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LATIN SYLLABUS VOCABULARY LIST Updated with K-10 and HSC Continuers Lists E. Matters 2009

Latin Continuers Vocabulary List (Recovered) (Autosaved) (Recovered) (1)

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Latin Vocab HSC

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Page 1: Latin Continuers Vocabulary List (Recovered) (Autosaved) (Recovered) (1)


Updated with K-10 and HSC Continuers Lists

E. Matters 2009

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NOUNS FIRST DECLENSION K-10 LIST agricola m farmer amica f female friend, girl-friend, mistress (of a lover) amphora f wine-jar, jug ancilla f slave-girl, maidservant aqua f water ara f altar cena f dinner columba f dove ( also used as term of affection) columna f column, pillar culina f kitchen dea f goddess domina f mistress epistula/epistola f letter fabula f story, tale, drama fama f rumour, fame, renown, ill repute, news femina f woman filia f daughter flamma f flame forma f form, figure, shape, sort, beauty fortuna f fortune, chance, luck, prosperity, wealth, property

fuga f flight, exile hasta f spear hora f hour, season, time insula f island; block of flats lingua f tongue, language, speech luna f moon matrona f married woman mensa f table nauta m sailor patria f native land pecunia f property, wealth, money poena f punishment, penalty; poenas dare to pay the


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poeta m poet pompa f procession porta f gate, entrance puella f girl pugna f battle, fight ripa f bank (river), shore

sententia f opinion, judgment, advice, vote; meaning; sentence *silva f wood, forest taberna f inn, shop terra f earth, land, ground, country umbra f shade, shadow; ghost, phantom; darkness, privacy unda f wave, sea via f road, way, passage, journey, manner victima f beast for sacrifice, victim villa f country house vita f life

Do you know the origin and meaning of: ancillary, culinary, impervious, pugnacious, impecunious, filial, lunatic, terrestrial, sylvan, undulate ?

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NOUNS FIRST DECLENSION CONTINUERS LIST adulescentia –ae f youth (time of life) amicitia f friendship, alliance anima f air, breeze, soul, life audacia f boldness, courage, audacity aura f breeze, wind, odour barba f beard causa f cause, reason, occasion, excuse, matter, affair, (political)

party, blame, courtcase. Used in ablative singular with genitive of preceding noun: because of, for the sake of

copia f abundance, plenty, store, power, opportunity, means. In plural: (military forces) corona f garland, wreath; circle (of people), cordon (of troops) cura f attention, care, responsibility, anxiety, concern, trouble, love diligentia f carefulness, attentiveness, frugality disciplina f instruction, knowledge, discipline divitiae –arum f pl wealth, riches eloquentia f eloquence fama f rumour, fame, renown, ill repute, news gloria f glory, fame, renown, boasting gratia f grace, favour, kindness, goodwill,obligation. In plural: thanks

In ablative singular after genitive noun: for the sake of, for the purpose of

harena f sand, arena ianua f door ignominia f dishonour iniuria f wrong, injury, abuse, insult, offence inopia f want, scarcity, dearth insidiae f pl. ambush, plot, snare, trap invidia f. envy, jealousy, spite, dislike, ill-will ira f anger, wrath, rage iustitia f justice lacrima f tear (weeping) licentia f liberty, licence, freedom, disorderliness, outspokenness littera f letter of the alphabet; in plural literature, writings, letter memoria f memory, recollection; history minae f pl. threats, menaces, warning signs misericordia f pity, compassion mora f delay, hindrance, obstacle natura f nature, character

