon. That model is stunning.About the way a person dresses: an elegont man/womon

buildingsIt's a magnificent church. That bidge is realLy impressive.The cottage they bought is a Little dilapidated and needs quite alot of work.

placesf scenesThe sunset was breothtaking. The whole area is very scenic.Looking up ot alL the huge mountains I feeL rather smalL andinsignificant.We saw some picturesque countryside.

paintings/ sculptureI think Von Gogh's paintings have such powerful colours.'SunfLowers'is a masterpiece. He painted in striking colours.That statue is beautiful. It is a thing of great beauty.It's a brillisnt piece of work.

movementShe makes gynnastics seem effortless. He's an elegont andgraceful dancer.

Descr ib ing musicHer voice is beautiful.That song has a catchy tune - I can't stop singing it!The words are brtUiant.His new symphony is dramatic and lively.I think 'rock and rolL' is exciting music - and good to dance to.The fiLm music was haunting - I can't get it out of my mind.The song is quite boring, even tedious, and the words are veryrepetitive and monotonous, the same tune over and over again.That music is very sad and moving - it makes me want to cry!

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He writes a lot of romantic and sentimenta! Love sonqs with tear-jerking words - I think they're all very soppy, octuaLLl.The music in the frightening part of the fiLm was scory andsi niste r, q uite terrifui n g !I find this music very soothing and thoughtful.I don't Like it - it's not my (kind of) thing.

Module5-newfront iers

Biotogy/Medic i neantibiot ic/,rennbafotrk/ noun a drug [ ike penicit t in used to

destroy dangerous bacteriabacteria /brek'nerie/ plurol noun smatt Living things tnat cause

diseasesDNA molecute ldi: en 'er

,molekju: l / noun a molecule thatcontains genetic j nformation

gene /dsin/ noun a part of a ce[[ inherjted from the parents of al iving thing that controls devetopment

human genome /,hju:man 'd3i:neum/ noun the cotlect ion of qeneticinformation of a t iving thing

motecule lmolekjurl / noun a group of atoms

In format ion technologyartificiaI inteltigence /,orrafiJl rn'rehd3ens/ noun the abil"ity of

computers and robots to do th ings w i thout humansdata-processing /,derte 'preusesr4/ noun the use of computers to

organise and store informationmicrochip /markreu,tJrp/ noun a very smat[ electric circuit made of

si lico nontine fon' larnl adjective on the Internetsearch engine ls:rtJ endgrn/ noun a programme that you use to

look for part icular information on the Internet

Physicsatom

leeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeetem/ noun the smatlest piece of a substance that can

ex' ist on i ts ownelectric current /r,lektrrk 'krrant/ noun a fLow of electricityequation / ikwersen/ noun a mathematicaI statement that shows

two equaI quanti t iesgravity lgrreveril noun the force that attracts things to the

grou ndmass /mres/ noun the amount of physicat materiaI in somethingmatter /me,tal noun physicaI materjaIpart icte /po:trkU noun a very sma[[ piece or the part of an atom,

e.g. an electron or neutronradioactivity /,rerdieurek'trvati/ noun the energy produced by some

etements , e .g . rad ium and po ton ium

Astro n o my/S pace trave Iblack hote /blrek'heul/ noun a dark part of outer space that

attracts l ight and energydeep space ldi lp 'spers/ noun space outside our own solar systemgataxy /greleksif noun a huge coltect ion of starslight year llatt jrcl noun how fur l"ight travels jn space in one yearmanned mission lmrend

'mrlnl noun a space journey in whichhumans travel

meteorite lmittiarafil noun a piece of rock from outer space that|.ands on the earth

orbit /orbrt/ yerb to move round a planet or a starsotar system /secrle ,srstem/ noun the sun with the planets. etc.

that move round i tspace probe /spers praub/ noun a space ship without humans

Science (generat )data /derte/ noun information or factsfietd /firld/ noun an area of studyprincipte lprrnspel/ noun a generaL ru[e that explains a natural

force or how something worksprocedure /pre'si :d3e/ noun a method for doing somethingprocess /preuses/ r,oun a sequence of act jons to get a resuttresearch /ris:[J/ noun the scientjfic study of a subjectstudy /st,rdi/ noun a ptece of research

texicon

Module6-softmachineParts of the bodyankte /rerlkl / noun the part of your body where your l"eg joins

your footbrain /brern/ noun the organ in your head that controts your

thoughts, feetings and movementsheart /hort/ noun the organ in your chest that sends blood round

your Doclykidney lkrdni/ noun one of a pair of organs in your body that

takes away waste materials from your bloodl iver / l rve/ noun lhe large organ that cteans your bloodf.ung /,rr l / noun one of a pair of organs in your chest that you

use to breathemuscle lmtsl/ noun a part of your body that joins your Dones

and helps you to moveneuron lnjuemn/ noun a nerve ce[[ that sends messaqes about

movement or feetingorgan /crgen/ noun one of the parts in your body with a

part icu[ar function, e.g. heart. [ ivernb /rb/ noun one of twelve pairs of bones round vour chestskin /skrn/ noun the outer covering of your bodyspine /sparn/ noun lhe row of bones down the Centre of vour

b a c kstomach /st,rmek/ noun the organ in your body that digests your

foodtissue /trJu:/ noun one of the groups of cel. ts that form plants or

an ima[s , e .g . muscu lar . nervouswrist /rrst/ noun lhe part of your body where your arm joins your

nan0

Medic inechemotherapy /,kirmeu'0erepil noun the form of treatment of

diseases that uses chemicaI substancesclone /kleun/ 7 noun a group of cetls or a l iving thing produced

using one ancestor 2 verb to make a clonecure /kjue/ noun a medicjne or treatment that makes vou better

when you are i t [gene therapy /d3irn ,0erepi/ noun medicaI treatment using genes

from celtsgenetic engineering /dsr,netrk ,end3r'nreri4/ noun the detiberate

changing of the form of a t iving thing ui ing i ts genesimmune / imjun/ adjective not able to be harmed bv a disease or

i nfectio ninfusion /rn'fjur3n/ noun a slow injection of a substance to treat

a d isease or in fec t ionmedication /,medr'ker[n/ noun any drug used to treat someone

who is i l . ttherapy l9erapil noun a particu[ar way of treating i[nessestreatment / tr i : tment/ noun a method or medicine used to cure an

i [ [nessvaccine lvreksi ln/ noun a substance used to protect peopte from

a part icu[ar disease

I t tness/DiseaseAids /etdzl noun (abbreviation of Acquired Immune Deficiencv

Syndrome) a very serious djsease that destrovs vour defenc6aga ins t in fec t jon

blotches lbktt[tzl pLural noun irregutar red or brown shapes onyour sk in caused by a d isease or in fec t jon

bronchit is /bm4'kartrs/ noun an i t lness of the l"ungs causingsevere cough ing

cancer lkrense/ noun a djsease in whjch celts grow too fast.producing a growth that can cause death

complications /komph'kerJanzl pLurol noun new medjcaI problemsthat happen dur ing another i l tness

contract /kan'trrekt/ rzerb to begin to suffer from an il[nessdiagnose 1darugnauzl verb to find out what iltness a person hasdiarrhoea Id,arc'rrcl noun a medicil condition that makes vou qo

to the toilet too oftendisorder /drs'c:de/ noun a disease or i l lnessepidemic /,epr'demrk/ noun a large number of cases of an

infectious disease occurring at the same t jmeheart d'isease I'ho,,t dr,zitzl noun a disease of the heart

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immune system / imjurn, srstem/ noun the system in your bloodthat f ights diseases

infect /rn'fekt/ verb to give someone a diseaseinfluenza I,tnflulenz/ noun (also ftu) an j[[ness that causes a

very bad cotd and a very high temperaturemataria lma'leerial roun a serious tropicaI disease caused by the

bite of a mosouitomeasles lmivelzl noun an i l tness that gives you a high

temperature and smal[ red spots on your skinoutbreak /eutbrerk/ noun when something bad such as a serious

disease or a war starts: an outbreok of malariapneumonia /njuimeunia/ noun a serious disease of the [ungs

causing great dif f icutty in breathingpotio /peul ieu/ noun a serious disease of the nerves in the spine

that can cause you to lose the abiLity to move your musclestetanus l tetnes/ noun a serious disease caused by an infect ion in

a cut that makes musctes, especiatty in thejaw, go st i f ftuberculosis / t ju,bsrkju' leussf noun (atso TB) a serious infect ious

disease that attacks the [unqs

Module 7 - iourneysDescribing ptaces

breathtaking lbre0terkrg/ odjective very exciting and beautifulbustting lbrslr4/ adjective very busy and with many peoplecultural metting pot lkrltJrel

'meltr4 pot/ noun a place with anexciting mixture of cultures

dramatic /dre,metrk/ adjective very beautifuI or unusuat:dromatic scenery.

elegant lelryantl odjective gracefuI and beautjfulexotic /rg,zotrk/ odjective from another part of the worl.d: exotic

bi rds.historic /hr,storrk/ adjective important in history: histoic buildings.impressive /rm'presrv/ odjective that makes you feel admirationftora and fauna /,flc:re en 'fcrne/ plural noun p[ants and anima[sLivety /larvli/ adjective busy and exciting: an exciting place.nighttife lnart latfl noun entertainment at night: an exotic night

life.romantic /reu'mrentrk/ adjective that makes you think of [ove: a

romantic atmosphere.snow-capped /sneu krept/ odjective covered with snow: snow-

capped mountains.spectacu[ar /spektrekjule/ very impressive and beauti fu[:

spectacular scenery.teeming /ti:mr4/ (usual.ty teeming with) odjective crowded: Ihe

river was teeming with salmon.unspoi[t /.rnspcrlt/ adjective in its naturaI statei unspoilt

countryside.wide open /ward eupen/ adjective very [arge wjth no buiLdings:

wide open spaces.world-ctass /,w:rld 'klors/ adjective of the highest qua[ity:

world-class art.

Describing journeysapprehensive /reprlhensrv/ odjective worried about what mightna ppenarduous /ordjures/ odjective very difficutt and tiringcourageous lka'rerd3as/ adjective very bravedaunted ldc:ntrdl odjective be worrjed or afraiddaunting /dcnn4/ adjective that makes you feel afraid or worriedexcit ing /rk'sortg/ adjective that makes you fee[ excited andi nterestedexhausted lrg'zctsrtgl odjective that makes you feel very very tired

Travetcruise kru;zl: They went on a cruise round the Mediterranean.excursion /rkskgrJn/: While I was on holiday on the Spanish

coast, we went on on excursion to Gronado.ftight /flart/: The flight home was terrible - we had to wait four

hours in the airport.hitchhiking /hrtfharkr4/: I'd never go hitchhiking because I'd

worry about getting lifts in strangers' cars.journey fd3znil:, The journey took five hours by train.

outing /'autrrl/: The last school outing I went on was to a wildlifepark.

package tour /prekrd:, ttnl: She went on a pockoge tour with agroup of other peopLe.

tour guide ltue gafil: Everything during the tip was organised byour tour guide.

trave[ /trrevl/: Many people say that travel broadens the mind.trip ltnp/: I went on a trip to Pais over the weekend.voyage lvct-rd'l: She got back fron a voyage around the world in

her yacht.

Baggage/luggagehotdal.l. /heuldcrl/ noun a large bag for carrying clothesovernight bag /,euvenart 'br.gl noun a sma[[ bag for ctothesrucksack lr,rksrek/ backpack /brekprek/ pack /prek/ noun a bag

used for carrying things on your backsaddte bag lsa'dlbre.gl noun a bag you put on a bicycte or horsesteeping bag /sl irpr4 bregl noun a bag for sleeping in, especialty

when campingspare /spee/ adjective extra: I've packed a spare pair of shoes in

case these get dirty.washbag /wojbreg/ noun a smat[ bag for soap, toothbrush,

toothpaste, etc. when you travel

Module8-globol issuesEnvironmentaI issues

acid rain / ,esrd 'rern/ noun rain that contains acid from industr iaIwaste

deforestation /dir,fore'sterjn/ noun the act of cutting down [argeareas of forest

destruction of habitats /dr,str.r.kJn ev 'hrebrtrets/ noun thedestruction of where wil.dl"ife lives as a resutt of deforestation

drought /drautl noun a [ong period of dry weather so that thereisn ' t enough water

gtobaI warming /gleubl 'wcrmr4/ noun the raising of the

temperature of the earth's atmosphere caused by the burning offossiI fue[s and increased amount of gases such ascarbon dioxide

greenhouse effect /gri:nhaus r,fekt/ noun the warming of theearth's atmosohere --+ cL0BAL WARMING

ozone layer leuzeun ,lercf noun a layer of the chemicaI ozone inthe earth's atmosphere that btocks harmfuI rays from the sun

pollution /pe'lurJn/ noun the damage done to air, water or soiI bythe addit ion of harmfuI chemicats

recycling /riisarklrl/ noun the process of treating paper. plasticand meta[s so that they can be used again

verge lvstds/ noun a position near the end of something:. Somespecies of aninals are on the verge of extinction and there arevery few left alive.

Disastersava[anche /revalo:n| noun a large amount of snow, rocks or soiI

that fuLts down a mountaincyclone /sarkleun/ noun a viotent tropicaI wind that moves in

circles round a calm areaearthquake /gr0kwerk/ noun a sudden, violent shaking of the

earth's surfaceftood /fl.td/ noun a great overftow of water onto a place that is

usualty dryforest fire lforrst

'fare/ noun the burning of a forest, sometimesaccidentaI in t imes of extreme heat

hurricane /h,rnken/ noun a storm with a very strong and fust wjndtandsl ide / lrendslard/ noan a sudden large fal l of rocks or soi l

down a hit tsidevotcanic eruption /vol,kenrk ir,rpJn/ noun the sjtuation when

steam or lava escapes from a volcanowindstorm lwrndstcrm/ noun a vety viotent wjnd --t cYcLoNE,

H URRICANE

Economic and soc ia l issuesdiscrimination /dr,skrrminer[nl noun the treatment of someone or

group of peopte differentty from others: There is racialdiscriminotion in some societies.

Page 156: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

exploitat ion /,eksplciterJn/ noun a sjtuation in which certainpeople are treated unfairty and have fewer advantages: fheexploitotion of women.

famine l fae.mrnl noun a serious sjtuation when there is verv l i t t l"efood

GNP /d3ir en'piJ noun (abbreviat ion of gross nationaI product)the to taL amount o f money earned by a count ry

ma,tnutrition /,mre1nju'trrJn/ noun bad heal"th resul.tjng from [ack offood or eating the wrong sorts of food

overpopulat ion leuvapopju' le{nl noun the situation . in whjchthere are too many peopte l" iving in a ptace

per capita /pa'kreptal = per person: The average income percapita is $25,000 per year.

poverty lpovetil noun the state of being very poorshanty town l jrenti taunf noun a part of a town with homes made

of waste materiats where very poor peopLe [ iveThird Wortd /,0srd 'wsrld/ noun the devel"oping countries

Module 9 - sorietvSocia l problems

begging /begql noun the act of asking peopLe to give you moneyDecause you are very poor

discrimination /dr,skrrmine{nl noun the unfajr treatment of. particu[ar groups of society: discimination ogoinst immigrants.

domestic viotence /de,mestrk varelens/ noun vjotence withjn thehome main [y aga ins t women and ch i ld ren

drug abuse ldr,rg e,bjurs/ noun the use of drugs for pteasure andnot for medicaI reasons

homeless people lheumhs 'pi:pl/ noun peopte who do not havesomewhere to l ive

ineguati ty / ,rnrkwolat i / noun an unfu. ir sj tuation in which somepeopte have more opportunit jes than others

poverty lpovatil noun the situatjon of people who are extremetypo0r

racism /rersrzmf noun discriminatjon against people because ofthe i r co [our o r race

unemployment / , ,rnrm'plcrmentf noun the situation of peop[e whodo no t have a job

vandalism lva.ndel:zeml nounthe detiberate destructjon ofpropeny

viotent cr ime f varelent 'krarm/ noun crime that invotves viotence,e.g. mugging or rape. --+ CRrME below

5tatisticsdecline /dlklarn/ yerb to decrease: The amount of people working

in industry has declined.on the decrease /on de ,dirkrirs/ to be decreasj nq: Crime is on the

decrease.double /dnbl/ verb to increase by 100%: The number of students in

fuLl-time further education has doubled.tall /fttU yerb to decrease: The share of wealth of the bottom 20%

of society has fallen.fluctuate /fl,rktJuert/ verb to increase and decrease: The number of

people in work has fluctuated recentLyon the increase /on di ' rnkri :s/ verb to be increasing: The Life

expectancy of women is on the increase.plunge lplnnful verb to decrease very fast: The amount of airLines

moking a profit hos plunged recently.rise /rarzl verb to jncrease: The income of British familes has risen.rocket /rokrt/ verb to increase very fast: The amount of crime has

rocketed recently.