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opera f pains, work, labour, task, attention, care, endeavour; in plural labourers, hired thugs; operam dare to apply oneself to

ora f shore, border, edge, region palma f palm of hand; palm tree; date (fruit); victory; oar pirata m pirate potentia f power, efficacy, ability praeda f loot, booty, spoil, prey prora f prow, ship provincia f province, command, government prudentia f practical understanding, intelligence, foreknowledge,

prudence regina f queen rosa f rose ruina f downfall, ruin, debris, disaster sapientia f wisdom scientia f knowledge, understanding summa f total, sum, whole, the overall matter, the general purpose tabula f writing-tablet; letter; will; panel, picture, game-board; records tenebrae f pl darkness, obscurity, ignorance, concealment, gloom toga f toga, male garment worn by Roman citizens in civilian dress tuba f trumpet turba f disorder, crowd, confusion, disturbance venia f pardon, forgiveness, permission, favour, indulgence victoria f victory vigilia f wakefulness, watch, guard, patrol, vigilance

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NOUNS SECOND DECLENSION K-10 LIST aedificium -i n building ager agri m field, territory, farm, countryside amicus m friend amphitheatrum –i n amphitheatre animus m mind, purpose, desire, character, courage,

inclination, opinion, heart annus m year anulus m ring atrium –i n main room, atrium auxilium n help, assistance; auxiliary forces bellum n war campus m plain, field, battlefield, exercise-field, expanse captivus m prisoner, captive castra –orum n pl military camp, war service cibus m food consilium n counsel, advice, plan,reason,purpose,

judgment coquus m cook cubiculum –i n bedroom denarius m denarius, silver coin deus m god dominus m master donum n gift equus m horse exitium n ruin, death

faber fabri m artisan, workman, craftsman filius m son forum n marketplace, business centre, court

frumentum n corn, grain fundus m bottom, land, farm, estate gladius m sword

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hortus m garden imperium n command, rule, supreme power, empire legatus m ambassador, envoy, legate, commander,

deputy liber libri m book libertus m freedman locus m place plural may be loca or loci

mandatum –i n command, instruction maritus m husband modus m measure, size; rhythm, metre; manner,

means, way; limit morbus m disease murus m wall negotium n business, trouble, difficulty nuntius m messenger, message oculus m eye, bud odium n hatred, spite officium n duty, service oppidum n town ornamentum –i n decoration patronus m patron, protector, defence counsel periculum n danger, risk, trial plaustrum n wagon, cart populus m people, nation praemium n prize, booty, plunder, reward, payment puer pueri m boy, slave regnum n kingdom, monarchy remedium n cure, remedy saxum n rock servus n slave signum n mark, token, sign, standard, picture, statue,

seal silentium n silence socius m ally, partner, companion spectaculum n show, sight, spectacle telum n missile, weapon, thunderbolt templum n temple tergum n back, hide, skin theatrum n theatre triclinium n dining room

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umerus m shoulder ventus m wind vinum n wine vir viri m man, husband, hero, soldier

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NOUNS SECOND DECLENSION CONTINUERS LIST adversarius - i m opponent, enemy aevum n time, life, age, generation altum n the deep, the sea; height arbiter arbitri m umpire, master, eye-witness argentum n silver, money argumentum n proof, argument, subject, plot (of play) arma armorum n pl arms, weapons, soldiers, army, war; tools aurum n gold beneficium n kindness, benefit, favour caelum n sky, heaven, climate, weather candidatus m candidate colloquium n conversation, discourse, interview comitium n a place in the forum; in plural: elections concilium n assembly, council damnum n damage, injury, loss, hurt; fine decretum n decree, decision, principle dictum n saying, word, order exemplum n example, precedent, warning, copy, sample exsilium n exile fatum n fate, destiny, doom, death ferrum n iron, weapon, sword focus m fireplace, hearth, household fumus m smoke, steam, vapour gaudium n joy, delight hospitium n entertainment, hospitality, accommodation, guest-friendship humus f earth, soil, ground impedimentum n hindrance, impediment; in plural: baggage incendium n fire ingenium n nature, disposition, capacity, talent inimicus n enemy initium n beginning iocus m joke iudicium n judgment, verdict, trial lectus m couch, bed letum n death ludus m game, sport, entertainment; school magister magistri m master, teacher, chief, captain (ship) membrum n limb minister ministri attendant, servant, agent, accomplice

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modus m measure, size; rhythm, metre; manner, means, way; limit

monstrum n omen, portent, sign; unnatural event, monster monumentum n memorial, record, tomb, book, history numerus m number odium n hatred, spite ostium n mouth (river), entrance, door otium n leisure, rest, idleness pelagus n. open sea praefectus m commander, chief, governor, president praesidium n help, assistance, defence, protection, garrison pretium n price, worth, value, reward, bribe proelium n battle profugus m fugitive, runaway, refugee regnum n kingdom, monarchy reus m defendant, guilty party rostra –orum n pl speakers’ platform in the Forum scutum n shield sepulcrum n grave, tomb silentium n silence solacium n comfort, solace, consolation solum n base, earth, ground, soil; sole of the foot somnium n dream, vision somnus m sleep spatium n room, space, interval, period, length stipendium n tax, pay, military service studium n zeal, eagerness, study, devotion, goodwill, support subsidium n support, assistance, aid, troops in reserve supplicium n punishment, penalty, act to propitiate a deity tectum n roof, house, shelter testimonium n proof, testimony torus m couch, marriage-bed, muscle tribunus m tribune triumphus m triumph, triumphal procession vallum n palisaded earthwork (around camp etc.) velum n sail, curtain, awning, woven cloth verbum n word vestigium n footprint, track, trace, mark, vinculum n bond, rope, chain, fetter, restraint, imprisonment vitium n fault, defect, blemish, error votum n vow, prayer, desire, votive offering

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agmen agminis n herd, troop, army on the march

animal –is n animal, living creature arbor –oris f tree, mast auctoritas –atis f authority, power, reputation, credit, opinion, command, influence, importance canis canis m/f dog; the Dog Star centurio –nis m centurion, commander of a military century civis civis m/f citizen, countryman or -woman civitas –atis f citizenship, citizens, city, state clamor –is m shout, cry, noise, din, applause consuetudo -tudinis f custom, habit, use, manner, familiarity, conversation, companionship corpus corporis n body, flesh, corpse, particle custos custodis m/f guard, keeper, guardian, watchman, jailer deditio –nis f surrender dux ducis m/f leader, guide, commander, general eques equitis m horseman, cavalryman; in plural cavalry,

social class of Knights, businessmen exsul-is m/f exile fames famis f hunger, famine finis finis m/f boundary, limit, end purpose, death; in plural: territory flos floris m blossom, flower, youthful prime fons fontis m spring, fountain, source fortitudo –inis f bravery, strength frater fratris m brother, cousin gens gentis f clan, tribe, family, race, nation gladiator –is m gladiator hiems hiemis f winter, stormy weather homo hominis m human being, person, man, fellow hospes hospitis m guest, host, stranger hostis hostis m/f foreigner, enemy leo leonis m lion litus litoris n seashore, coast

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lux lucis f light, daylight, day, splendour, eyesight mare maris n sea mater matris f mother mercator –is m trader, merchant miles militis m soldier mons montis m mountain, huge rock mors mortis f death

mos moris m custom, usage, manner, style, civilization, law in plural: character, behaviour, morals multitudo multitudinis f great number, crowd, mob navis navis f ship nomen nominis n name

nox noctis f night, darkness nubes nubis f cloud, smoke, gloominess oratio –nis f speech, conversation pars partis f part, portion, share, office, role, party, side pater patris m father in plural: senators pax pacis f peace, tranquillity pes pedis m foot, foot in measurement pons pontis m bridge, deck potestas potestatis f power, authority, domination, command,

opportunity princeps principis m chief, leader,emperor rex regis m king, tyrant sacerdos sacerdotis m/f priest, priestess senator –is m senator senex senis m old man soror –is f sister tempestas tempestatis fseason, time, weather, storm tempus temporis n time, season, opportunity timor –is m fear, object of fear urbs urbis f city; Rome uxor –is f wife victor –is m conqueror, winner virtus virtutis f manliness, goodness, virtue, excellence courage, valour voluntas voluntatis f will, wish, choice, desire vulnus vulneris n wound, hurt, injury