Crimebreak the law /,brerk 6e ' lc,, l verb to do something i t l .egatburglary /b:rgleri / noun the crime of breaking into someone.s

house and s tea l ing th ingscommit a crime /ke,mtt e 'krarm/ verb lo do something that is

iL tega tdrug dealing /dr,rg ,dirL4/ noun the crime of buying and setl ing

iL tegat d rugsfraud frc:d/ noun the crime of gett ing money i [ [egaLLymugging /m,r.gr4/ noun the crime of demanding money with

viotence or threats

Lexu0k

murder /medel noun the detiberate kj l . l . inq of someoneoffence /a' fens/ noun an i t l"egat act ionrape lretpl noun a crime of forcing someone to have sexrobbery lroberi/ noun the crime of steating things from a bank or

other placeshopLift ing lJop,lr f tq/ noun the crime of steating something from

a s n o Dstea[ /st ir l / verb to take something that belongs to someone etsetheft l$eftl noun the crime of stealinqthief /0i:V noun someone who steats

PunishmentcapitaI punishment lkeprrl 'p,rnrJmenr/ noun the kil.ting of

someone by the state when they are found gui l . ty of a seriouscri me

death penalty /deO ,penlt i / noun the punishment by kit t ingsomeo ne

fine /farnl noun an amount of money paid as a punishmentprison sentence lprvn sentens/ noun the t jme that someone has

to spend in p r ison as a pun ishment

Module l0 - conflictReasons for conft ict

ambition la,m'l;l.lnl noun the desire to get power or successf ear l frcl noun the strong unpleasant feel. ing you have when you

are in dangergreed /grird/ noun the desjre to have more monev or foodhatred lhertrrd/ noun a very strong feel ing of di; t ikeintolerance An'tolerens/ noun lhe refusaI to accept ideas and

behaviour that is dif ferent from vour ownjealousy ldselesi/ noun the angry ind unhappy feel ing you have

because someone has someth ing tha t you wantrevenge lrr 'vend3l noun something you do to punish someone

who has harmed you

Types of conft ictargument /olgjument/ noun a disagreement between two peopte:

They have msny orguments about politics.battte /betl / noun a f ight between two groups or armiesciviI war / ,srvl 'wct/ noun a wat between two groups jn the same

co u ntrycl.ash /klreJ/ noun a f ight between opposing groups, sma[[er than

a battle: There were vioLent clashes between opposing groups.feud ffju:d/ noun a quarrel. between two people or groupifor a

Long time: There has been o feud between those famiLies foryears.

fight /fartl noun an attempt by two or more peopte to hurt eachother: There was a fight between two boys outside the school.

friction /frlflr^[nl noun strong unfriendliness and disagreementbetween two peopLe or groups: There wos friction at firstbetween the workers and the new boss.

quarrel /kworel/ noun an angry argument: They hod a quarrelabout money.

row /raul noun an angry, noisy argument: We couLd hear theneighbours having a row Lost night.

war lwctl noun a period of armed f ighting between countr jes: IheSecond World Wor Losted six veors.

warfare I'wcfeel noun viotent activity: Tension on the streets hosIed to gang warfare.

Warconcentration camp /,konsan'trerJn kremp/ noun a prison camp

for [arge numbers of peopteinvade [n'verd/ verb to atLack and enter another country with an

armyno-man's-land lnau mnnz ,la,nd,l noun the area between two

opposing armies that neither sjde controtstrench /trent/ noun a | ,ong narrow hote in the ground for sotdiers

to shelter intruce /truls/ noun an agreement between enemjes to stop

fighting for a short period of t imewithdrawa[ /wrd'drcrel/ noun the act of moving away troops from

an area of f ighting

Page 157: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

1 Prefixes

Prefixes change the meaning of a word because each prefixhas a meaning. They do not change the word to a dif ferentpart of speech. Some words use dif ferent pref ixes for dif ferentparts of speech: disbeLief (noun); unbeLievabLe (odjective).Prefixes to express'not 'are very common: dis- dishonest,in- incorrect, non- non-violent, un- unlucky.

Another common use is to form words wjth the opposite meaningor action: anti- anti-clinax, dis- disconnect, in- invisibLeNote: For words beginning with I , m (or p) and r, in- changesto il- iLLegaL, im- immobile, impossible, ir- irregular, sn- undress

MEANING PREFIX EXAM PLESafterwa rds after- afte rtaste: afterthouq htaqai nst an t i - a nti -wa r; a nti -ca pito Li stonnosite anti- a n ti - c Lo c kwi s e ; a n ti - q Lo b a Ii s ati o n ; a n ti s o ci a L

bv voursetf/ i tse[f auto- a uto bi oq rap hv; a uto bi o q ra p hi ca L; a uto m ati c

two or twice bi- bicvcLe; biLinqual; binonthLv (twice a month)

toqether co- co-operatei co-authorre0uce de- deqenerate; defuse; devalueremove de- d ecod e; d eforestati on ; d ereq u latenor di s- disaqree; disbeLief; dishonest; disLoyaL: dissimilar; disappear; disqualifu

o pposite dis- di sa ppea r; di sco n n ect; di sq u a Iifuto a lower level down- downqrade; downhilL; downstai rs; downstream

into this state e n - enabLes: enich : encircle; encouroqeformer ex- ex- h u s b a n d; ex-p resi de nti ex-stu de n t

before fore- forecast: foreseein front fore- foreqround; forenamenot i t - ; im -

i n -i r -

i LLe g a L; i ili te rate; i LIo gi ca l; i m m o ra li i m p ati e n t; i m p o ssi b IeinabiLity; inconvenient; incorrect; inefficient; insensitive; intoLeranti invisibLei rre Leva nt: i rreq u La r: i rrespo n si b le

between i nter- i nte rn ati o n a Ii i ntera ctbad[v o r wronq[v ma[ - m a Lfu n cti o n ; m a In o u i sed ; m a lp ra cti cenuqe meqa- meqaich; meqastar

extremem[v smat[ mlcro- microchip; microscopei microscopic

sma[ [ o r shor t mln l - minibus; miniskirt

bad/badtv or wronq/wronqtv mrs- misbehave: mispLace; misunderstandt mismanaqement

one or a tone mono- m onoLi na ual: m onotonousmanv mul t i - m u lti n ati o n a L; m u Lti -p u rp ose: m u Lti - ra ci a Lnot non- n o n -s m o ke n n o n -vi o Ie nt; n o n -p roft t- m o ki n q

more /more than out- outqrow; outnumberoutside out- outdoorsi outskirtstoo much or too [onq over- over-estimate; overqrown; overpopuLation; oversleep; overwork

above/on top over- overcoati overhead; overlapa cross over- overlond; overseasafter DOSt- po stq ra d u ate; p ost-wa r; postscn pt

before ore- p re-h i sto ri c; p re-sch oo l; p re-wa r

in fuvour of Dro- pro-European; pro-wor

not reat Dseudo- pse udo-i nteLLectua I; pseu d o nvm

aoa tn re- re b ui Ld ; re-exa mi n ei re- u nite; rewi n din another wav re- rep Ia ce; rea rrq n q e; rep lo nt

ha tf seml - se mi -ci rcLet se m i -fi n o Lpantv semt- semi-actf vebe[ow su b- sub mari n e; su bsta ndard; su bwavless or less impor tan t su b- su b n orm a l; s u b-co m mittee; s u b p lot

larqe, qreat or powerfuL suoer- su p erm o rket: s u persta ri su p erp ower

a cross trans- tra n s -c o n ti n e n ta L: tra n s- AtLa n ti c ; tra n s p o rt

showinq chanqe trans- tran sform ; tra nslation

th ree tri- trianqLe: tiLoqvno I un- uncomfortabLe; uncommoni uncrowdedi unfriendLy; unhelpful; uninteresting; unlikeLy;

unLuckv; unreliabLe; unspoilt; unstabLe; unusuaL

oppos i te ac t ion un- undoi undress; unLock; unpack; unzip; unwrap

not enouqh under- undercooked: undernourished; underpaid

u nderneath under - u n d erclothes; u n de rLi n e; u n derpass

too Lit t [e/too smaLL under - u n de r-esti m ate; u n de rsi zed

to a higher [eve[ up- upgrade; upLift; upstairs

Remember: You can add a prefix as we[[ as a suffix: disappearonce; ilLegally; misunderstanding

Page 158: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

/exlctn

2 Suffixes

Most suffixes change a word to a different part of speech.When we add a suff ix, we sometimes change the speL{. ing of theoriginaI word (siLent > siLence; glamour > glamorousl.The stress or pronunciat ion often changes (communicate >co m m u n i ca ti o n ; p ro d qc e /pre,djus/ > p ro d u cti o n / pra' d,,,k[n/ ).

The tabl"e betow shows some key words from 1pportunit ies;check word stress and pronunciat ion in a good dict ionary.-) page 158 for suff ixes that change words to part icutai partso f speech.

NouN I vrne ADJECTIVE ADVERBa mbi t ion ambi t ious a m bitioustvattract ion I attract attra cti ve attra cti ve lVbea uty bea uti fu I bea uti fu [ lvbreadth I broaden broad broadlvca re ca re carefu[. careless carefu[[y, caretesstvch a t chat chattv hatt i Lvch i td ch i ld ish , ch i td t i ke l - .h r ' td i rh lvcom mu nicatio n communica te communica t ive lcommunica t ive tvco m peti t io n com pete compet i t i ve l compet i t i ve tvconsideration co nsider co nsiderate co nsideratelvcreation, creativi tv create creative creative [Vcri t ic, cr i t ic ism crit icise c r i t ica I cr i t ica Itvda nqer da ngerous da nqeroustVdec is ion decide decisive decisive [vdepth deepe n deep deeptydifference differ dif ferent dif ferentlvdi saster disa stro u s disastrouslveteq a n ce etegant e [ega n t lyen joVm e n t en l 0v enjoya ble eniova b lvfa me fa mous fa mouslvfashion fashio na ble fash ionabtvqramour q tamor ise gtamorous q[amorous tvqrace g ra cefu I qra cefu Itvha pp i ness h a p p y ha pp i l vhe Ip netp !elpfut, helptess hel.pf u 1ty, heIptesslvheiq ht heiq hte n h igh h iq h l ynope nope hopefu I hopefu ttyi ma q i na t ion maqrne i ma q inative i native Iimpor tance rmpor tan t rta ntlI m pressr on r m Dress lmpresslve m pressive [yi nterest nte rest i nteresting, i nterested i n te res t inohr in fe rps fod li ntroduction i ntroduce i ntroductorvtength Lenothe n lonq, [enqthv tengthi 1V[ogic [ogica I toqica 1lymooo moody mood i [vmysrery mvsterious m jsterioustVnat ion nationa[. nationa[ist ic natio na [[y, nationa [ ist ical lvnatu re natu ra I natu ra Ityobsess ion oDSess obsessive obsessivetyperfect ion, perfect ionist Dertect perfect perfect[ypteasant, pleasure p Lease pteasing p leasi nqlvpol i teness po [ i te po Utelvpopu[ari ty poputar popu[ar tvpoverty poor poo r lyp ra ctice p ra cti se p ra ctica I p ra ctica lly

lr ide proud ;roudlyoroduction pro0uce productive productivetyra rity rare rarelVrea [i tv rea Lize rea t rea [tVrelia bi titv re Ly retia ble re lia b [ysatisfact ion sati sfv satisfactory, satisf i ed, satisfui nq satisfactoritv, satisfvi nolvse n5e sensi b le se nsi b lvs i Lence si[ent si [entlvspectac[e, spectator spectacutar s pecta cu Ia rtysusprcr o n suspect susprcr ous suspiciouslvsym pathy svm pathise sym pathetic svm pathetica l tvtho ug h t t h i n k thoug htfu I thouq htfu [ lvth reat th reate n th reatened, th reateninq th reateni ngtytoLerance to Lerate toterant to [era ntlvwidth widen wide widety

Page 159: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Forming nouns from verbs-ance (accept > acceptance); -ence (exist > existence)-tion (produce > production); -sion (divert > diversion)-ation (inspire > inspiration); -ication (qualifu > quatificotion)-isation (privatise > pivatisation); -ition (add > addition)-er (teach > teacher); -or (oct > actor); -r (bake > baker);-ing (paint > painting); -ment (judge > judgenent)-ist (type > typist); -ure (pLease > pleasure)-y (discover > discovery)

Forming nouns from adjectives-abitity (suitable > suitability)-i bi tity (res po n si b Ie > res p o n si bi lity)-ance ( inpoftant> importonce); -ence (si lent> si lence)-ness (i// > iLLness); -iness (happy > happiness)-ity (humon > hunanity)-tylieth (six > sirty/sixtieth)-ylabte (misery > miserable)

Forming nouns from nouns-ian (music > nusician)-ist (science > scientist)

Forming adjectives/adverbs from nouns-alrz-atty (magic > magicalf magically), -ial/-iatly (industry >i nd ustrtaI/ i ndustria lly)-ate/-ate ty (affe cti o n > affe cti o n a te f affe cti o n ote ly)-i c/-i ca l.ty (a rti st > a rti sti c / a rti sti co lly), -i cat/ -i calty (eco n o n y> econ omi ca lf eco n o nica IIy)-futr-futty (peace > peaceful/ peacefully), -ifutz-ifutty (beauty> bea utifu l/ b ea utif u lly)-i n g/-i n g l"y (i n te re st > i nte re sti n g f i n te re sti n g ly)-ised (computer > computerised)-i ve/-i ve f.y (exp e n s e > exp e n si ve f exp e n si ve ly), -itive/-itive ty(sense > sensitive f sensitively)-Less/-tessty (h arm > h a rmless f h a rn lessly)-ous/-ou sty (g La m o u r > g La m o ro usf g La m o ro usly), -io us/iousty(i n d ustry > i n d ustrio usf i n d us ctriously)-th/-ieth (sixty > sirth / sixtieth),- u ta r/- u [a rty (s p e cta c Le > s p e cta cu Ia r f s p e cta ctu la r ly)

Forming adjectives and adverbs from verbs-a bte/-a b Ly (fa shi o n > fas hi o na b le /fos hi o no b ly) ; -i bte/-i b ty(fLex > fLexi b le/fLexi b ly)-ed (worry > worried)-ingl-ingty (a n noy > an n oyi ng/ an n oyingly)-i ve/-ivety (attract > attracti ve f attra cti vely)

Forming verbs from adjectives-ate (active > activote)-en (sweet > sweeten)-ity (simple > sinplify)-i sef -ize (Leg a L > Ieg a Li se/ Leg a Lize)

UnusuaI suf f ixesIong (adj.) > Length (noun) > Iengthy (adj.) t lengthen (verb)belief (noun) beLieve (verb) > believable (adj.)

Suffixes with meanings-abLe (measure > meosuroble)-dom (star > stardom)-hold (house > household)-hood (mother > motherhood)-ish/-ishly (chi Id > chi Ldish / chi Ldish ly)-tess/-lessty (e n d > e n dless/ e n dlessly)-tike (lfe > Lifelike)-ship (friend > fiendship)

Remember: You can add a suffix as we[[ as a prefix:disag reem e nt; i IIeg a LIy; u nacce ptable.Some words use different prefixes for different parts of speech:beLieve (verb) > disbeLief (noun) > unbeLievobLe (adj.) tunbelievable (adv.)

3 Confusing wordschitdish immature: That was a childish thing to say.chitdtike Like a chiLd: He has an attractive, childlike innocence.

different not the same: Ihese shifts are different sizes.indifferent 1 not caring about something: He's indifferent to

my problems.2 not noticing something: There was a Loud partynext door, but I was indifferent to the noise.

dissatisf ied not happy wjth the quati ty of something: f wasdissatisfied with my exam resuLt.

unsatisf ied not happy with the quanti ty of something: He ate abig meaL but was still unsatisfied.

hetpfut wil.l.ing to hetp or be usefu[: That's a helpful suggestion.helpless unable to do things for yoursetf: He is totally helpless

in difficult situations.

hopeful feeting optimistic: f'm hopeful we can find a solution.hopetess t having no signs of hope: This is a hopeless situation.

2 very bad at something: She's hopeless at pLaying chess.

sensetess i t togical. , or wjth no reason or purpose: I t 's senselessto try and change things now.

sensible reasonabte and practicat: She's a very sensible girL andyou con rely on her.

sensitive being easity hurt or offended: He's very sensitive tocriticism about his work.

Page 160: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

4 Compounds

Compounds are two or more words together tha t ac t as a s ing leword. They usua[[y represent an action or descript jon in a shortform ( 'a game played using a computer' becomes a compurcrgame; someone wjth fajr hair js descrjbed asfoir_haired).Compounds can be writ ten as one word (hairstyLe), two wordsioined by a hyphen (oLd-fashioned) or two separate words (rainforest). There are no rules for this.