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NOUNS THIRD DECLENSION CONTINUERS LIST accusatio –onis f accusation accusator -is m accuser, plaintiff, prosecutor actor -is m plaintiff, advocate, agent; actor; herdsman admiratio –onis f admiration, wonder adulescens –ntis m/f young man /girl aedes aedis f temple; in plural house, room aequor –oris n level surface, plain, sea aer aeris m air, atmosphere, mist aes aeris n copper, bronze, money, pay. aes alienum debt aestas aestatis f summer aetas aetatis f age, life-time, generation aether –is m upper air, heaven, sky altitudo altitudinis f height, depth, loftiness amor-oris m love, beloved, Cupid, desire amplitudo amplitudinis f enlargement, amplification ars artis f skill, art , work of art, profession, theory, cunning artifex artificis m artist, maker, author arx arcis f stronghold, citadel, the Capitoline , defence, refuge as assis m copper, coin of small value auctor –is m/f creator, maker, inventor, teacher, founder, author, promoter, adviser, protector, guardian auris auris f ear caedes caedis f slaughter, murder, blood calamitas –atis f disaster, ruin, misfortune, defeat calor –is m warmth, heat, passion, zeal, ardour captor –is m captor caput capitis n head, top, source, beginning, life, person, leader,

capital city carmen carminis n song, poem, oracle, music celeritas –atis f swiftness, speed certamen certaminis n contest, struggle, battle, rivalry cervix cervicis f neck cinis cineris m/f ashes, ruins clades cladis f defeat, destruction, ruin, plague, calamity classis classis f fleet, army, class (of the Roman people) cliens clientis m client, dependant cognomen cognominis n family name; third name as in Gaius Iulius Caesar cohors cohortis f cohort (in army), bodyguard, attendants, farmyard

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collis collis m hill color –is m colour, complexion, outward show, excuse comes comitis m/f companion, comrade, partner, attendant condicio –nis f condition, situation, stipulation, term, agreement coniunx coniugis m/f husband, wife, spouse coniuratio –nis f conspiracy, plot, band of conspirators consul –is m consul contentio –nis f exertion, contest, fight dispute, contrast, antithesis contio –nis f assembly, meeting, oration corpus corporis n body, flesh, corpse, corporation crimen criminis n charge, offence, fault, scandal, accusation, crime crudelitas crudelitatis f cruelty cupiditas –atis f longing, desire, passion, ambition, avarice decus decoris n grace, glory, beauty, virtue, ornament dedecus dedecoris n disgrace, infamy, shame, dishonour defensor –is m defender, guardian, protector dictator –is m dictator difficultas –atis f difficulty, trouble dignitas –atis f worthiness, merit, dignity, authority office, value,

honour discrimen discriminis n division, distinction, difference, crisis,risk dolor –is m pain, grief, anguish, sorrow, resentment ductor –is m leader, commander ensis ensis m sword facinus facinoris n deed, crime, outrage facultas –atis f capability, possibility, means, opportunity, skill fas n divine law, right, obligation fax facis f torch, firebrand, love-flame, fire, torment flumen fluminis n stream, river foedus foederis n treaty, agreement fons fontis m spring, fountain, source formido formidinis f fear, terror, dread; a thing which frightens fors fortis f fortune, chance, accident fragor –is m crash, noise fraus fraudis f deceit, fraud, crime frigus frigoris n cold, frost, winter frons frondis f leafy branches, foliage, leaves frons frontis f forehead, brow; front fruges frugum f pl fruits, crops fulmen fulminis n lightning, thunderbolt funus funeris n burial, funeral, funeral rites, death furor –is m fury, rage, madness genetrix genetricis f mother genitor –is m father, creator genus generis n birth, descent, origin, offspring, race, kind, family, nation