Compound adjectivesWe can form compound adjectives by combining:1 an adjective or noun with a word ending in - ing or -ed: good_looking, oLd-fashioned 2 a past participte or adverb with apreposition:/ed-up, grown-up 3 a noun with an adjective: due_free

absent-minded forgetfu.airt ight not at lowing air to pass in or outantisociaI showing no concern for other peopl.ebrand-new new and unuseoclass-conscious aware of the sociaI ctass that people come fromfamily-orientated betieving the fumity is very importantfair-sized fairl.y bigfar-reaching having a great inf luencefirsthand learnt directty and not from other peoplefu[[-t ime working the usuaI hours in a iob,-r IART-TrMEgood- took ing handsome or p re t tygrown-up [ ike an adutt behavesground-breaking making important discoverjes or usinq

comptetely new methodshigh-powered very powerfulhomesick missing home very muchtaw-abiding who never does anything i l" l"egaLli fe-size of the same size as a reaI person or thinglong-standing exist ing for a [ong t imelong-term for a long period into the future[ong-term (effects)mass-produced made in [arge quanti t ies in a factorymou ld b reak ing = ground-break ingold-fashioned no longer frshionabl"e or poputarone-year-otd being one year oldopen-a i r ou tdoorpart-t ime working on[y part of the usuaI hours --+ FULL-TIMEperformance-en hancin g that i m proves p hysica L performa nceready-made cooked and ready for eatingreal-t ime describes a virtuaI real i ty game that takes as rong as

the rea I gamerecord-breaking better than the exist inq recordrun-down in bad cond i t ionsecond-hand not new and alreadv usedshort- l ived Lasting onl.y a short t imet ime-consuming us ing up a lo t o f t imeuttra-smart very cleveruser-fr iendly easy to use and understandwett-behaved behaving in an acceptabte and poti te waywe[[-known famouswe[-off richworld-class among the best in the worldworld-famous famous in a[[ parts of the wortdworn-out very t ired or in a poor condit ion

Compound nounsIn compound nouns, the f irst part usualty describes the type ofthe second par t . We can fo rm compound nouns by combin ing :1 two nouns: sungLasses 2 an adjective and a noun: popstar3 a verb and a preposit ion or adverb: breakthrouqh 4 a noun anda word ending with -ing: woter-skiing

blood pressure the force with which your btood moves throuqhyour body

bod-y-piercing the act of putt ing jewel.tery into the skin in a partof your body

carbon emissions gases produced as a waste product of burningfuets such as coaI or oiI

Lexictn

civiI war a war between two groups in the same countrvcommon sense good sense and judgementconsumer society a modern society in which advert isinq

encourages peopte to buy th ingsdesigner tabeL a [abet on ctothes showing a fashionable

ma nufucturereyesore someth' ing ugty (often a buitding)fossiI fueI coaI or oi lgang warfare f ighting between groups of peop[egene therapy medjcaI treatment using genes from ce[[sgenetic code the arrangement of genes that makes a Living

thing Like i ts parentsgenetic engineering the del iberate changing of the form of a

t iving thing using i ts geneshuman be ing a man, woman or ch i tdhydro-etectr ic power etectr ici ty produced by moving waterice skating moving on ice for fun or sport using special" bootsim-mune system the system in your bl.ood that f ights diseasesinformation techno[ogy technology using computersj igsaw puzzte a picture cut into pieces that you try to f i t togetherjob security the condjt ion of feeLing safe in a joLjunk food bad quati ty ready-made foodlaptop a sma[[, portabl.e computerlegal act ion the use of the [aw to punish someone for doinq

something i l . tegal.t i fet ime the usuat period of t ime of someone's l i felong-term that last jnto the futurel ivin.g-room a ptace in a house for retax.ing, watching TV, etc.mach ine gun a gun tha t shoots many bu t te tsneuroscientist a scientist who is an expert in the body.s nervous

sysremnightt i fe entertainment at nightno-man's land the area between two opposing armjes that

neither side controtsorgan donor someone who gives a body organ for medicaI use.

especia[[y after they have djedpackage tour a hol iday with everything organised for youpassive smoking breathing in smoke from other people,s

cigarettesrain forest a hot and wet forest in a tropicaI regionroad rage violent behaviour by drivers towards other driversroom service the servjce in a hotel of providing food and drinks

in your roomscience-f ict ion describes stories about future scienti f ic and

technicaI devetopments and their effects on l i fesetf-defence the skj l .L of defend.ing yoursetf when attackedsightseeing visi t ing ptaces of interest as a touriststow motion movement on television that is much stower than

in real l i feso-catled having the descript ion or name that you think is wrongsoftware computer progra mssotar power etectr ici ty produced by heat and Light from the sunsolar system the sun with the ptanets. etc. that move round j tstepping stone an act or event that hetps you achieve

something etsetetephone directory a book that contajns the tetephone

numbers of at l" the people in a part icutar areatest tube a thin gtass bott le used in scjentj f ic experimentstrading centre a ptace that imports and exports goodswake-up ca l l a phone ca [ [ in a ho teL to wake you upwashbag a smat[ bag for soap, toothpaste, etc. when you travelwork ing week the hours you work in a weekzero-gravity the state or si tuation of having no gravity

Compound verbsWe can fo rm compound verbs by combin ing :1 a preposit ion or adverb and a verb: overtake 2 a noun and averb: mass-produce 3 an adjective and a verb: double-check

bypass to avoid something: Can we bypass this part of the tour?doubte-check to examine something again to make sure i t is

correct: I double-checked that I had turned the gas off.mass-produce to make [arge quanti t ies of producti in a factorv

Page 161: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Compounds using preposi t ions or adverbs

odjectivesfol tow-up something that fol lows something e[se: Ihe group's

Jollow-up album to their first hit was not a success.in-depth very detailed: an in-depth report.taid-back very relaxed: He never gets excited - he's laid-back.oncoming coming towards you:. oncoming traffic.outgoing 1 fr iendl.y and easy to get on wjth. 2 [eaving a job:

The outgoing monager gave a press conference.out-of-date not popular or va[d any moreoutspoken giving your opinions free[yovertoaded having too much to carryrundown 1 tired or ilt: I feeL pretty rundown. 2 jn bad

condjtion: It's o very rundown area.underpa id no t pa id enoughunderstaffed wjth not enough workers: Many hospitaLs are

understaffed at the moment.underweight too thin or Lightup- to -da te modern or popu[ar

nounsafter-shave: I Love the smell of his after-shove (lotion).breakthrough an important discovery: The discovery of penici lLin

was a major breokthrough in medicine.bypass 1 a road round a town. 2 an operation to send btood

round a part of your heart with a probtem: a heart bypass.downfa[t something you do that makes you lose success:

Ganbling Led to his downfall.fottow-up something you do to make sure an eart ier act ion is

successfu[: This lesson is a follow-up to Last week's.getaway an escape: The thieves made o quick getoway.outbreak a sudden appearance of something (usua[[y bad): There

was o serious outbreak of fLu.outcome the result: What wos the outcome of the election?outtook a developing situation: The outlook for tomorrow's

weather is fine.rundown a summary of events: Give me a rundown of what

happened.setback something that prevents progress or makes something

worse: Peoce negotiations have suffered a setback.upkeep the cost of keeping something in order: We can't afford

the upkeep of such a big house.

verbsoff- load to take things out of a car, Lorry. train. etc.outgrow to grow bigger than the size or space provided: He has

already outgrown his shoes.overhear to hear what other peopte are saying to each otheroversleep to sleep [onger than you wanted toundercook to no t cook someth ing fo r enough t imeunderestimate to think that a quanti ty, ski l .L. etc. is less than i t

realty is: I underestimated her obility.update to provide the latest information: After the attack, there

were radio broadcasts updating the news every haLf hour.upgrade 1 to make something. e.g. a computer, more powerfu[.

2 to g ive someone a more impor tan t job

Mult i -word compound nouns and adject ivesWe can make compound nouns and ad jec t ives w i th more thantwo words. There are atways hyphens between the words.

an eighteen-year-old boy a one-in-a-thousand chancea heart-to-heort taLk an out-of-work actormy mother-in-law an up-to-date dictionary

Collocotion bonkverb + noun or odjectivebreak the record to do something better than the best

achievement so farcatch a cold to get a cotdclose the gap to do something that brings two extremes closer

together, e.g closing the gap between ich and poor.contract an i l lness/disease to get an i t lness/diseasedr ive someone mad to make someone fee l upset o r angryexpress your concern/worry f horror fshock/a n opi nion about

someth ing to say what you fee I o r th inkexpress your thank (to someone) (for something) to say thank

youfeet part of something to feel you are a member of a groupgive someone/something a bad name to harm the reputation of

someone or someth inggive someone a hard t ime to make i t di f f icul. t for someonegive someone permission (to do something) to say someone

can do someth inggive someone a warning (about something) to warm someonego mad 1 to get very angry. 2 to become jnsane

last a l i fet ime to last a very long t imemiss home to feel unhappy because you are not at homepack your bags to pack your things before you traveIpLay a joke on someone to play a tr ick on someoneptay a rote to take part in a ptay, project, etc.put on weight to gain weight and become fatterreach an agreement (with) to agree on something after a

discussio nreceive acclaim for something to receive compliments and

admi rat ionspend money,i t ime (on something) to spend money on/give

time to somethingtake i t easy to stop do' ing so much workturn cold (weather)/ nasty (person or anima[)/ pate (person)turn red to show you feeI embarrassed

adjective + nounanti-sociaI behaviour bad behaviourdevetoped country a country with an advanced economydeveloping country a country without an advanced economy,

often catled a 'Third Wortd' countrydry cl imate/clothes/tand without rain/waterdry sense o f humour humour when someone pre tends to be

serious when they are notfatal disease a disease that often causes deathfresh air ctean and oleasant airheavy f ighting/rain a lot of f ighting/rainlatest fashion/styl.e the most popular fashion/style nowpetty argument a mjnor argumentrenewable energy naturaI energy from such sources as the wind

or the sun: Solar power is s source of renewoble energy.severe punishment very hard and str ict punishmentsociaI benefi t something that wiLl. hetp societysocial mobit i ty movement between levels of societ5urban decay the decl ine in Living condjt ions in big cit iesvast majori ty nearly at[ of a [arge groupvio[ent cr ime a crime that hurts or ki t ts someoneworking condit ions the condit jons for workers in a factory, etc.

verb + sdverbfa[[ down heavity to fat[ and hurt yourse[f badtyrain/spend heavi ly to rain/spend a lotsleep heavi ly to steep deepty and be hard to wake uptake someonelsomething seriously to vatue someone or

something: Graffiti is often not taken seriously in the art world.

For expressions with do, get, have, moke --+ PAGE L62For preposit ions in phrases -r pecE 166

Page 162: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Adjectives for describing appearance

This tabte tet ls you which adjectives you can use (/)with a variety of nouns. The choice oi a word depencs onthe context.

/-exicnn

Exam ple: You CAN say 'I sa.w a breathtaking view, , but you CAN.T say'I saw a breathtaking man,.For adjectives describing music + Mooulr 4, IAGE 1,52.

"o.t "

*"*""f*tooo

,.'" *"-t-"""":",$::" "nSuf

co . . . . d

r$

;Sqs - l.:€*

z . '

cattractive

beaut i fu I

breathta ki ng

c h e a p

ch ic

classy

comforta bte

contemporary

cosy

dated

dramat ic

effortless

e [ega nt

enormou s

exotic

fash ionab le

good- [ook ing

gorgeous

gracefu I

h a n d s o m e /(men)i m pressive

magn i f i ce n t

messy

old-fas hio ned

picturesque

powerful

pretty /(womenrelaxed

scen lc

smar t

soph is t i ca ted

spac ious

s pecta cu la r

stri ki ng

stu n ni ng

styl i s h

tacky

ta ste lesstre n dyunsight tyu n spoi [t

Page 163: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

[xpressions with do, gef, ftoye ond molre

do1 tasks and work:

Can you do me a favour and help me with this naths problem?I hate doing the garden - it's such hard work!I like to do my homework as soon as I get home.Who does the housework in your home?l4y parents do the shopping on Saturday mornings.Don't do the woshing-up - we've got a dishwasher.She has done some useful research into the causes of Aids.

2 activi t ies:I do othletics/gymnastics/tennisf horse riding every Tuesday

after schooL.My sister is doing English/history/science at university.Don't just sit there doing nothing - do something!

3 actions:This isn't working - I think I did something wrong.Don't worry about the exam; just do your best.The storm did a lot of damage.My morning swim does me a lot of good.It'll do you no harm to visit your grandparents now and again.Did you do well in your test?

get1 to obtain or receive:

I really must get o haircut before the wedding.I got a letter/email/message fron Brigit this morning.He got a Lot of money from his weekend job.After two years with the company, he got a promotion.I never get o chance to reLax.I got a shockfsurprise when he arrived - I didn't expect him.Get some sleep! You look Like you need it!I think I'm getting a cold! I feeL awful.

2 to become or ach ieve :I have got attached to our neighbours puppy.That's a terribLe coLd - I hope you get better soon.These instructions ore awfuL - I can't get beyond the first step.I'd better go; it's getting dark.Hurry and get dressed or you'LI be late.She can't concentrate for long. She gets fed up quickLy.I get the feeling you don't agree with the government.Don't Leave when it's dark - you couLd easiLy get lost.Our car got stuck in the mud after the heavy rain.She's very ambitious. I'm sure she'lL get to the top.I'd like to get in touch with Jin, butl've Lost his phone number.I was just beginning to get worried when he phoned.

have1 exoeriences:

I had a cold/fever/headache, so I took an aspirin.Last night, I hod o terrible dream about being lost.Have fun at the party!I'm hoving a hoircut this afternoon.We aLways have o laugh when we get together.She's going to have an operation on her bad leg next week.I'm tired. Let's have a rest.You'LL have a surprisefshock when you see him - he's reollychanged.I had a great time at the party lost night.

2 ac t ions :We had an argument about footbalL.I have o bath/shower every morning.I hod breakfast/lunch/dinner with CharLie.Can I have a look at your holiday photos?At weekends I have o lie-in tiil about ten.I'm going to hove s porty on my birthday.I think the neighbours are having a row.They're having a swim in the hoteL pooL.She hod the chance to meet the Leading actors after the show.

3 to possess something (aLso hove got):How many brothers and sisters do you hove?You must accept the decision - you really have no choice.I don't know the answer I haven't a clue!We both Like music ond reading - we have o lot in common.I hove sn idea - why don't we go swimming?I hove s good/bad memoty.He hos a lot of patience with children.I've tried to give up sweets, but I hsve no willpower.

4 to produce an effect:The war wiLI hove o bad effect on the economy.The weather had an influence on the resuLt of the match.

make1 actions:

They made an agreement with us to meet at 6 o'clock.You should make on appointment at the dentist's.I make my bed as soon as I get up.We'd like to moke a comploint about the bad service.I had to make a decision before six o'clock.We mode an effort to finish on time.He made an excuse for not doing his homework.Don't moke fun of him - it's not fair.Keep caLm. There's no need to make o fuss.He's so funny. He always makes me laugh.I'm going to make you an offer you can't refuse!Can I make a phone coll, please?She's making progress at school.I'd like to make a reservation at the hoteL for Friday night.I think she'll moke a success of her business.

2 to create, or produce:Itlake me a cup of tea, pLease.He invested weLL and made a fortune.He makes a living seLling his own vegetabLes.Don't make o mess in your bedroom - try to keep it tidy!I think you've mode o mistake - Mr Smith doesn't live here.He made a Lot of money selling his paintings.Our neighbours often make a lot of noise at weekends.You mode a good point at the meeting.Could I make a suggestion, pLease?

I love watching old black and white fiLms from the 1930s.I've got Lots of bits ond pieces to take to schooL tomorrow

incLuding ny pen, penciL, paper, and bool<s.ItaLian merchants troveLled far and wide buying and seLling goods.The floro and fauno in the region is very interesting, particularLy

the trees, fLowers, birds and a rare breed monkeys.There is a million people in the city, give or take a few thousand.More and more peopLe joined the protest march.There were loads ond loads of peopLe there - over 20,000!I found odds ond ends, Iike my racket and some bool<s.I've been Learning French on ond off for years.He's feeling better and I've seen him out and about again.I hate alL this trafic noise. I'd Like to go to the country for some

peace ond quiet.You must take this one - you can't pick and choose.A hundred years ago, both rich ond poor sufferered from poLio.I'm sick and tired of getting up at six o'clock. I'd love a lie-in!Sooner or later you're going to hove to teLL her.He made a reaL song and donce about going to the doctor.I expected them to post my passport later but they gove it to me

then ond there.The price of petrol has been going up and down this year.I've had my ups ond downs this past year, but it's good

expeience!Pices keep on going up ond up. They don't stop.

Word

Page 164: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

Word fomilies

This t ist gives you words for saying simitar things. I t is a good ideato make your own [ ists as you f ind new words for each group.

Verbslaughcackte / 'krek/ to Laugh [oudtychuckle /t l^kl/ to Laugh quietLygiggLe /'gtgl/ to laugh in a si[ty waysmile /smar/ to move the corners of your mouth up to show you

are nappysnigger / 'sntga/ to |"augh to yourself in a disrespectfut way

hotdcling /k1i4/ to hoLd something tightl.y: The littLe boy was clinging

to his mother because he was frightened.ctutch /kl ,r t l / to hotd something t ightty because you are

frightened: She clutched at the poLice fficer's hand.cuddl,e /'ktrdl/ to hotd someone close to you in a loving way: He

cuddled his young son in his arms.grab /grnb/ to take something suddenl.y and quickl.y: The thief

grabbed my bag and ran off.grasp /grosp/ to take hotd of something strongly: He grosped my

hand and Led me through the crowd.handte / 'hrend/ to hotd or move an object in your hands jn order

to examine it: PLease handle the slass with care.hug /h^g/ to hotd someone in youiarms because you Like them a

[ot: She hugged her mother when they met at the airport,take hotd of f 1etk

'heuld av/ to take something in your hands:The captain took hold of the trophy and heLd it up to the fans.

touch /tx!/ to make contact, usuatly with your hand: Shetouched her arm to show me where it hurt.

say/speakbeg /beg/ to ask someone for something in an eager way: He

begged me not to Leove him.chat / t jet/ to ta[k to someone in a relaxed, informaI way: I met

an oLd friend and we chatted about our schooldavs.c ta im /k te rm/ to s ta te tha t someth ing is t rue , a t though you may

not be able to prove it:. He claimed he hadn't received theLetter.

exclaim /rk'sklerm/ to say something LoudLy and suddenl"y, usuattywhen you are shocked or surprised: 'Hey, Look at the t ime!' heexclaimed,'We're Late!'

howl /haul/ to make a loud cry: He howled in poin when hefeLLover.

inquire fn'kwatef to ask in a pol. i te and formaI way forinformation: 'What time does the plane land?' she inquired.

mention / 'men[n/ to say something without giving detaits:Duing our chat, he mentioned that Sue had had a baby.

mutter / 'mnte/ to say something.in a quiet voice. usualty whenyou are not happy about somethjng: Jim muttered somethingabout not wanting to go shopping.

recatl /rr'kc:f/ to remember something and tel"l. it: Do you recollseei n g a nythi n g u n usua I?

reply /rt'plal to answer: I asked hin to help ne. He replied thathe was busy.

scream /skrim/ to shout in a high voice: When I felL into thewater, I screamed for help.

shout / laut/ to say something very toudly: -I heard someoneshouting for heLp.

shriek /Jrirk/ to shout in a high voice: They shieked withlaughter.

whisper / 'wlnpe/ to say something in a very quiet voice: Hewhispered the answer so no one else couLd hear.

yel| /jel/ to shout very [oudty: Stop yelting - come here and telLme what you want.

l ookgaze /getzf to look at something or someone for a [ong t ime: He

gozed out of the window.

/exicon

glance /glorns/ (often glance around. at, etc.) to [ook atsomething or someone very quickly: She glanced ot herseLf inthe mirror.

gt impse /ghmps/ to see something quickl.y and wjthout acomplete view: I only glimpsed him - I wouLdn't recoqnise himagoin.

observe /eb'zz;v/ to [ook and pay careful attentjon: Observe thechange in colour as I add the acid.

spot /spot/ to identi fo or notice someone or something when i tis not easy: Can you spot me in this oLd photo?

stare /stee/ (often stare at someone/something) to look atsomeone or something for a long time: Who are you staring at?

watch /wotl/ to look carefu[[y: We watched Arsenal beat United.witness f 'wfimsf to see something happen: Did anyone witness

the accident?

walklimp /ltmp/ to walk slowly and with difficutty, often because of

an injury: He linped hone ofter the long match.march fmott[f to wa[k with regular steps: Ihe band marched

through the streets in the parade.shuffle /'[t'fl/ to watk stowty without Lifting your feet: I couLd

hear the old woman next door shuffling around-stagger /'stnge/ to watk unsteadily: She staggered away from

her car after the accident.stride /#aflf to walk with long steps: Ihe teacher strode

across the pLayground to stop the fight.stroll /straulf to watk s[ow[y in a place for pleasure: Ihey

strolled around the park.strut /strtltf to walk in a proud way, with your chest forward: lvlaLe

birds strut in front of female birds to attract their attention.trudge /trd3/ to walk stowly with a tot of effort: The soldiers

trudged through the mud.wander / 'wonda/ to wa[k stowly in a place without a part icu[ar

purpose: We wandered round the shops for an hour.

Adjectivesbig1 describing very [arge and impressive bui l .dings, animals or

organisations: coLossaL; enormousi gigantic; huge; massive2 describing very targe p[aces, areas or distances: enormousi

huge; immense; vast

happycheerfut /'tlrcfel/ showing you are happy: a cheerful smile.contented /ken'tenttd/ satisfied and happy: He sat looking

contented after the meal.detighted /dt'lanrl/ very pteased and happy: I'm delighted to

see you.elated /tlettd/ happy because you have been successful: We Left

the stadiun elated by our team's victory.gtad /gled/ pleased and happy: I'm glad you come.pleased /plizd/ happy and satisfied: He's pleased with your work.thritted /Otrld/ very happy or excited: I was thiiled to see her.

r ichafftuent /nflrcnt/ having money for expensive ctothes, mears, erc.Loaded /'leudrd/ extremety rich.prosperous /'pmsperas/ successfuI and richweatthy / 'wel9l very r ich and with valuable properrywell-heeled /,welhi. . ld/ r ich and often from a high sociaL ctasswett-off / ,welof/ having more than enough money to l ive weU.well- to-do /,welte'du;/ r ich and with a high sociaI posit ion

saddejected /dtfuekttd/ unhappy because you feel. ing disappointeddepressed /drprest/ very unhappy and not hopefutdown fdaonf (coLLoquiat) unhappy and sadfeebte / ' f i :bl l weakgloorny /glu.m/ unhappy and not at aLl. hopefutgLum /g\rtm/ sad and not wi l t ing to tatkgrim /grrm/ very worried, sad or unwe[[miserable / 'mtzrabl/ very unhappy because you,re poor, j l . t , etc.

Page 165: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

ldiomotir languoge

animalshave a bqe in your bonnet to have a f ixed idea: He's got a bee

in his bonnet about groffiti.a boq!ryq1m a very keen reader:She's alwoys reading - she's a

reaL bookworm.let the cat out of the bag to tet l a secret. often without

intending to:- He let the cat out of the bag obout the surpise

PortY.as sick as a doq very i[[: I was as sick as a dog ofter I ate that

seafood.t ike a f jsh out of water uncomfortabte because you are not in

your usuaI surroundings: He l ives in the city and when he goesto the countryside he's like a fish out of water.

be a fly on the watl to be a secret observer: I'd love to be a flyon the wall when those two are arguing.

a/the ra! race a competitive and stressful lifestyle: Working inmarketing is a rat roce.

the btack sheep of the famity someone in a fumil.y or groupwho doesn't behave [ike the rest: The Smiths are all very nice,except for Jim - he's the block sheep of the family.

bodybefore their very eves jn front of something so they can't avojd

it: She sLopped him before my very eyes.face (up to) something, face i t to accept something: I had to

face (up to) the foct that I was never going to be a famousfootbaLl player. Let's face it, it's not going to be easy.

face death to be in a very dangerous situation: Rocing divers

foce death whenever they race.be knge deep in something to have a lot of things to do:. He's

knee-deep in work at the moment.not make head or tai l of something to not understand

something: I can't make head or tail of these instructions.putt someone's leg to do or say something as a joke to make

someone worry: Don't be upset, I'm onLy pulling your legabout your girLfriend!

fed up to the (back) teeth to be very angry or bored: I 'm fedup to the back teeth with getting up so early every day.

food/cookingeat humbte pie to admit that you were wrong: When I

discovered I hod made a mistake, I had to eat humble pie andapologise for my behaviour.

a mett ing pot a ptace with an excit ing mixture of cuttures:London is a melting pot with people from every part of theworLd.

for starters to begin with: For storters he's seffish ond he's alsorude.

be Slefvrlg to be extremely hungry: Isn't it time for Lunch? We'restorving to deoth!

chip in: to contr ibute: i f we alL chip in, we'LI have enough to buya coke for her birthdoy.

t i fe/deaththe birth of something the beginning: The birth of EngLish

theatre was in the 16th century.be the crad[e of something the p[ace where something began:

Greece was the cradle of western civilisation.be bored to denltl extremety bored: f'm bored to deoth of your

complaints.be {14ng for something to want something very much: "[ 'm

dying for a sandwich.be in i ts !nfancy to be in the earty stages: 1rr the 1960s, space

travel was stilL in its infanal.

money/workbet to say you are sure about something: I bet she's late again.(att) the beltjltg is that it is tuirty certain that: All the betting

is that he foils his exams.take i ts tott on someone/something to have a bad effect: / l l

that hard work has token its toll on her health.

movementgo dow!h![! to get worse: His health went downhill after the

accident.klSk up a fuss to comptain a [ot: He kicked up a fuss because the

soup was coLd.be within lqAqh to be ab[e to be achjeved:. A cure for AIDS is

within our reoch.be a major slep forward to be an important advance: Landing on

the moon was d mojor step forward for space exploration.a {epl! ! !g stone something you can use to achieve a long-term

goal: I want to be a chef but I work in a restaurant as astepping stone for the future.

not !qqc[ something with a bargepote to not get involved oruse something because you think i t is bad: That new sports clubsounds awful. I wouLdn't touch it with a borgepole.

naturebe a breath of f tqs-h air to be something new or dif ferent that

encourages you:. My new schooL is a breath of fresh oir - wehave Lots of different subjects.

put someone out to qras! to make someone leave a job becausethey are too otd: They've put him out to gross and given himthe job of making the coffee.

be (skating/watking) on thin ice to be in a situatjon when youmay make someone angry: When you reguLarly arive late atwork, you're skoting on thin ice.

the last qlqw something that happens that, added to otherprob[ems, makes a situation impossible: I had one probLem afteranother- The last straw was when the car broke down.

placesa vicious cj lqlg a bad sjtuation that affects other things: He is in

o vicious circle. He's homeLess. This neans that he can't get agood job and so he stays poor.

to the four !9EeI9 of the globe a[[ over the wortd: He hastraveLled to the four corners of the globe.

be fqmq and dry to have succeeded in doing somethingbe r ight up your gtr.qe! to be in your area of jnterest or act ivi ty:

Science fiction is right up my street.off the beaten lryck a tong way from anywhere: We wentto a

IittLe cottage in the countryside ight off the beaten track.be in the middte of nowhere to be in a place far from a town:

It's in the niddle of nowhere. The town is miLes away.

othersset the !att rotting to begin something: Let's set the boll rolling.

Who wants to taLk first?not have a ctue to not have any idea about something:

I haven't got o clue how to repair my computer.be on a short fuse easity made angry: She was t ired and on o

very short fuse.from the word go from the start: We foughtfron the word go.not care two hoots (about someone/something) to not care at

alL: I don't core two hoots if they come or not.(get/give someone/something) a bad name: to get or give

someone or something a bad reputation: That club's got a bodname. The nolice have closed it down twice.

(have/get/give someone) a hard t ime: to experience a dif f icultperiod or give someone complaints: My parents ore giving me ahard time because they wont me to work harder

a lrlll[t4lqry something very unpleasant; The exam was o completenightmore. Everything went wrong.

be not (att) ptain sait ing not easy: The job wasn't ol l ploinsailing.

give it to somebody gtlalSh! to say something directly: I'm goingto give it you straight. I don't love you any more.

make a !S!L4!d dance (about something) to complain toomuch: Don't mqke a song and donce about your homework.

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Preposition bqnk

1 Preposi t ions of t ime

at shows a part icular point in t ime: of night; at Lunchtime;at five o'cLock; at Christmas; at sixteen years of agel at the ageof sixteen; at my oge; at the beginning/end of the year;ot the moment

by no later than a particular in the future: by Fiday; by next week,year, etc.; by ten o'clock; by the end; by the tine (thot)...

during throughout a period of time: during the afternoon, evening,etc.; during the exami during the hoLidays; during the pastmonth, year, etc.; during (the) winter, sping, etc.

for shows a length of time: for ages; for a coupLe of months; for afew minutes, days, etc.; for a Long time; for aLmost a week; forthe weekend; for twenty years

from starting at a particutar time: from one o'clock; from aboutseven in the evening; from March to JuLy; from morningtill night; from now on

i n1 during a period of time: in the afternoon, morning, etc.; in the

middLe of the night; in the 1990s; in (the) sping; in my sparetime; in the last hundred years

2 at the end of a period of time: in the end; in the future; in aminutei in o month or two; in five years; in half an hour; in anhour's time

3 shows the month, year. etc. when: in May; in 2005; atf ivein the morning; in future

into (usuatty late into or we[[ into) during a part icu[ar t ime orage: Iate into the night; well into her twenties

on at a t ime during a part icu[ar day:. on Chistmas morningion Tuesdoy; on 5 November; on the right/wrong day

since from a part icutar t ime or date in the past up to now: since 5o'cLock; since Tuesday; since January; since 200L; since herbirthday; since then; since last year; ever since she arrived

throughout during a period of t ime unti I the end: throughoutMarch; throughout the ofternoon; throughout the examithroughout the hoLidays; throughout her life; throughout thepast month, year, etc.i throughout (the) winter, spring, etc.

un t i l . (a lso t i l l . ) shows when someth ing s tops happen ing :until Fridoy; until 9 o'clocki until the end of the month;until now; until the 1980s; until next week

up to (atso up unti l .) unti l an exact t ime: up to ten o'cLock;up until the time they got married

within before a period of t ime has passed: within a year, week,etc.; within a few days

2 Prepositions of position/orderabove: There's a mark on the waLL just above the door.across: There is a tree across the road and we can't qet Dast.against: The bike was leaning ogoinst the tree.along: There are trees along the side of the street.among: She was standing omong a group of people.around (also round): They were standing oround the statue.a t '+ 1115 END OF THIS SECTIONback to front: You've got your vest on back to front.behind: I heard a voice behind me. I turned round and saw Pete.below: From the top you couLd see the whoLe city below you.between: I was sitting between two peopLe - Tom on my Iefi and

Sue on my right.in front (of): He stood in front of the students and started to give

his lecture.in the front/middte (of): Who's that in the niddle of the picture?

lexrcon

inside out: He's got his socl<s on inside out.near to: My house is quite neor to the city centre.next to: I sit next to her in class and we do pairwork together.ON --+ THE END OF THIS SECTIONon top of: There's o church on top of the hilL.opposite: There's a cafd directly opposite my house.over: We put a cLoth over the porrot's cage at night.under (atso underneath, beneath): My case is under my bed.upside down: The picture is upside down - put it the ight way up.within - r rHE END oF THIS SECTION

at1 shows the posit ion or generaI area: ot the cinema, bank, etc.;

at the corneri ot the end; at the entrance; at dinner; at home;at Anna's housei at the station; of work

2 shows sequence: at Last; at my second attempti at the end

i n1 jnside containers or vehjcles: in o bottle, box, etc; in a taxi2 insjde a place: in Afica; in cLass; in bed; in London; in town; in

a book; in a spaceship; in her car; in the street; in the worLd3 part of a group: in a pop group; in the schooL footbaLl team4 wjth a particular arrangement: in alphabeticaL order;

in groups of ten; in a line, row, queue, etc.; in the right order

o n1 inside a vehicle. etc., or on a vehjcle, animal: on a boat; on a

busi on a cruise; on horseback2 in a part icular area or place: on a farm; on the beach; on the

coost; on page 52; on the pavementi on the planet; on theroadi on the Underground

3 in a particular position: on the Left/right; on the edge, side,etc.i on the insidefoutside; on the top (of)

4 shows travelling, etc. in a place: on a cruise; on hoLiday,journey, trip, etc.; on the way to work

within inside an area: within range; within reach; within sight of

3 Prepositions of directionacross: He walked across the street to the other side.aLong: We drove along the road untiL we came to the village.around: I ran around the house three times.away: He stole the appLe and ron awqy.behind: I t went cold when the sun went behind some clouds.down: We foLLowed the path down the hiLI.from: f ran home from the station to my house.into: I put the papers into my case. He jumped into the water.

I got into bed. He has to go into hospital for an operation.on (also onto): f got onfonto the bus outside my house.out of: I went out of the house to get some fresh air.over: The gate was cLosed so I had to jump over the fence.towards: The fans ran towdrds the stadium.through: The thieves came into the house through one of the

windows.ta: I walked to the end of the street to meet a friend.round: He drove round the corner much too fast.under: The mouse ron under a cupboard to escape the cat.up: I ran up the stairs and rested when I got to the top.up to: f went up to a poLiceman to ask the way to the museum.

FiLI the kettLe up to the top.

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4 Preposi t ions in phrases

above a[t: Be kind and polite but obove all be helpful.ahead of: There was a long queue ohead of us.along with: I passed the piano exam along with three other

people in the closs.apart from: Your essay is very good, opqrt from a few spelLing

mista kes.as for me, you, etc: My famiLy is noving to Canada. But as for

me, I don't want to go. --+ FOR ME, ro MEat the end of: Let's meet up ot the end of the month when we

are less busy.at first: I was ongry at first but then I realised she was very sorry.at home: I stayed at home becouse of the awful weather.at ([ong) last: I've found a good tennis coach ot (long) Iast.at the moment: At the moment I'm Living in Athens.at that very moment: I was turning the corner and at that very

moment a chiLd ran into the road.at any rate: I think they are coming - ot any rqte that's what

they toLd me.at risk: Your heaLth is ot risk if you smoke.because of:: We can't go for a walk because of the rain.by accident: I knocked over the dispLay by accident.by chance: We planned to meet on Sunday but we met by chance

on the bus this morning.by mistake: I'm sorry but I took your dictionary by mistake.by the time: By the tine we arrived, they had aLready gone.for a while: We waited for a while ond then Ieft without her.for me, her. you etc.: I don't like that disco - for me it's too

noisy! --+ AS FoR ME, T0 MEfor now: We have enough tea for now but we might need more

later.for sale, rent, etc: Is your oLd computer for sale?from bad to worse: Your behoviour is going from bod to worse.from memory:. I can pLay the whoLe tune from memory.from now on: From now on you must oLI show your membership

cards.in addition to: She worlcs in the cafd in oddition to her job at

the cinema.in aid of: We're collecting money in aid of the refugees.in case: Let's take an umbrella (just) in case it rains.in charge ot: Who's in charge of the tickets on the door?in comparison to/with: She is nuch taLLer in comparison to

(or with) most of us here.in contact with: ,4re you in contact with anyone we met in

London?in danger ofi You're in great danger of faiLing aLl your exams.in demand: Are those eLectronic pets stiLl in demand?in the end: In the end aLl of us agreed with her plan.in front of: She stood in front of the mirror admiring herself.in a hurry: Sorry, I can't stop, I'm in a hurry to get work.in a mess: Your room is in a terribLe mess.in my opinion: In my opinion, bus fares should be cheaper.in need ot:: The house is very old and in need of major repairs.in order that: I did it in order that you wouLd notice me.in order to: I shouted in order to get help.in reality: She said she was rich but in reality her porents are

very poor.in return for: I lent her a couple of CDs in return for using

her bike.in search of: They've gone in search of o cheap restaurant.in spite of: We enjoyed our walk in spite of the rain.instead of:: Why don't you go to the match insteod of ne?in terms of: In terms of their recent successes, the team is a

good one.in good time: P/eose be there in good time because we still hove

to buy the tickets.in time: I arrived just in time for the start of the film.in no time: Work hard and you'lLfinish in no time (at all).in touch: Goodbye - keep in touch and emaiL me.in a way: You're ight in a way but I stiL| don't agree with you.not at all: I'm not ot oll happy with my essay.

of course: 'Can I cone?' '0f course you can.' 'Do you mind?'Of course not.

on a diet: She has been on a diet for the last month.on fire: 0h, Iook! The shed is on fire!on the grounds of: He wos expeLled from school on the grounds

of cheating in the exam.on the increase:. SadLy, street muggings are on the increose in

major cities.on the Internet: I found a way to buy bool<s cheapLy on the

Internet.on the lottery: Have you ever won any money on the lottery?on his own: Did Sol realLy go to the cinemo on his own?on my mobile: Leave a text message on my mobile.on the phone:. She's on the phone at the moment.on purpose: I think you lost my pen on purpose.on a huge, large, sma[[, etc. scate: In the 1980s, there was

unenpLoyment on a large scole.on time: The train arrived exactly on time.on top of that: She refused to heLp and on top of thot she called

me a Liar.on the whote: 0n the whole I prefer swimming to playing tennis.on the verge of:. Scientists are on the verge of finding a cure for

some cancers.out of breath: I was out of breath when I reached the top of the

hiu.out of controt: Your younger brother is completely out of control.out of order: 7 The phones at the station are always out of order.