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gravitas –atis f weight, heaviness, severity, authority heros heroos m (Gk) hero honestas -atis f honour, integrity honor -is m honour, regard, office horror -is m shivering, dread, awe, rigidity ianitor –is m door-keeper, porter ignis ignis m fire imago imaginis f image, likeness, idea, appearance, ghost, phantom imber imbris m shower of rain ius iuris n law, right, authority, court of justice iuventus iuventutis f youth (time of life) lapis lapidis m stone, precious stone lar laris m household god, home laus laudis f praise, glory, excellence, merit legatio –nis f embassy libertas –atis f freedom, liberty, outspokenness libido libidinis f desire, lust, passion limen liminis n lintel, threshold, entrance lumen luminis n light, daylight, day, lamp, torch life, eye, glory magnitudo magnitudinis f greatness, bulk, importance maiores maiorum m pl ancestors manes manium m pl shades/ ghosts of the dead, gods of the Underworld mens mentis f mind, intellect, reason, judgment, disposition,

intention mensis mensis m month milia passuum thousands of steps; i.e. miles moenia moenium n pl town walls, fortified town moles molis f huge mass, lump, massive structure; monster, trouble, effort, vast undertaking mulier –is f woman, wife, mistress munitio –nis f fortifying, fortification munus muneris n function, duty; gift; public show nefas (indeclinable) sin, crime against gods, wicked action nepos nepotis m grandson, descendant; spendthrift nobilitas nobilitatis f renown, glory, high birth, excellence, nobleness numen numinis n divine will, divine presence, deity, god; nod obses obsidis m/f hostage occasio –nis f opportunity, appropriate time omen ominis n augury, sign, token (of good or bad luck) onus oneris n load, burden, affliction, trouble, responsibility opinio –nis f opinion, belief, report, reputation, imagination ops opis f power, might, strength, ability, help in plural wealth, resources, assistance opus operis n work, effort, structure, in plural siege-works orator –is m speaker, orator, advocate, ambassador orbis orbis m circle, ring, wheel; orbis terrarum the world

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ordo ordinis m row,series, order, class of citizens, arrangement, rank os oris n mouth, face, speech os ossis n bone parens parentis m/f father, mother, parent, ancestor, producer, source pavor –is m fear, dread, alarm, terror pectus pectoris n breast, heart, soul, feeling, courage, understanding pedes peditis m foot-soldier, pedestrian in plural: infantry penates –ium m the household gods pestis pestis f plague, destruction, ruin pietas pietatis f dutifulness, affection, loyalty, piety, gratitude plebs plebis or plebes –ei f common people, plebeians, mob, common herd, pondus ponderis n weight, burden, value, importance, gravity praedo praedonis m brigand, pirate, robber praetor –is m magistrate chiefly concerned with courts/judicial

function preces –um f pl prayers, entreaties, curses (sg. prex) proles prolis f offspring, descendants, race pudor –is m shame, shyness, modesty, decency, dishonour puppis puppis f stern, ship quaestor –is magistrate chiefly concerned with finances quies quietis f rest, quiet, repose, peace, sleep, death ratio rationis f account, calculation, computation, business, matter,

affair, consideration, reason, method, order, system, theory

regio -nis f district, locality, line religio –nis f supernatural feeling of constraint, scruple, awe, superstition, sanctity, ritual rus ruris n country(side) sal salis m salt, sea-water; shrewdness, wit salus salutis f health, safety, greeting sanguis sanguinis m blood, race, family, life, vigour scelus sceleris n crime sedes sedis f seat, home, residence sermo sermonis m speech, talk, conversation, gossip, language sidus sideris n star, constellation, climate, weather; glory sol solis m sun, sunlight, the east sors sortis f lot, drawing of lots; response of oracle; fate, destiny;

share spectator is m witness, spectator, observer statio –nis f standing-place, armed post, guard, station, anchorage stirps stirpis f stock, stalk, plant, shrub, family, race, offspring, posterity supplex supplicis m/f suppliant, beggar suspicio –nis f suspicion, mistrust, trace tellus telluris f earth, ground terror –is m dread, terror