2 not polite or acceptabte: Her behaviour was completely out oforder!

out of the ordinary: Nothing out of the ordinary happens inour town.

out of practice: I'd love to play chess with you but I'm out ofpractice.

over a mittion, etc:. There are over two million refugees in thecamDs.

over the top: Don't you think your onger was over the top?He wasn't that bod!

to me, her, us, etc.: To me, that picture is terrible! -J AS FoR ME,FOR ME

together with: -I went to the museum together with most of ourg rou p.

under contro[: The situation is now under control ond things areback to normaL,

under your breath: 'I'LI prove that you are wrong,' she mutteredunder her breath.

under way: Plons are under woy to build a new stodium.up to you: It's up to you to decide - I can't make the decision for

you.ups and downs: Every famiLy has its ups and downs.

5 The passiveWe use by to show the'agent' (WHO is responsible for the action):'Hamlet' was written by Shakespeare.The website was designed by a young computer programmer.

We use with to say HOW the action was done:The winning team was greeted with cheers,It was covered with water. It was nade with flour and eggs.

6 Preposi t ions at the end of sentencesI know the msn you ore working for. (with a retative ctause)I asked him who he was talking to. (reported speech)What are you getting of.2 (questions with multi-part verbs)I don't like being Loughed of. (passives with mutti-part verbs)

Page 168: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

7 Preposit ions after nouns, adjectives, andV E T D S

Indexa boutnounsi orgument; article; complaint; decision; discussioni

opinion; protesti question; reminderadjectives: angryt annoyed; anxioust curious; disappointed;

enthusiastic; nervousi optimistic; passionate; pLeased; sad;worried

verbs: care; compLain; hear; know; talk; think; worryagainst nouns: campaign; complaint; protestamong noun: competit iona tnouns: lookadjectives: amazed; ongry; bad; clever; good; pLeased; sad;

shocked; surpised; uselessverbs; laugh; Iook; sniLebetween noun: competitionbyadjectives etc.: annoyed; cLose; disgusted; impressed; shocked;

surprised --+ tHr pnssIVE abovefornouns; affection; appLicotion; campaign; cause; competition;

demandi excuse; hope; Iook; need; opportunity; punishment;reason; request; respect; rewardi suggestion; synpathy

adjectives, etc: bad; enough; essential; except; famous; good;ready; responsible; sorry; unfit; weLl-known

verbs: admire; apoLogise; pay; pLay; waitfromnouns: distonce: extract: viewadjectives, etc: absent; different; farverb: sufferi nnoun: confidence; falL; growth; interest; isei taste; trustadjectives: experienced; interested; involvedverbs: believe; invest; toke partinto noun: research; study; transLateofnouns: advantage; approvaL; beginning; cause; coLLection; cradLe;

end; enough; evidence; feat; hope; importance; Ioss; masses;member; mentioni number; opinion; packet; percentage;period; piece; portion; question; range; reminderi iski seiesislice; study; suggestion; threat; turnout; victim; view

adjectives, etc:. afraid; ashamed: aware; fond; fulL; made;nervous; plenty; proud; short; typicoL; unaware

verbs: consrst; remind: thinko nnouns: ogreement; article; attack; effect; impact; influencei

lecture; opinion; viewadjectives: dependent; keenverbs: commenti concentratei decide; depend; focus: insist;

operate; reLyi spendi workout ofadjective: madevetoi maKeover noun: r icfo4ztonouns: attention; attitude; damage; entrance; injury; reaction;

relation; reply; soLution; thanl<s; threatadjectives, etc.: according; bad; close; due; kind; next doori

owing; polite; reLated; rude; similarverbs: apoLogise; beLong; compLain; emigrate; Listen; refer; taLktowards noun: attitudewithnouns: appointment; argument; chat; contacti interview;

relationship: synpathy; talk; troubLe r tHt pnssIVE aboveadjectives: ongryi annoyed; bored; busy; delighted; disappointed;

disgusted; famiLiar; happy; impressed; infected; pLeased;satisfied

verbs: argue; chat; deal; fall in love; get in touch; pLoyu p o nadjective: dependentverb: insist: reLv

Iexicon

Examptes with adjectives and nounsabsent from: She was absent from cLass for two weeks because

of her iLLness.according to: According to our records, you haven't paid your fees.advantage of: Surely, I don't need to explain the odvontages of

a good education.affection for After our holiday, I feLt o strong affection for

evetyone in our group.afraid of: I'n stilL afraid of the dark.agreement on'. They couldn't reach an agreement on how much

the car was worth.amazed ati I was omozed at how eosy it was to get a ticket for

the match.angry about, at/with: He'lL be angry about your decision to

cancel the party. She was angry at (or with) me for being Late.annoyed about/by, with: She was annoyed about (or by) their

Loud music. I'n annoyed with him for making me wait.anxious about: Are you anxious obout your exams?application for: Have you filled in your application for the job?appointment with: .I have an appointment with my dentist on

Monday.approva[ of: You need the opproval of your monager before you

can Leave earLy.argument with, about: He had on argument with his parents

about the mess in his bedroom.article about/on: Did you read the article about (or on)

Afghanistan?ashamed of: You ought to be ashamed of yourself for being so

unkind.attack on: The speech was an qttock on the government's

immigration policy.attention to: No-one seemed to poy any attention to whot he

was saying.attitude to/towards: Their ottitude to (or towards) foreigners is

unacceptable.aware of: I'm sure you're oware of the dangers of smoking.bad at, for: She's bad ot tennis ond even I con beat her.

Sweets are bad for your teeth.beginning of: Please give me your essay at the beginning of

next week.bored with: I'm bored with watching television aLI the time.busy with: He was too busy with hfs homework to go to the

cinema.campaign against, for: We took part in the compaign ogainst

the war. We need a strong compaign for cheaper pubLictransport.

cause of, for:. No-one knew the cquse of the fire. There's nocouse for olarm,

chat with: Why don't you hove a chat with your parents aboutyour problem?

clever at: My sister is very clever at moths ond aLways getsgood marl<s.

ctose by, to: Is there a bank close by? Do you live close to theschooL? He moved closer to the fire. I'm very close to my sisterand we teLI each other everything.

coltection ot: He has a superb collection of stanps.competition among/between. for: There is a Lot of competition

omong (or between) the banls for new customers.comptaint about, against: We've received a few complaints

about the quality of some of our toys. We investigate aLIcomplaints against our staff.

concerned about: I'm concerned obout you walking home aLone.confidence in: I have compLete confidence in your ability to do

the job.contact with: I'm still in contact with several peopLe from my

pimary school.cradte of: Is Greece the cradle of denocracy?curious about: I'm curious obout how you managed to get a

ticket to the game.damage to: The fLoods did o lot of damoge to the vilLage.decision about: We haven't yet made a decision about who will

have the lead role in the schooL pLay.del.ighted with: Dad's delighted with his new car.

Page 169: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

demand tor: There has been a strong demond for an end to ThirdWorld Debt.

dependent on/upon: Your pLace at university is dependent on(or upon) your exam resuLts.

different from: My idea of a perfect holiday is very differentfrom yours.

disappointed about, with: I'm disappointed sbout not beingaLlowed to go out tonight. We were disappointed with theplayers during the second half.

discussion about: They were having o discussion about what todo at the weekend.

disgusted by/with: We were disgusted by (or with) his obscenelonguage.

distance from: The hoteL is o short distance from the airport.due to: The game has been cancelled due to the bad weather.effect on: Snoking wiLI have a very bod effect on your heaLth.end of: NeorLy everyone was crying at the end of the film.enough for, of: There is enough food for everyone. I've had

enough oI your bad behaviour.enthusiastic about: She didn't seem very enthusiastic about my

idea.entrance to: We agreed to meet of the entrance to the cinema.essentiaI for: VegetobLes and fruit are essentiol for your health.evidence of: Your exam resuLt shows no evidence of having done

any revision.except for: Everyone arrived on time except for Ben.excuse for: Losing your shoes is o poor excuse for being late.experienced inl. I'm not very experienced in using the Internet.extract from: Let me read you a short extract from his letter.falL in: There's been a dramatic fall in tourists in London.familiar with: Are you familiar with the ruLes of tennis?far from: Is the station far from here?famous for: She's famous for writing excellent detective novels.feat of: The bridge is a marvelLous feat of engineeing,fond of: I'm fond of chocoLate.futl of: The cafd was full of people last night.good at, tor: I'm no good ot remembeing nlmes. Exercise is

good for you.growth in: There has been a significant growth in the number of

women playi ng football.happy with: I'm not very happy with my peformance.hope for, of: Until the war is over we have no hope for the

future. We had no hope of escope.impact on: Computers have had on enormous impact on

education.importance of: Don't underestimate the importance ol eating

a good breakfast.impressed by/with: Everyone was impressed by (or with) her

piano playing.infected with: MiLlions of peopLe are inlected with Aids

throughout the world.influence on: Which of your teachers has had the most influence

on you?injury to: He suffered serious injuries to both legs in the accident.interest in: I have no interest in sport whatsoeverinterested in: I am not at alL interested in sport.interview with: She has on interview with a journalist on

Thursday.involved in: Don't get involved in any arguments about politics

or reLigion.keen on: I'm not very keen on swimming in the sea because it's

too cold.kind to: Be kind to her - she is onLy trying to be helpful.lecture on: He gave an interesting lecture on the latest theories

about how Life began.look at, for:. When you are in London; have a look at the Tate

Modern building. I'LL hove a look for a postcard of it if you Like.loss of: She never recovered from the loss of her porents in the

car crash.made from: Paper is made from wood.made (out) of: My jacket is mode of leather. What's this tabLe

made out of?masses of: He was surrounded by mosses of fans.

member of: You're a member of the sports centre, aren't you?mention of: There was no mention of his latest film in the

newspaper. Was there any mention of the match on TV Lastnight?

need for: I think there's a need for international co-operation tostop gLobal warming.

nervous about, of: I'm very nervous about my exams. She'snervous of dogs because she was once badly bitten.

next door lo: We live next door to the stadium.number ot: A large number of counties signed the treaty to

reduce greenhouse gqses.opinion about, of, on: I don't have any opinion about who to

blame. What's your opinion of his lotestfiLm? I'd Like to hearyour opinion on capital punishnent.

opportunity for: A visit to London wouLd be a great opportunityfor improving your EngLish.

optimistic about: "I don't feel very optimistic about world peace.owing to: The motorway was cLosed owing to a serious accident.packet of: Can you get me o packet of cornflakes, please.passionate about: He's possionate about footbaLl.percentage of: A large percentoge of women voted ogainst the

government.period of: We are expecting a Long period of hot weather.piece of: Can I have another piece of cake; please?pleased about, at, with: Mum was very pleased about my exam

results. We were so pleased at the news of your success. Dad isvery pleased with his new car.

ptenty of: There wiLI be plenty of food at the party.potite to: Most chiLdren are polite to their parents.portion ot: I'd like two portions of ice-cream, please?protest about, against: What is your protest about? It's o

protest ogainst the war.prone to: Don't give him anything vaLuabLe to carry - he's prone to

accidents.proud of: You can be very proud of what you have ochieved.punishment for: What is the punishment for murder?question about, of: They asked me lots of questions about my

hobbies. It's a question of who wiLI be our representotive.range of: Have you seen their new rdnge of clothes? The plane was

in (or within) range of airpoft controL.reaction to: What's your reaction to the news that the fees will be

increased?ready for: Hurry up and get ready for schooL.reason for: What is your reoson for being late this time?request tor: There has been a request for more bLood donors.related to: I think iLI heaLth is definitely related to poverty.relation to: 1ppoftunities for women are smalLin relation to men.retationship with: PracticalLy everyone has a good relotionship

with our teacher.reminder aboutfof: Do you need more reminders about (or ofl

the dangers of smoking?repty to: Have you written o reply to your uncle yet?research into: They are doing Lots of reseorch into a vaccine

for maLoria.respect for: I have great respect for people who work for chaities.responsibte tor: Who is responsible for olL this mess?reward for: You can stqy up Late tonight as a reward for your

good behaviour.rise in: There has been a rise in crime over the past year.risk of: There is aLways a risk of faiLure but we must try,rude to: He is never rude to his parents in front of other people,sad about/at: We were sad obout Leaving London, Everyone was

sad ot (or about) the news of the air crash.satisfied with: I'm not sotisfied with your reason for being Late.series of: After a series of failures, we finalLy won a match.short of: We're short of volunteers to help with the school play.shocked at/by: I was shocked at (or by) the way he spoke to his

father.similar to:. Her taste in music is similar to mine.slice of: Can I have another slice oI cake; please?sorry for: I'm sorry for all the troubLe I coused you.solution to: I'm afroid I can't think of a solution to your problem.study of, into: He's making o study of birds in tropicaLforests. It

will be a study into how birds survive in smaller forests.

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suggestion for, of: Do you have a suggestion for what to do thisweekend? I thought I heard o suggestion of doubt in his voice.

surprised at/by: He was not surprised ot (or by) her success.sympathy for, with: I've no sympathy for students who never do

their honework. Do you have any sympathy with their views onworld poverty?

tal.k with: Have a talk with your parents and see what they say.taste in: She has no toste in cLothes.thanks to: Thanks to your help, I passed my exoms.threat of, to: There's o threot of colder weather Later this week.

The conflict is a serious threat to world peace.troub[e with: Ihe trouble with you is that you don't listen to good

odvice.trust in: Have trust in your own opinions.turnout of: We expect o good turnout of fans in spite of the rain.typical. of: It's so typical of you to say 'no' at first when you mean'ye{.

unaware of: I'm unaware of any opposition to our plans.unfit for: After his Lies, he's obviously unfit for any job in

govern ment.usetess at: I'm useless at learning Languages.victim of: Many victims of crime never get any support.victory over: The treoty is a victory over those who prefer to fight

than to talk.view from, of, on:. The view across London from the London Eye is

outstanding. The view of Pais in his last pointing is the best I'veseen. Do you have any view on how to solve gLobal warming?

well-known tor: London is well-known for its museums andgalleies.

worried about: f wos so worried about waking up in time that Icouldn't get to sleep.

Examples with verbsMany verbs have more than one par t tha t inc lude prepos i t ions .Somet imes the prepos i t ion is op t ionaI and depends on mean ing :She's working hard. She's working on a project.r+' MULTI-PART VERBS, pAGES 1,70-1,76 Some of these haveprepos i t jons and usuat ty have an id jomat ic mean ing :get in touch with someone, make up for something, come acrosssomething.

Remember: Verbs with more than two parts take the object atthe end: I gotin touch with an old schoolfrfend.

admire someone for something: I admired him for showing histrue feelings.

agree with someone/something: I don't agree with the report onthe match.

apotogise to someone (for): I apologised for my behaviour at thepafty. I opologised to the teacher for arriving Late.

argue with someone (about): I hate arguing with my neighboursabout noise.

believe in something:. I'm afraid I don't believe in ghosts. I thinkit's all in peopLe's imagination.

betong to someone: This bag belongs to a friend of mine.buck someone up: Go and tel l her the good news - she needs

something to buck her up.care about someone/something: Do you core at al l about what is

happening in the world?chat with someone (about): He's chatt ing with my mum about

his famiLy.comment on something: I t 's st iLl too earLy to comment on the

success of the project.concentrate on somethingi Concentrate on getting the spelling

right.complain to someone (about): We complained to the mqnoger

obout the quality of the service in the restaurant.consist of something: Air consists of oxygen and hydrogen.deaI with someone/something: The dentist dealt with my tooth

and the pain stopped.decide on something: I've decided on a career in computers.depend on/upon someone/something: Your exam resuLts wiLI

depend on the amount of work you do. (also rely on/uponsomeone/something) Can I depend on you to be there on t ime?

Lexb0k

emigrate to somewhere:. They emigrated to AustraLia Last year.fa[[ in love with someone/something: t I've fallen in love with

you. 2 We've compLeteLy fallen in love with Mozart's music.focus on something: We use the passive form to focus on the

action and not the person who does it.get in touch (with): She promised to get in touch with us as

soon os she gets back from her hoLiday.hear something about something: Have you heard the joke

about the eLephant and the antTinsist on/upon something: Our sports teacher insisted on us

training three days a week. My mother insists that I eatbreakfast before I go to school.

invest something in something: We need to invest more insolar energy.

know something (about): I don't know a Lot obout pol i t ics.[augh at someone/something: I t 's not very nice to lough ot

other peopLe.listen to someone/something: I love listening to music on the

radio.look at someone/something: Everybody looked at me when I

got onto the bus.make something out of something; She made a dress out of

pure silk.operate on someone: They operated on her after her heart attack.pay for something: I paid for the newspaper and Ieft the shop.ptay for, with someone/something: The Portuguese footbaLLer,

Luis Figo, used to play for Earcelona. The children are verybored here because they have no one to ploy with.

prevent someone from doing something: A knee injuryprevented hin from playing.

refer to someone/something: You'll need to refer to your notesbefore you do the exercises.

rely on/upon someone/something --+ DEeEND oN/upoNremind someone of someone/something: She reminds me of

my own sister. Seeing him reminded me of a great hoLiday inthe Lakes.

smile at someone/something: The bus driver smiled at mewhen I poid him.

spend (money) on something:. I 've spent a Lot (of money) onclothes this month.

stop someone (from) doing something: The rain didn't stop usfrom enjoying the trip.

suffer from something: Do you suffer from headaches?take someone's mind off something: The f i lm took my mind

off my probLems for o while.take part in something: I took port in a demonstration last

week about the new power stotion.take something out: The dentist says she may have to toke out

one of my back teeth.tatk about someone/something: Hi. We were just talking about

you.talk to someone (about): We met at o party ond tolked obout

music for two hours. I often tolk to my friend Suson in theevenings.

think about, of someone/something: What do you think aboutthat new CD by Prince? I often think of ny fanily when I amaway from home.

transtate something into something: The novel has beentra nslated i nto seve ra I La n g u a g es.

watk out on someone: He wolked out on his famiLy leavingthem no money.

wait for someone/something: I'm woiting for the post. Wewaited for someone to begin dancing. I've been waiting forthe bus for ages.

work on something: Scientists have been working on a new drugto cure Parkinson's disease.

worry about someone/something: I wouldn't worry about thatexan if I were you.

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Multi-port VerbsMost muLti-part verbs have an object and we can usuatly put i tafter the verb or after the preposit ion: PLease turn the TV on.Please turn on the TV. The t ist shows this by putt ing 'something'

o r ' someone ' in the midd l "e and us ing an exampte w i th i t a t theend: + BAcK SoMETHING uP.When the object can on[y go after the preposit ion, the l ist has'someth ing ' o r ' someone ' a t the end: r BE AB0VE SOMETHING.If the object is a pronoun, i t usualty goes before thepreposit ion: PLease put i t on.Some mult i-part verbs do not have an object: PLease go in andsit down.0ther mutt i-part verbs have an adverb + preposit ion and theobject goes at the end. r BE IN FOR SOMETHING.Brackets show that an object or a preposit ion is optionat.- -+ cHEER (SOME0NE) UP.

back ou t (o f someth ing /do ing someth ing) to no t do someth ingyou have promised: She bocked out of her pronise to help.

back someth ing up to be proo f o r ev idence to suppor t an idea,exptanation. etc: Find more information to bock up your theory.

be above someth ing 1 to be so impor tan t tha t you needn ' t dopart icu[ar things:5he think she's obove doing housework.2 to beso good tha t no one can th ink you d id someth ing wrong: He3obove susoicion.

be about someth ing (a tso be to do w i th someth ing) to exp la in ,describe or give facts on a part icutar subject: I t 's a book abouti nformation techn ology.

be about to do something to be ready to start to do something verysoon: I was about to cLose the door when the phone rang.

be after someone to be trying to catch someone: The poLice hadbeen after the robber for months. ---' G0 AffER sOMEONE/SOMETHING

be against something/someone to disagree with or not supportsomeone or something: I'm against every kind of racism. --+ TTJRNAGAINST SOMEONE

be gett ing at something to be exptaining or saying somethingimportant: What I'n getting at is that computers can neverexpress h u m an em oti ons.

be behind (with) to not have done as much as you shou[d: Ioa'rebehind with your homework. i+ FALL BEHIND (wITH)

be down to feel very sad: He's been so down since he faiLed hisEXAM. --+ GET SOMEONE DOWN

be (a t t ) fo r someth ing /someone to suppor t an idea, p [an , person,etc. very strongty: I'm all for nurses being paid more.

be dy ing fo r someth ing to want someth ing very much:I'n dying for a cup of coffee.

be in 1 to be at home: Is your mother in? --+ stev, sToP IN 2 to bepopu[ar: Very short hair is definiteLy in these days. -+ rIt Itrt

be in for something to be Likel"y to experience somethinguncomfortabte or difficutt: I'm afraid we're in for another verycoLd night. I coME rN FoR SoMETHTNG

be taken in (by) to be made to befieve something that jsn't true:He was compLetely token in by the girl's sad story.

be into something to enjoy doing a part icu[ar act ivi ty very much:I'm not realLy into stamp collecting.

be off 1 to not be going to happen: The match is off because ofthe rain. --r cALL SoMETHING oFF 2 to sme[[ or be bad: This f ish isoff. --+ co oFF

be tet off to be al lowed to go without being punished:. Lucki ly wewere let off by the monoger, --) LET SOME0NE OFF

be on to be going to happen: The tennis match is on again becausethe rain hos stopped.

be not on to not be acceptab[e: I t 's just not on to change the dateof the meeting so late.

be out 1 to not be at home: I'm sorry, my mother's out. -+ co,WALK ouT 2 to not be in fushion any more: Hats are out.

be ou t o f someth ing to no t have someth ing in your home or shop:We're out of brown breod, -+ RUN ouT 0F SOMETHING

be over to have finished: The pLay will be over by ten o'cLock. --+

GET 0VER S0I"lETHING

be through (with) to be t ired or bored wjth someone oran activi ty and so determined to leave: -I can't bear any moreIies - we're through. I'm through with gambling, I promise.

be up 1 to be out of bed:If 's very Late - ore you st iLL up? + crr,WAIT uP 2 to have increased in price: Bus fares are up agoin. ---+

G O U Pbe up to something to be doing something wrong or bad:. What

have you been up to?be caught up ( in) to be in a dif f icutt or dangerous situation:

Sadly, many women and children ore caught up in the war.be made up of something to include as i ts parts: The popuLation

is made up of severaL nationalities.blow something up to use a bomb to destroy something:

The bridge hos been blown up.break out to start to happen: Most of us hope that peace wil l soon

break out. Noun: outgRrnKbrighten something up to make something more colourful or

interesting: 1range sheets will brighten up your bedroom.bring something back 1 to return with somethjng: PLease bring

back my pen tomorrow. --+ GET, GIVE, TAKE SOMETHiNG BACK 2 tomake you remember something or someone: The photographbrought it aLL back to me. --+ cOME BACK (T0)

bring something down to cause a business, etc. to cottapse:The union strikes brought down the government. --+ FALL DowN

bring someone on to hetp or encourage someone to makeprogress: Her new piano teacher is bringing her on niceLy.

bring something on to cause i t [ health: Rain brought on my cold.bring something over (to) to hold something and go near to

someone: He brought over another cup of coffee to us.br ing someone up to have a ch i td in your home to l i ve and grow:

My parents brought us up to be poLite and friendly.] GROW UP

br ing someth ing up to ment ion a top ic o r p iece o f in fo rmat jon : fhate to bring it up, but you owe me ten pounds, don't you? --+

C O M E U Pbump into someone to meet someone by chance: Guess who

I bumped into in the supermarket!button (something) up to fasten ctothes using buttons: Button

up your coot * it's very cold. ) Do, zP (SOMETHING) upcal l something off to cancel or stop something: I t 's raining - shaLl

we call off the picnic? The strike was called off. + BE oFFca[[ on someone to visi t someone as a routine: The nurse wil l coII

on your mother later.ca[[ something out to say something in a loud voice: They cal led

out my name.can/coutd do with something/someone to need or want:

I can do with someone to heLo me. He could do with a bath.carry on (with) to continue a particu[ar activ'ity: They carried on

pLaying in the rain, Be quiet and carry on with your work.car ry someth ing ou t 1 to take ac t ion and comple te an

examination. research. etc: The police ore corrying out a fulLinvestigation into the car crash. 2 to do something ptanned,promised, threatened, etc: They are corrying out essentiaLrepairs to the bidge. She said she'd report us and now she hascarrted out her threat.

catch up (with) 1 to move and reach the same posit ion assomeone e[se: Yoa start cycLing and I'llyou cotch up. --+ KEEP uP2 to reach the same standard or [eve[ as someone else: You' lLneed to work harder if you want to catch up with the others. --+

KEEP UPchat with someone (about) He's chatting with my mum about

his famiLy.check in to go to the desk of a hote[ or airport and say you have

arrived: Please check in two hours before your flight. Noun:CH ECK- IN

cheer (someone) up to make yourse l f (o r someone) happ ier :Cheer up, this rain will stop soon. He did his best to cheerme up.

ctean something up to make a dirty or untidy place clean: I mustcleon up my bedroom every Soturday. Noun: cLEAN-uP

ctear (something) up to make a ptace ctean and t idy again: Youcan have o porty if you promise to clear up afterwards.

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cl ick on something to press a key so that an icon on a computerscreen works: Click on that icon to moke the email file open.

come about to happen: How did i t come obout that everyone knowsmy decision?

come across (as someone) to seem to be a part icular kind ofperson: He comes across qs an idiot but he's realLy veryinteLligent. How did I come ocross at the interview?

come across something to f ind something by chance: I cameocross this old jacket in my cupboard.

come apart to frtL into pieces: Honestly, your dictionory just cameopqrt when I opened it. --+ FALL APART

come back (from) to return to a p[ace from another pLace: PLeasecome back soon. I wos coming back from the supermarket whenI saw her. --+ BRING, GET, GIVE, TAKE SoMETHING BACK, TURN BACK

come back ( into fashion) to become fushionab[e again: Long coatscame back during that coLd winter last year. Noun: comEBACK

come back (to) to return to your memory: Wait a ninute * hername is coming back to /re. -r BRING SoMETHING BACK

come between someone and someone to cause a quarrel betweentwo or more people: Nothing can ever come between me and mygirlfiend.

come down to decrease: Prices have come down since the summer.--+ CUT, GO, SLOW DOWN

come down with something to become it t with a part icularinfection: I think I'm coming down with fLu.

come from somewhere 1 to be born or live in a oLace: He comesfrom IstanbuL 2 to have started or devetoped from a particularanjmat, ptant or substance: Do humans come from apes?

come on 1 to move more quickly: Come on, Let 's go.2 to begingraduatty: I've got a cold coming on. 3 to arrive somewhere afterothers: /ou go and I'Il come on when I've finished working.

come out to arrive in the shops, etc: When will their new CD comeout?

come round 1 to visi t someone's home: Can you come round thisevening? -+ G0 RoUND 2 to become conscjous again after fuint ing:She's coming round, thank goodness,

come through to become known: News came through that they hadarived safely.

come through something to survive a dif f icutt event or period: Hehos come through the operation but he's stilL sLeeping-

come to to become conscious again after faint ing: She come to andfound herseLf lying on the floor.

come up 1 to rjse in the sky: The sun wos coming up as we beganour walk. 2 to be mentioned: Whenever there is trouble, her namecomes up. -r BRING SoMETHING UP 3 to be used in a test. etc: fhope that comes up in the exam.4 to become avai lable:,4summerjob has come up in the cafd.

come up against someone/something to have to deat with adifficul.ty, opposition, elc: We come up agoinst severaL probLemsin the beginning.

come up to something 1 to reach a part icular level: The watercame up to our knees 2 to be as good as the leveI peop[e expect:Your homework doesn't come up to your usuaL high standard. --+

LIVE UP TO SOMETHINGcome up with something to produce an excuse, a suggestion, the

correct answer, etc: He come up with a briLliant idea for herbirthday prcsent.

copy something down to write fucts, etc. in your notebook: Copydown these words. --+ GET, rAKE, wRIrE SoMETHING DowN

crack (someone) up to beg in to laugh a [o t , o r make someone[augh a Lot:. His jokes make me crock up.

cry out (for) to shout [oud[y: She cried out for heLp but no oneheard her, + cALL, sH0uT, YELL 0uT (F0R)

cut down (on) to use much less of something: Try to cut down onusing your mobile phone.

do (somethinS) up 1 to fusten a piece of ctothing, shoes. etc: Doup your laces. The dress does up at the back. --+ BUTToN, zlp(SOMEIHING) UP 2 to decorate a room. etc: He's doing up thekitchen.

do with something (always to do with) to have somethingas the topic. reason, etc:. Their rows orc to do with noney.

do without to manage without something: I haven't got any moresweets so you'LL have to do without.

dress up (as someone) (for something) to put on part icutar

[-exicon

clothes so that you look [ike someone: Liz dressed up as TinaTurner for the party.

drop in (on) to visj t someone when you are passing: I ' l l drop inon you this evening if you Like.

drop off 1 to fal.l. asteep: -I aLways drop off on the train.2 tobecome fewer: The number of people who go to restaurants isdropping o//. Noun: DRop-oFr --r FALL oFF

drop someone off to let a passenger [eave a car, bus, etc:Drop me off at the next corner, please. --+ LET s0MEoNE oFF

drop out (of) 1 to leave a course of study: Many students drop outof university at the end of the first year. 2 to abandon the usuattifestyte of most peopte in society and live apart: The twinsdropped out of society and went to Live with others in them ountai n s. Noun : Dnop-out

eat out to eat a meal in a restaurant: Shall we eat out tonight?eat up (something) to eat the whole amount: He's eaten up aLI

his dinner.fade away to become weaker gradualLy: The voice under the heap

of briclcs was fading awoy.fa[[ apart to fatl into pieces:. It fell opart in my hands. --t coME

APARTfatt back on something to use money you kept because you need

it: Do you have money to foll back on if you Lose your job?fal. l . behind (with) 1 to move more stowty so that others are further

ahead: We fell behind cycling uphiLl and Lost the others.2 to makeslower progress than others: Your son hos follen behind with hisschoolwork.3 to not make the necessary regular payments: /or.rhave fallen behind with your rent.

fal. t for someone to feel strong romantic feetings for someone:I've fallen for her in a big way.

faLl, for something to be tr icked into bel ieving something thatisn't true: You didn't foll for his excuse about being busy ot inthe Iibrary, did you?

faLL off 1 to become separated from an object: Ihe handLe hasfallen off. --+ coME oFF 2 to become less gradualty: Soles arefalling o/1. r DRoP oFF

fatl out (of) to fuLL from a high place: Her favouite toy has follenout of the window.

fat l . out (with) (over) to have a quarreI and end a fr iendship: He'sfallen out with his girfiend over the fact that he's often late.Noun: rn t t -ou t

fall over to fa[[ onto the ground: He fell over ond hurt his leg.faLt through to not be agreed, compteted, etc. successfut ly:

At the last minute, the negotiations fell through.f i t l . something in/out to comptete a questionnaire, appl icat ion

form, etc: Please fill in the card and give it to Passport Control.--+ MAKE SOMETHING OUI

f i tL (something) up to put t iquid in a container, especja[[y petroIinto a car: Let 's f i l l up ot the next petroL stat ion.We fiIled up the car before we drove to Germany.

f ind (something) out to [earn information about something:Phone and find out when the film storts.

f ind out about something to f ind facts about something:What did you find out about dinosaurs at the museum?

finish something off to eat or drink the last parts: Hey, you'vefinished off all the ice-cream!

f ish something out to f ind and take out something: The pol icefished out two bicycles before they fuund the body in the canal.

fit in to live easity with your neighbours, friends, famity, etc: Forsome reoson she doesn't fit in and she has few fiends.

f i t someth ing in to pu t someth ing or many th ings in a conta iner :I couLdn't fit in all my things.

fix something up 1 to arrange a meeting. etc: My bestfriend fixedup a date for me with her brother.2 to repair a home and makeit attractive: My dad fixed up the fLat for us.

f lood something out to cover a ptace with deep water:The whole orea wos completely flooded out, wasn't it?

fol low something up (with) to take action to deal withsomething: The doctors suggested I follow up the operation witha period of complete resf. Noun: FoLLoW-UP

get something across (to) to be successful in explaining youridea, ptan, etc: His speech got ocross to the audience thereasons for the need to raise interest rates,

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get ahead to have success in your l i fe:You need a good educationin order to get ohead. -+ GET 0N IN LIFE

get around to r GET ROUND T0 DOING SOMETHINGget a t someone to c r j t i c ise someone a [ [ the t jme and upset them:

You're always getting at me.get at something --+ ar GETTTNG AT soMETHINGget away (from/to) 1 to be successfuI in going on hoLiday; We are

hoping to get away to BerLin for the weekend.2 to go from ap[ace, sometimes because i t is djf f icutt to stay: I realLy must getoway from this town. Noun: Grr-nwny

get away with something to not be punished for doing somethingwrong or bad: He always gets away with being late.

get back (from) to return to a place: Whatt ime wilLyou get backfrom school? --+ coME. TURN BACK

get someth ing back to manage to have someth ing you ownreturned to you: I'll never get my Lost watch back. -+ BRING, TAKESOMETHING BACK

get your own back (on someone) to pun ish or narm someonewho has done something bad to you: I ' l l get my own back onyou one day.

get by to have enough money or food: She f inds i t hard toget by on her pension.

get someone down to cause someone to fee[ very sad: AII thesebiLls qre getting me down. -+ BE DowN

get something down to write something: I wasn't able to getdown her phone number from the answer phone. --+ copy, pur,TAKE. WRIIE SOMETHING DOWN

get down to something to start doing something: Stop toLkingond get down to your work!

get in touch (with someone) to phone. emai[. etc. someone: -I ' l lget in touch with you when I know the exact date.

get into something 1 to manage to enter a ptace after an effort:How did you get into the stadium without a ticket? 2 to start aconversation, fight, etc with someone: He's always getting intorows with his parents.

ge t (someone) in to t roubte (w i th ) to do someth ing tha t makesyourself deserve punishment (or someone): Staying out late wil lonly get you into trouble with your parents. -) GEr (SOMEONE)OUT OF TROUBLE (WITH)

get off 1 to leave a bus. train, etc: I got off at the train station.--+ DR0P, LET SO|{EONE OFF. 2 to start a journey: We got off ateight o'cLock.

get on ( in t i fe) to have success in your Life: You need a goodeducation in order to get on (in life). -, cET AHEAD

get on (with) to have a fr iendty retat ionship with someone:I get on very badly with my cousin. We don't get on. RealLy? Iget on fine/welL with her-

gett ing on (for) + BE GETTTNG 0N (FOR)get (someone) out of troubte (with) to do something so that you

avoid (or someone avoids) punishment: Saying you were t iredwon't get you out of trouble with your teacher for being late.--+ GET (SOMEONE) INTO IROUBLE (WIIH)

get ou t o f (do ing) someth ing to manage to avo id do ing a job youdon't Hke: I tried to get out of (doing) the washing up.

get something out of something to enjoy an activi ty. a course ofstudy, etc. and learn many things: We got o Lot out of our visi tto London.

get over someone to become happier after the end of a romanticrelat ionship: How can ever get over Jona?

get over something 1 to become we[[ after being i t t with aparticular jltness: It takes time to get over a bad coLd. 2 tobecome happier after being sad, fr ightened, etc: I ' i l never getover my mother's death.

get round to doing something (also get around to) to dosometh ing you have p lanned or wanted to do fo r a long t ime:When wiLL you get round to painting the tabLe?

get through 1 to be successfuI when you try to phone someone:I waited for a long tine but I finaLly got through to the ticketffice. 2 to pass a test or exam: I'm sure you'll get through.