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testis testis m/f witness turris turris m tower valles/vallis vallis f valley vates vatis m/f prophet, bard, poet vertex verticis m whirlpool, crown of the head, peak, top, summit vesper –is m evening, evening star, west vestis vestis f garment, clothing, clothes vires –ium f pl strength, control, resources, assets, value virgo virginis f girl of marriageable age, virgin vis (vim, vi) f strength, power, force, violence voluptas voluptatis f delight, pleasure, source of pleasure vox vocis f voice, sound, word, speech, language

Useful Note: English

derivatives often come

from the “stem” of the

Latin noun.

Vertical, rural,

sanguinary, vocal,

luminous, piety,



generic, fulminate.

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NOUNS FOURTH DECLENSION K-10 LIST (Masculine unless otherwise stated)

adventus arrival, approach, attack cantus song, singing cornu n horn, wing (army), trumpet, tip, peak currus chariot domus f house, household, family equitatus cavalry exercitus army exitus departure, outlet, end, result, death gemitus groan, lament genu n knee impetus attack, assault, urge manus f hand, band of men, workman, power metus fear, awe, anxiety portus harbour, haven, port sonitus sound, noise tumultus ` uproar, disturbance, turbulence, alarm usus use, employment, experience, practice,


DOMUS is an odd noun!

domus domūs

domum domos

domūs domorum

domui domibus

domo domibus

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NOUNS FOURTH DECLENSION CONTINUERS LIST aditus aditūs m access, way, means, opportunity casus fall, overthrow, accident, chance, event, occasion, concursus crowd, encounter, combination consulatus consulship cursus running, course, voyage, journey, race, career discessus separation, departure fremitus roaring, shouting, muttering, murmuring, loud sound fructus fruit, crops, profit gradus step, pace, rank, position, degree ictus blow, stroke, metrical beat lacus lake, pond luctus grief, sorrow, lamentation magistratus magistracy, office, magistrate motus motion, commotion, disturbance, emotion, manoeuvre occasus sun-setting, west, ruin, death risus laughter, smile senatus senate sensus feeling, perception, sensation, sense sinus curve, fold, bay, lap, bosom, hiding-place, pocket spiritus breath, breeze, soul, spirit, life strepitus noise, din, clattering, rustling, uproar vultus face, expression, features, looks

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NOUNS FIFTH DECLENSION K-10 LIST acies aciei f battle-array, edge, point, sight of the eye dies m/f day, daylight fides fidei f faith, trust, confidence, belief, loyalty,honesty res rei f thing, matter, affair, fact, condition, property, profit, world, lawsuit, case, exploit spes spei f hope, expectation

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NOUNS FIFTH DECLENSION CONTINUERS LIST effigies effigiei f portrait, image, statue, ghost facies faciei f face, look, pretence, appearance, beauty

pernicies perniciei f destruction, ruin, fatal injury species speciei f visual appearance, look, pretence, beauty, image, likeness, artistic representation

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PRONOUNS DEMONSTRATIVE/INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES K-10 LIST ego me mei mihi me I, me etc. hic haec hoc this; the latter; he etc.

ille illa illud that; the former; the well-known; he etc is ea id he, she , it; this, that

nos nostrum nobis we, us qui quae quod who, whom , whose, which, that; any; which? quid what? anything, something quis who? anyone, someone se sui sibi se himself, herself, itself, themselves tu te tui tibi te you etc. sng vos vestrum vobis you etc pl.