get through something 1 to pass a test or exam: You' l l getthrough your driving test this tine. 2 to survjve an unpteasantor djfficutt period: If I can get through this week, I can getthrough anything!

get (something) through to someone 1 to manage to reachsomeone by tetephone: I can't get through to the manager. --+PUT SOME0NE THROUGH (T0) 2 to manage to make someoneunderstand something: I don't seem able to get through to youall that this test is very important.

get to someone to make you feeI very angry or upset: Her cit icismof my clothes is getting to me.

get to somewhere to arr ive at a ptace: When wil l you get toMadrid?

get together (with) to join other peopte for a party, meeting, etc:Let's get together with the others after school. Noun: Gsr-TOGETH ER

get (someone) up to wake (someone) up and ge t ( them) ou t o fbed: What time do you get up on Sundays.T -+ BE, sTAy, WAIT up

get up to something to do something naughty: What ore thoseboys getting up to?

give something away 1 to give something to someone because youdon't want i t or because you want them to have j t : Why don't yougive away that racket since you never use it now? Noun: GIVE-AWAY 2 to te[[ a secret or give informatjon: someone did not wantto know: Please don't give awoy the ending - we're seeing the fiLmtomorrow,

give (someone) something back to give something to someonewho had jt before you: Please give me back my dictionary. I'llgive it bock to you tomorrow.

give in (to) to agree to something but not because you want to:You mustn't give in to your children aLI the time.

give something out 1 to give copjes of the same thing to manypeople: Julia will give out the boolcs. -,r sHARE soMETHTNG oul(AMoNG) 2 to te[[ peop[e something: The news wos given out thatthe attocker had been found.

give up 1 to admjt that you don't know: I don't know the answer -I g ive up .2 to s top do ing someth ing because you th ink you can ' tmake progress:. Don't give up - if you practise more, you'Ll be agood tennis pLayer.

give something up 1 to stop doing something you have doneregu[arty. especialty something bad: I'm trying to give upsmoking.2 to leave yourjob: She gave up herjob in the bank andtravelled round the world, didn't she?

go after something/someone 1 to try to catch someone: Ihepolice hove gone ofter the thieves. -+ BE AFTER SoMEoNE 2 to tryto get something: He's gone after a job in Paris.

go atong with someone/something 1 to go with someone to aplace:I've decided to go along with the others to the cinena.2to agree with someone or support something: We went alongwith aLL her suggestions.

go around (aLso go about/round) --+ G0 ABoUTgo away 1 to travel and stay somewhere: She's gone awoy to France

for a hoLiday.2 to stop being present: I told you - go oway! W|LLthis cold ever go away?

go down 1 to move to a lower place: Ihe sun went down behind theclouds.2 to change to a lower, amount. price, etc: Do taxes evergo down? --+ coME, cuT DowN

go down with something to become jt t wjth a part icu[ar disease,etc: I'm afraid she's gone down with flu.

go for something to make an effort to get or achieve somethingbecause you want to: She's gone for a job in the new factory. Ifyou want to win, go for it!

go in 1 to enter: We can go in of seven o'clock.2 to be understood:I try to Learn English grammar but it just won't go in.

go in for something 1 to do a part icular act ivi ty. exam or courseof study: I'm thinking of going in for a career in television. 2 todo something because you enjoy it: I never did go in for wotchingfootbaLL on TV.

go into something 1 to enter a buitding or room: He went intohospitaLfor three days.2 to examine the detai[s of something: l l lewill have to go into aLI the details of your application.

go off 1 to move away to another place: He went off on hoLiday toSpain. Don't go off on your own - wait for us. 2 to become bad: Ithink this miLk hos gone off. --+ BE oFF 3 to burst into pieces andcause damage: A bomb went off in the street.

go off something/someone to stop [ iking someone or something:I've gone off Brad Pitt.

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go off with someone/something to [eave a place with someone orsomething: My brother has gone off with my footbaLL shirt.

go on 1 to happen: Read newspapers if you want to know what'sgoing on in the world.2 to continue doing something: She wasso tired cLimbing the hill that she thought she couldn't go on.

go on something to be used to pay for something: This money wil lgo on the books I need.

go on about someone/someth ing 1 to compla in about someone orsomething: Stop going on obout how awful your parents are. 2 tota[k about something or someone at[ the t ime: She goes on ondon obout her new boyfriend.

go out 1 to leave a place: He's gone out to the coffee bar.2 to goaway from home and enjoy yoursetf: . I don't go out a lot duringthe week. r BE oUT 3 to stop burning or producing l ight:. Thefire's gone out again. SuddenLy, the Light went out.4 (al"so goout of fashion) to stop being fushionable: High heels went outages ago. --+ BE oUT

go out with someone 1 to leave a ptace with someone: He's goneout with Max to the coffee bar. 2 to have someone as yourgirtfriend or boyfriend: Are you going out with anyone at themoment?

go over (to) to move near someone: I went over (to her) and shookher hand.

go over something to read something or practise something againand check your knowledge: I need to go over the grommar weLearned yesterday.

go round 1 to wa[k, drive. etc. round the outside of a pLace: Trucl<smust go round (the city centre).2 to visit a ptace: Let's go roundto Charlotte's house. + COME RoUND 3 to be enough for everyoneor everything: Is there enough food to go round? 4 (al.so goabout/around) --+ Go AB0ur

go through 1 to pass from one side to the other: The bed won't gothrough (the door).2 to search somewhere: I've been through aLLthe drowers but I can't f ind i t .3 to experience pain or dif f icuLty:He's gone through a Lot of pain. 4 to do a set of tasks: 6othrough the exercises at home.

go through with something to do something you have threatened todo: He said he'd tell my mum but he didn't go through with it.

go together 1 to go somewhere wjth someone: Let 's go together tothe meeting, shaLl we? 2 to look attractjve together: Do you thinkthis blouse and that skirt go together?

go under to go betow the surface of water: The boy went under forthe third time.

go up 1 to move to a higher pLace: They've gone up that hill overthere. 2 to jncrease: Pices have gone up again. 3 to be bui[t: ffer,vffice bLacls ore going up all over the town.

go with someone/something 1 to travel with someone: She's goneto London with her parents.2 to look attract ive with something:I don't think this blouse goes with that skirt. 3 to be part ofsomething: Does crime always go with poverty?

grow out of something 1 to become too big for ctothing or shoes:You've grown out of thatjackef. Noun: ouTGRow 2 to become toootd for an activity: She'll never grow out of biting her nails?

grow into someone to become a part icu[ar kind of person as yougrow: He's grown into a such q polite young man.

grow up 1 to become an adult: What wiLI you do when you grow up7--+ BRING SOMEONE UP Noun: cRowNUp 2 to behave as an adult: l4l i / lthat young man ever grow up?

hang on 1to hol"d something: We hung on as the car suddenLyturned the corner. 2 to stay on the phone: Hong on, I'll see ifshe's st i l l here.3 to be patient or wait: Hang on - the ambuLancewilL be here soon.

hang up to end a phone catl by putt ing down the phone: I f youshout, I'U hong up.

have (got) something on 1 to be wearing part icular ctothes: Hehod on blue jeans and a white shirt, ) pur. TRy SOMETHING 0N 2 tohave arranged to do something: Have you got anything on thisevening?

hotd on to someth ing 1 to keep you hands on someth ing assupport: HoId on to that chair. 2 to keep something: May I holdon to your dictionary for the weekend?

hold someone up to prevent someone from leaving or doingsomething: The customer was arguing and held up everyone in thequeue. - ) BE HELD UP Noun: HOLDUP

Lex(czft

hurry up to move, fin'ish a job, etc. faster: Hurry up or we'll beIote.

join in to be one a group doing something: Now, I 'Ll sing and I 'dLike everyone to join in.

keep on (do ing someth ing) to cont inue do ing someth ing : fwarned her but she keeps on smoking.

keep someone/something out to prevent someone, a vehicle,etc. from going in or through a place: How con we keep out somany cars in the city centre?

keep out of something to not be active in something: I try tokeep out of discussions about politics.

keep to something 1 to stay on a part icular road. stay with aschedute, etc: Keep to the motorway all the way to Manchester.Keep to the left. We must keep to the agreed timetabLe.2 to dosomething you promised or agreed to: You said you wouLd payand you nust keep to that.

keep up (with) to move at the same speed or leveL: You can'tcome if you don't keep up with ui. t CATCH up (wrrH)

keep someone up to stop someone from going to bed: Everyonewas kept up by the noise. The party next door kept everyone upoLL night. --+ BE, sTAY, wArT up

keep something up to maintain the same high l"evel.: Keep up thegood work!

kick off (with) 1 to start ptaying footbalt: The match kicks off atseven thirty tonight. Noun: KIcK-oFF 2 to start taking part in adjscussion, meeting, etc: Let's kick off with a report fron thesates manager. -r START oFF (WIIH)

kick up a fuss to comptain very [oud[y because you are angry:Shekicked up o terrible fuss just because the bus was ten minutesLate.

kneel down to rest yourself on your knee: We aLI knelt down onthe floor to Look for her contact Lens. --+ LIE, sIT DowN

know something about something I don't know a lot aboutscience.

teave for somewhere to start a journey to a ptace: The train wil lbe leoving for Madrid in one hour.

leave something on to tet a l ight or machine continue working:You left the Lights on aLL night. -) puT, swrTCH, TURN soMErHrNGO N

leave someone/something out (of) to not include someone orsomething in a group, [ ist, etc: My name has been Ieft out olthe |ist, Did you leove anyone out?

let someone down to make someone feel disappointed becauseyou didn't do something you promised: You've agreed to feed thecot while I'm away - don't let me down.

tet someone off 1 to [et someone leave a bus. train, car, etc: Youcan let me off at the corner, J GET 0FF; puT soMEONE DOWN. 2 toaltow someone to go without being punished:. I ' l l let you offthis t ine but don't do i t again. -+ BE LET oFF Noun: LET-oFF

[ie down to put yoursetf in a posit ion with your body ftat on abed, the floor, etc: I've got a headache so I'll lie down for awhiLe. --+ KNEEL, sIT DowN. Noun: LrE-DowN

lie in to stay jn bed after your usual t ime for gett ing up:He lies in alL morning on Sundays. Noun: LIE-IN

listen to someone/something f Love listening to music on theradio.

t ive i t up to enjoy yourself, especia[ty white you spend money:He's living it up in London.

l ive up to something to do something to the exce[tent [eve[people expect: It's hard to live up to your parents' expectations..+ COME UP TO SOMETHING

Log on/off to do the actions that turn a computer on or off : Cl ickon 'Shut down' to log off.

look after someone to take care of someone and give them whatthey need: There was no one to look after Margery when she wosiu.

look after something to watch something so that i t isn't stotenor broken: Can you look ofter my bag whiLe I go and buy myticket?

took around (also look round) to look in every direct ion:I looked oround for an empty seat.

look at someone/something 1 to look in the direct ion ofsomeone or something: Look at that LoveLy garden. 2 toexamjne something: The doctor wiLI need to look ot that cut.

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l ook back on someth ing to th ink about a per iod when you d idsomething in your past: f'll look back on my schooL days with aIot of pLeasure.

[ook for something/someone to try to f ind someone orsomething: We've been looking for you for ages. -) sEARcH FoRSOM EON E/SOM ETHING

look forward to something to be excited about something thatwi[[ happen: I'm looking forword to meeting you.

look into something to try to f ind the truth about something:The poLice are looking into what happened.

look out 1 to look through a wjndow, etc: I looked out and sowit was raining. Noun: L00KOUT; OUT|OOK 2 (aLso watch out) tobe carefu[: Look out - there's a car cominq.

look out for someone (al.so watch out ior) to take care ofsomeone by making sure they don't get jnto dif f icult ies: I 'vepromised to look out for the younger members of the group.

look round --t LooK ARoUNDlook through something to search papers, [ ist, etc. to try to f ind

something: I 've looked through the magozines butI can't find that photogroph.

took something up to f ind information in a dict ionary, on theInternet, etc: If you have probLems, look up the words in yourdictionary.

took up to someone (for) to l" ike and respect someone, especial"Lysomeone in authority: I've always looked up to my mum for herpati en ce a n d e n cou ra g e m ent.

make someth ing ou t 1 to manage to see someth ing th rough badLight, a tetescope. etc: We could just mqke out a dark shapemoving across the fieLd. 2 to understand something: We couldn'tmake out his handwit ing. 3 to claim that you are someone thatyou aren't or you can do something you can't do: He made outthat he could swim to the island but he couldn't.

make up to become fr iendl.y with someone after a quarret:After a quarrel that Lasted more than a week, we decided to mokeup.

make something up 1 to say or wrjte something that is not true:She made up a idiculous excuse. You didn't see her - you madeit aLL up.2 to put cosmetjcs on your face: Your face is made upbefore you go on television. Noun: MAKE-up 3 to put thingstogether to make something: Young men make up most ofUnited's supporters. Noun: MAKt-uP

make up for something 1 to do something nice to make adisappointment, a bad experience, etc. better: I 'm sorry IcouLdn't come with you but I'll nake up for it next weekend. 2 tohave a good quati ty so that bad quati t ies are less important: Hemay not be good-Looking but he mokes up for that by being verycaing.

meet up (with) to meet someone you arranged to meet:You alL go ahead and I'll meet up with you loter.

miss someone/something out to not include someone orsomething: My name was missed out from the list.

mix something up (with) 1 to change the order or arrangement ofsomething: PLease don't mix up the CDs with the tapes. 2 (aLsomuddte something up (with)) to put two or more thingstogether so that you don't know which is which: The agent hosmixed up ourflight hckefs. Noun: trltx-up

move in to take possession of a home: When did your newneighbours move in?

move on 1 to move further along a road, etc: The police told us tomove on. 2 to get a better job. home, etc:. You've worked herefor severaL years and it's time you moved on.

move out to leave a home: They are moving out next week.muddte something up (with) --+ MIX soMETHTNG up (wrTH)open up 1 to open the door and let people in: What t ine does the

supermorket open up? 2 to fee[ retaxed and tatk: After a few kindwords from her teacher, she began to open up.

part with something to give something to someone e[se: f?never part with your ing.

pass away to die: Hrs mother passed oway Last week.pass by to move past someone or something: I saw her smiLe as

she wos passing by. Noun: PASSER-BY Plura[: PASSERS-BYpass through something to come into a bui lding, town. etc. and

then leave: Thousands of refugees have passed through thisPOT|. --+ COME IHROUGH SOMETHING

pass out to suddenty become unconscious: She passed out in theheot.

pay someone/something back to return money you owe: I mustpay back a large loan from the bank.

pay up to pay the money you owe: Pay up or I'lL teLI your parents.perk (someone) up to become (or make someone) happier, more

active, etc: A coffee shouLd perk me up.pick something out to choose something from many: She picked

out o smolL blue T-shirt. -r porNl soMETHTNG 0uTpick someone up 1 to col lect someone and let them ride in your

car or taxi: I'll pick you up at seven o'cLock. Noun: pICK-Up 2 tomake someone feel better: A cup oftea wil l soon pick you up.3 totalk to and get a boyfriend or girlfriend: He tied to pick me up atthe party.

pick something up 1 to take somethjng from the ground, etc: youdropped the bool<s so you must pick them up. 2 to coLLectsomething: I 've come to pick up my post.3 to buy something: -Ipicked up a cheap coat in the market.4 to become affected by adisease: She picked up malaia in Zimbabwe.

point something out 1 to show something by point ing: He pointedout the large size T,shirts. --+ prcK S0METHTNG our. 2 to te[[someone something they did not know: I pointed out that nightflights are cheaper.

pop off to die: Do more exercise or you'll pop off before you're fifty!press ahead (with) (atso press on (with)) to continue to make an

effort to do something: In spite of the bad report we decided topress ahead with our pLons.

pu[[ into somewhere to drive into a ptace: We pulled into the petrolstation and bought a road map.

puLl out (of) to drive away from a ptace: We didn't see the van aswe pulled out of the petrol station.

pu[[ over to drive towards the side of the road: The police asked usto pull over and stop.

putt through to recover from a serious i[[ness: Suddenly she openedher eyes - she had pulled through.

pull. up to stop driving, running, etct We pulled up and looked atthe map.

put something aside 1 (also put something away/by) to save moneyregularly: We're putting oside a few pounds each month to buy acamera.2 to keep a period free for a particular activity: Put asidetwo hours every evening for your homework.

put someone down 1 (al.so put someone off) to stop and letsomeone leave a taxi. etc: Please put me down at the corner. -+LET SOMEONE oFF 2 to crjticise someone: He always puts her downin front of the chiLdren. Noun: puT-DowN

put something down to write something: Where did you put downher phone number? --+ c0Ff, GET, TAKE, wRITE soMETHING D0wN

put something forward to suggest an idea, p[an. etc: He putforword some interesting ideos.

put someone off to make someone not t jke something or not wantto do something: The dirty knife put me off ny meoL. Adj: oFr-PUTTING

put something off to deLay doing something: He put off telLing herabout it until the next mornina.

put something on 1 to dress ir ia piece of cl .othing: put on a cleanshirt. 2 to make a Light. etc. start working: Please put theteLevision on. 3 to become heavier: He's put on a kilo sinceNovember. 4 to perform a p[ay, show, etc: Which pLay is theNationalTheatre putt ing on? 5 to pretend to have something: Sheput on a posh accent.

put i t on to pretend to have a part icular feeting: He's not upset -he's putting it on.

put someone up to let someone stay in your home: f can put youup for a few nights.

put something up 1 to increase an amount: I hope they don't putup the rent.2 to buitd something: They've put up a statue in themain square.

put up with someone/something to accept an unpleasant personor situation: I don't think I can put up with this job for muchtonger.

reach for something to put your hand out in order to getsomething: I saw her reaching for the chocoLate on the sheLf.

read something over to read something and check i t : I reod overmy notes before the exam. -) G0 0vER SOMETHING

ring (someone) up to make a phone call: Ring me up when you get

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home. + GEI 0N T0 S0|"1E0NEround something off (with) to comptete or end a mea[, speech.

etc. with something: We rounded off dinner with a fruit saLad.run off (with) to stea[ something and run: The dog ron off with

the cooked meat. --+ MAKE 0FF (wIrH)run away to run far away to avoid being caught. punished. etc:

The dog took the meat and ron away.run into someone to meet someone by chance: Guess who I ran

into in the supermarket.run out (of) to have no more supplies of something: We hoven't

run out of niLk again, have we? Yes, the miLk's run out.run over someone/something to drive a car, etc. over someone,

an anima[. etc: The dog wos run over by a bus.saddte up to get a horse ready for you to go on a journey: When

we were saddling up, he said we hod too much Luggage.search for someone/something to [ook carefut ly for someone or

something: We seqrched everywhere for a cheap cafd. --t tooxFOR SOMEONE/SOMETHING

send away for (also send off for) to order something by post: - I 'vesent off for an application form.

send someone on someth ing to a r range fo r someone to go on ajourney, etc: My parents sent me on a trip to London.

send something out to distr jbute a notice, etc: A letter has beensent out to all our members.

set something aside to save an amount money: f set aside a fewpounds elch month for my trip to London.

set in to begin or appear and continue: Cold weather has set in.set off (on) to start to move: We set off on q walk to the Lake.set out to start a journey: We must set out eorly tomorrow.set out (to do something) to start or plan to achieve something:

We had set out to win but were pleased to come second.se t someth ing up 1 to pu t someth ing in a par t i cu [a r pos i t ion : Ihe

refugees set up homes on poor soiL.2 to arrange a meeting, etc:I'll set up onother meeting for next week. Noun: srt-up

sett le down 1 to make yourself comfortabte in a seat, bed, newhome, etc: How are you settling down in England? 2 to startliving a responsible Life with a job, etc: Isn't it time you settleddown and got a decent job?

shout out (for) to shout loud[y: She shouted out for heLp but noone heard her. + CALL, cRY, YELL 0Ur

show someone in to lead someone into a room: When the nextapplicant arrives, show her in, pLease.

show off to show or describe your own abjt j t ies in order to makepeopte admire you: Sfop showing o// Noun: sHow-0FF

shut up to stop talking: Shut up and sit down.sidte up to someone to move slowty and careful ly towards

someone as i f you don't want to be seen: He sidled up to meand asked me for money.

sit back 1 to sit comfortably: Sit back in your chairs.2 to makeno effort: He sat back while others did the work.

sit down to restyourself in a chair, on the f loor, etc: We sat downon the nearest seat.

si t up to sit with your back straight: He's abLe to sit up in bed.slow down 1 to drive, develop, jncrease, etc. more slowty: You

shouLd slow down in a busy street. Sales in supermarkets showno sign of slowing down, do they? Noun: slowDol\tN

sor t someth ing ou t 1 to a r range th ings in g roups or a par t i cu [a rorder: -I must sort out my old photographs.2 to setttedisagreements, etc: The prime minister had to sort the chaos outbetween the two poLit icians. 3 to deal wjth a bad situation:When will this ness be sorted out?

speak ou t (a tso speak up) to say in pubt ic what you th jnk o r feL [ :If peopLe spoke out, the war night end.

speak up 1 to speak more loudly: Speak up - we con't hear you.2 -_' SPEAK OUT

speed up 1 to move faster: We speeded up but the car was stillbehind us. 2 to happen more quickly: Changes in cLimate willspeed up over the next ten yeors.

spti t up (with) to no [onger be someone's gir l fr iend or boyfr iend:I split up with my girlfiend a few months ago.

spread out to move apart and cover or f i [ [ a larger area:I suggest everyone spreads out and Lool<s for her.

stand by to not do anything to he[p: He just stood by whiLe othersheLped us.

t-8xu0ft

stand out to be obvious: Her intel l igence stood out.stand up to r ise to your feet with your body upright: We stood up

as the visitor entered the room.stand up for someone/something to support someone, an idea,

etc. that is being attacked: You never stand up for me when dadblames me. Stond up for your rights!

stand up to someone to refuse to accept unfair treatment fromsomeone: Don't Let your brother teLI you who to be friends with -

stand up to him.start off (with) to start an activity: Let's start off with a

vocobulary gome. KICK, sET oFFstart out 1 to start a journey: They storted out at six o'cLock. 2 to

begin your career: He started out as a Lorry driver but became a

famous judge.3 to begin to be heard, done. etc: Jazz stortedout in New 0rleans.

start something up to begin a business. group, etc: Helen hasstarted up a waLking group.

stay in (also stop in) to be at home and not go out: I can't cometo the cinema - I'n staying in tonight. -+ BE IN

stay up (tate) to not go to bed at the usuaI t ime: You can stoy upon Fiday. ---r wArr uP (FoR)

stick something up to attach a notice, etc. on a wat[, etc:I've stuck up a poster of Madonna.

stop in -r srAY rNstop off (at) to break your journey: We stopped off at the

motorway cafd for d meoL.strolt over (to) -"r wALK ovER (r0)sum up to give a short statement at the end that shows the main

point: Io sum up, computers con do many tasks.switch off to stop paying attention: He switches off when I ask

him a question.switch something off to use a switch to stop a l ight, machjne,

etc. working: Don't forget to switch off the lfghfs. --+ ruRruS0l '4ETHING 0FF

switch something on to use a swjtch to make a [ ight, machine,etc. work: Switch on the kettle and let's hove tea. --+ TURNSOMETHING ON

take after someone to look or behave [ ' ike someone: He tokesafter his mother.

take something back 1 to return with something to a shop: Ihrsjacket doesn't fit and I'm taking it back. t BRING, GET, GIVESOMETHING BACK 2 to admit that you were wrong to saysomething: How dare you calL me a Liar - toke that bock.

take something down to write something: Take down thismessage. --+ cOPY, GET, PUT, WRITE SOMETHING D0WN

take something in to understand and remember something:I didn't take in much of what she said. --+ BE TAKEN IN (BY)

take off to leave the ground: The pLane took off at seven. Noun:TAKf-OFF

take someone in to make someone bel ieve something that is nottrue: We were token in by her expensive cLothes.

take something off 1 to remove clothing: I took off ny coat.2 toremove something from a list: Beef has been token off themenu. 3 to reduce a price: They took ten percent off the price.I'll toke off another pound from the price.4 to use a period oftjme to have a hotiday. etc: I'm taking off Fiday.

take someone on to give someone a job: They've taken on severalmore men.

take something on 1 to accept work: You've tdken on too muchwork. 2 to do someth' ing about a problem: The government musttake on the probLem of homelessness.

take someone out to invite someone to go to a cinema,restaurant. etc: I'm toking her out for a meaL this evening.

take something/i t out on someone to make someone sufferbecause you are angry: Jusf because he won't phone you - don'ttoke your disappointment out on me! You may be angry withhim, but don't take it out on me.

take over (from) to take control from someone eLse: Diana is illand she has asked me to take over. I've taken over from Diana.

take over something to take responsibi l i ty for something:The government took over management of the railways. Noun:TAKE-OVER

take to someone/something to form a l iking for someone orsomethinq: We took to our new teacher immediateLv.

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[-exicon

take something up to do an activi ty: PauL hos token upswimming.

take up something to use an amount of space: The sofa is nicebut it takes up too much space.

take someone up on someth ing to accept someth ing tha tsomeone offers: f he offers you the job, will you take him upon it?

talk something over (with) to discuss something before makinga decision: Talk things over with your parents before you decide.

tatk (to someone) about something We met ot a party andtolked about music for hours. I often tolk to Susan in theevenings.

think about someone/something to think carefut ly: Think oboutwhat failing the exam could mean.

think of something to jnvent an excuse, etc: Can you think ofone good reason why I shouldn't punish you?

throw something away (also throw something out) to get r id ofsomething because you don't want or need i t : I 'm throwing outmy old cLothes. -+ GIVE SOMETHING AWAY

throw something off to take off clothes quickLy: I threw ofl mycoot and sat down.

throw someone/something out (of) to make someone go, or takerubbish, etc. out, of a ptace: He was thrown out of coLlegebecause he didn't do any work.

t idy (something) up to make an untidy place t idy: Tidy up yourroom before you go out.

tr igger something off to cause something to start or happen: Ihechanges in climate have tiggered ofl floods in many countries.

try for something to try to get a place at a col lege or university.a job. a record: He is trying for the worLd record. A place otuniversity is worth trying for.

t ry someth ing on to pu t on c lo th ing and see i f i t f i t s o r tha t youLike it: Why not try on this coat?

try something out (on) 1 to use something and f ind out i f i tworks wetl : I haven't tried out my new dictionary yet. Noun:TRY-ouT 2 to test a skill: Have you tried out your EngLish on yourpenfriend yet?

turn against someone to become unfr iendly towards someone:After he came out of prison, everyone had turned ogainst him.-- ' BE AGAINST SOMETHING/SOI.4EONE

turn away to tu rn round and look in another d i rec t jon :He turned away and put his hands in his pockets.

tu rn someone away to no t a l tow someone in to a p lace :They ore turning swsy everyone without a ticket.

turn back to return the way you had come: let 's turn bockbecause the we can't see our poth in this bad weather.

turn down something to turn round and move a[ong a street, etc:The car turned down the road and went into the cor park.

turn someone down to refuse to a[[ow someone to have a job,ptace at university, etc: I applied for a place on the computercourse but they turned me down.

turn something down 1 to make noise, a Light, heat, etc. lessstrong: furn down that teLevision! 2 to decjde not to take a job,offer, etc: He turned down the chance to play professionaL

footbalL.turn into someone/something to change or develop into

someone or something e[se: Her daughter has turned into abeautiful young woman. The caterpiLLar turned into a beautifulbutterfly.

turn off to drive off a road and join another one: Turn off at thenext exit.

turn someone off to be unpleasant, not funny, etc. so that youdo not t ike the person responsibte: His siLIy jokes obout womenreaLLy turn me off.

turn something offto stop a Light. machine, tap, etc. from givingyou tight, power, water, etc:. Please turn the television off, Turnit off. The street Lights are turned off at dawn. -+ swITcHSOMETHING OFF

turn off something to leave one road and be in another: 1,1/eturned off the High Street into o narrow road. Noun: TURN oFF

turn on someone to attack someone or treat them badlv: Whv didshe turn on you Like that?

turn something on to make a Light. machine, tap, etc. give youlight, power. water, etc: Please turn on the radio. Turn it on. --+

PUT, SW]TCH SOMEIHING ONturn out 1 to appear and be present: A Large crowd turned out to

greet the President. Noun: TURN-oUT 2 to have a part icular resu[t:Luckily, her treatment has turned out well. It turned out thatMax had my ticket.

tu rn someone out (o f ) to make someone leave a p lace :We were oll turned out of the classroom.

turn something out 1 to stop a [amp, etc. from giving you t ight:Turn out the light and go to sleep. Turn it orrt. --r swITcHS0METHING OUT. 2 to produce a piece of work: She's been turningout some good essays this term.3 to take everything out of abag, pocket, etc: I turned out my hondbag but I couLdn'tfind myaddress book.

turn over to move so that you fuce the other way when you arelying down: I turned over and faced the waLI.

turn round to fuce the opposite djrect ion: I turned round to seewho was behind me.

turn to someone (for) 1 to turn round and look towards someone:He turned to me and smiled. 2 to ask someone for heto or advice:I don't know who to turn to. He turned to his father for advice.

turn up to appear somewhere, especiat ly as a surprise or after adelay: When did Peter turn up? Don't worry - your camera willturn up.

tu rn someth ing up 1 to inc rease the amount o f sound in a rad io ,etc: I can't hear - pLease turn up the volume. 2 to shortentrousers. etc: I'll turn up your trousers. Noun: TURN-UP

use something up to use at[ of something: You've used up aLl themiLk.

watk out of somewhere to leave a p[ace, usuatly because you aredisappointed: Have you ever walked out of a film?

wake up (from) to stop steeping: He woke up from the anaestheticwith a bad headache.

wake someone up to stop someone from steeping: The sound ofthewindow breaking woke up the whole fanily.

walk in to enter: Look who's just walked in!walk out (of) 1 to leave a meeting, job, etc: They have wolked out

of the tall<s. Noun: wALK-ourwalk over (to) (atso strot l over) to watk towards someone: She

caLmLy walked over to him and pushed his arm.watch out -r L00K 0UTwatch out for someone 1 --+ t00K ouT FoR 50ME0NE 2 to pay carefuI

attention: The owners were watching out for shoplifters.wear off to become less strong gradua[[y: The pain will soon weor

off.w ind someone up to do someth ing so tha t you annoy someone:

Don't respond - he said that to wind you rrp. Noun: WIND-UPwipe something out to destroy something: The disease wiped out

half the population.work at something to try hard to do something:. He won't taLk to

me but I'm working at becoming friends ogain.work on something 1 to study something in order to f ind a

solution: Scientists hove been working on a cure for leukaemia, 2to do work on a building, etc: He's been working on his paintings

for several weel<s.work out 1 to happen successfully: If things work out, we'LL be

home by six o'clock.2 to do lots of exercise: We worked out hardot the gyn. Noun: woRK-ouT

work something out 1 to manage to f ind a solut jon to a problem:I've worked out a way to get there. --+ MAKE S0METHING 0uT. 2 tofind the reason why: Try to work out why you made mistakes.

wrap up to put on warm clothes: Wrop up well- it's cold outside,wrap something up to cover something: Have you wrapped up the

presents yet?write something down to write information: I wrote down her

phone number. --+ copy, GET, pur, TAKE SoMETHING DowNzip (something) up to fasten ctothes, etc. using a zip: Zip up the

tent - it's very coLd. --+ BUTTON, D0 (S0METHING) up

Page 178: New Opportunities Upper Intermediate Student

0bbJ0Yi0liolS (Uuler!rcd auureviations are saia as one woro.t

0 rg a ni sati o n s/ Co u n tri e sBBC Brit ish Broadcasting Corporation; EU European Union;CIA CentraI Intetl igence Agency (Am); FBI Federal Bureau ofInvestigation (Am); IUf InternationaI Monetary Fund; IPCCInternationaI Panel for CLimate Controt; ISS InternationaI SpaceStation; NAFIA North American Free Trade Area; NASA NorthAmerican Space Agency; X1![Q North Attantic Treaty 0rganisation;NZ New Zealand (onl.y written); UK United Kingdom; UN UnitedNations; USA United States of America

PeopIeGI ordinary American soldier; GP generaI practicioner (doctor -Br); MP member of partiament (Br); pU prime minister (BrE);PC potice constabte (BrE); VIP very important person

HealthAids auto-immune deficiency syndrome; MS muLtiple scterosis; TBtubercutosis

Economics/ BusinessGDP gross domestic product; GNP gross nationaI product;Ltd timited company; ono. or nearest offer (for advertisements)

Lang uage (dict io naries)adj. adjective; adv. adverb; n. noun; prep. preposition;pron. pronoun; v. verb; sing. singutar; pl. ptura[; T transitive(verb with object); I intransifive (verb without object);AmE American Engl.ish; BrE Brit ish EngLish.

Colloquialpc pol.iticaLLy correct

ComputersPC personaI computer; IT information technotogy

Measurementsspeed:, kph. kilometres per hour; mph. miles per hourdistance: km. kitometres; cm. centimetres; m. metres;

mm. mittimetres; m. miles (1 mite = 1.6 kmweight:lb. pound (1 pound = 0.45 kitos); oz. ounce (28 grams)temperaturei temp. temperature; eC degrees Centigrade;qF degrees Fahrenheit (water boits at 2't2e and freezes at 32e)

WritingTittes of peopte: Dr doctor; Mr man; Ms woman;

Mrs married woman; Prof. professorAddresses: c/o in care of (sending a letter for somebody to

another person's address); Ave Avenue; Rd Road; St StreeUNr near (Nr Ludtow)

Letters: asap as soon as possibte (informal.); PTO please turnover (page in [etter); RSVP ptease reply to this invitation;PS postcript (extra message at the end of a [etter);tet. - teLephone number.

Others: e.g. for example; etc. and so on; i.e. that is to say(exampl.e); NB ptease note

InformaI emait/mobite phone text messages: BBFN bye bye fornow; BRB be right back; CU see you; CW2CU can't wait tosee you; IDK I don't know; IIUVU I [ove you; HAND have anice day; KIT keep in touch; NRN no repty needed;PCM ptease contact me; TIA thanks in advance; PLS ptease; Xkiss.

pronunciotion symbols/p/ = pen /e/ = tet/b/ = bad /n/ = act/V = top /i/ = steep/d/ = do /4 = bit

/t[/ = cheese /a/ 1/$/ = job /au/ -

/m/ = man /ct/ =

/n/ = not /re/ =

/n/ = nns /ee/ =

/h/ = hot /ue/ =

/t/ = let/r/ = rain/i/ = yet

/w/ = way

shynowboynearcarc/k/ = can

/s/ = get/t/ = hsh

/sr/ = aft

/o/ = dos/cr/ = form

cure

/v/ = van /u/ = put/e/ = three /v/ = boot/6/ = there /l = cup/s/ = see /zf = skirt/z/ = zoo /e/ = the/[/ = shop /et/ = make/s/ = treasure /au/ = home

/'/ = nain stress after /'ufte//,// = secondary stress afternoon /,otfte'nulnf

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lrrrqmxr $lr$rlrr! dkcr rrd crnt6ct&srfrrrd lhrffidd.,fhfurcgfubd mmmmrb of mu&m ar?drfu*{tr ot {qnr,ffi,

l"o.enr ggf* Iryrrr Ellerror*E co{"1$0s b git* bffi]*|5il€rlttc,rdf-pmd *tdy CISlxu. Aerfidop€d b fflnpl€rn:flt drr$uffir lmtffitisor iar $Srne* lexning finrrcr ssrilEr C€fr*rdfing[btl e***rr ErrgliJr, frd EIffi P|tpmtir;:=T;--*g=Elffirsll

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