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PRONOUNS DEMONSTRATIVE, INDEFINITE & INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES CONTINUERS LIST aliqui aliquae aliqua some, any (also adjective) aliquis aliquis aliquid someone, something; somewhat alius alia aliud another, different; alius..alius one… another alter altera alterum the other, the former, the latter, another idem eadem idem the same ipse ipsa ipsum he himself, etc; the very nemo no one nescioquis someone nihil nothing; not at all quicumque quaecumque quodcumque whoever, whatever quidam quaedam quoddam a certain quisquam quaequam quicquam anyone, anybody, anything quisque quaeque quodque/quicque each, every, everybody, everything quisquis quoquod/quicquid whoever, whatever; everyone who quivis quaevis quodvis/quidvis who/what you please, anyone, anything uter utra utrum whichever, which of two, either one uterque utraque utrumque each of two

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aeger aegra aegrum sick altus high, deep antiquus ancient barbarus foreign, uncivilized benignus kindly bonus good carus dear, beloved, expensive certus certain ceterus other, (pl) the rest clarus famous, clear commodus convenient, suitable contentus satisfied, content cunctus whole defessus exhausted densus thick dexter dextra dextrum right (side) durus hard, harsh extremus furthest, last, utmost fessus tired fidus loyal, faithful firmus firm, steadfast frigidus cold geminus twin, double ignotus unknown iratus angry laetus happy latus wide liber libera liberum free longus long maestus sad magnus big malus bad manifestus clear, plain to see medius middle (of) meus my

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miser misera miserum unhappy, wretched multus much noster nostra nostrum our notus known novus new nudus naked obscurus dark, hidden

parvus small pauci few pius dutiful, devoted placidus peaceful pulcher pulchra pulchrum beautiful, handsome rarus uncommon, wide apart reliquus remaining sacer sacra sacrum sacred securus carefree sordidus dirty suus his, her, its, their (own) tacitus silent tuus your vacuus empty varius diverse, versatile, mottled vastus vast verus true vester vestra vestrum your (pl)

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3RD DECLENSION acer acris acre keen, fierce audax (-cis) bold brevis short celer celeris celere quick, swift crudelis cruel difficilis difficult dulcis sweet facilis easy felix (-cis) happy, lucky, fertile fidelis faithful fortis brave, strong gracilis slender gravis heavy, serious humilis low inanis empty inermis unarmed ingens (-ntis) huge lenis soft, mild, gentle levis light, trivial lēvis smooth militaris warlike, of the army mirabilis wonderful mortalis mortal nobilis high-ranking, of noble birth omnis all sapiens wise tenuis thin tristis sad, grim utilis useful

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ADJECTIVES CONTINUERS LIST (all declensions) acerbus sour, bitter, crude, rough, grievous acutus sharp adversus opposite, against aequus even, equal, level, impartial aeternus everlasting alienus another’s, foreign amabilis 3 amiable, pleasant ambo –ae -o both amens 3 mad, frantic amplus large, distinguished, important angustus narrow, scanty aptus suitable arduus steep, high ater black, gloomy atrox 3 savage, fierce aureus golden beatus happy, blessed caecus blind, hidden caeruleus blue, green-blue, dark-coloured calidus hot callidus skilful, crafty candidus bright, white, fair cautus cautious celeber 3 populous, renowned civilis 3 civic, political, polite communis 3 shared, common, public complures 3pl several conscius knowing, aware consularis –is –e of consular rank, belonging to a consul continuus successive, continuous contrarius opposite, hostile creber -bra –brum thick, frequent, numerous cupidus desiring, eager curvus crooked, bent demens 3 senseless dignus worthy dirus fearful, awful diversus separate, unlike, different

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dives 3 rich divinus divine divus godlike, deified dubius doubtful, uncertain duplex 3 twofold egregius excellent elegans 3 fine, tasteful eruditus learned exiguus scanty, small, poor facundus eloquent falsus false familiaris 3 of the household, intimate, very friendly fatalis 3 destined, fateful ferox 3 wild, fierce ferreus of iron, hard ferus wild, savage fervidus boiling, fiery finitimus adjoining foedus foul, vile frequens 3 frequent, crowded fretus relying on + abl. gratus welcome, pleasing horridus rough, bristly humanus human, civilized idoneus fit, suitable ignarus ignorant ignavus lazy, cowardly immanis 3 huge, monstrous immobilis 3 immovable immortalis 3 immortal impius wicked, irreverant improbus bad, disloyal, excessive improvisus unforeseen imus bottom of inauditus unheard of incolumis 3 safe incredibilis 3 incredible indignus unworthy, undeserving inferior 3 lower inferus below (pl. the dead) infestus hostile, dangerous

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infirmus weak, feeble inhonestus shameful iniquus unequal, unjust, uneven innocens 3 harmless, innocent insignis 3 notable, distinguished integer whole, innocent, pure interior 3 inner invalidus infirm, weak invisus hateful invitus unwilling iustus just, lawful, fair laevus left (side), unfavourable lentus slow, clinging maritimus of the sea maturus ripe, early memor 3 mindful, unforgetting mirus wonderful mitis 3 mild, soothing mutuus mutual necessarius necessary, connected by ties of friendship necesse essential nefarius wicked niger black nimius excessive nocturnus by night nullus not any, no occultus hidden opportunus convenient par 3 equal, fair patrius of father, ancestral, of native land pavidus fearful, terrified perfidus faithless, treacherous peritus skilled + gen. perpetuus continuous, everlasting plenus full plerique very many plus 3 more posterus following, future potens 3able, powerful praeceps 3 headlong praecipuus particular, special

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praeclarus excellent, splendid prior 3 former, in front, earlier priscus ancient privatus private probus honest, good propinquus near, neighbouring proprius one’s own proximus nearest, next publicus public, common qualis 3 of what sort? quantus how great, as great as quot how many? recens 3 fresh, recent rectus straight, right, direct regius kingly, royal repentinus sudden saevus savage, cruel violent salvus safe, sound sanctus sacred, holy sanus healthy, rational scelestus wicked secundus second, following, favourable (wind) serus late similis 3 like, resembling singularis 3 unusual sinister left (side) situs positioned sollemnis 3 solemn, ceremonial sollicitus worried, uneasy solus alone, lonely, sole stultus foolish suavis 3 sweet, pleasant summus highest, top of superus upper, heavenly supremus highest, last talis 3 such, of such kind tantus so great tener soft, tender, young terribilis 3 frightening timidus fearful tot so many totidem the same number as

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totus whole tranquillus calm trepidus anxious, trembling, alarmed turpis 3 ugly, base, dishonourable tutus safe ullus any ulterior 3 farther away ultimus last, utmost universus entire, (pl) all together validus strong vanus empty, vain, useless vehemens 3 violent, powerful velox 3 swift vetus 3 old vicinus neighbouring viridis 3 green, fresh virilis 3 manly, male, vigorous

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ADVERBS K-10 LIST adeo to such an extent antea before bene well celeriter quickly circiter around, about cotidie every day cras tomorrow cur why deinde then denique finally diligenter carefully, hard diu for a long time eo there, to that place etiam also, even facile easily fere almost ferociter fiercely fortiter bravely frustra in vain graviter heavily, seriously heri yesterday hic here hinc from here hodie today huc to here iam now, already ibi there igitur therefore illic there illinc from there illuc to there inde from there intente intently interea meanwhile interim meanwhile

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ita in such a way mox soon non not nondum not yet numquam never nunc now paene almost

paulisper a little while paulum a little postea afterwards postremo finally postridie the next day quo where to? quoque also rursus again saepe often satis enough semper always simul at the same time statim immediately subito suddenly tam so + adj./adv. tamen however tandem at last, finally tum then ubi where? ubique everywhere umquam ever unde where from? undique from all sides

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ADVERBS CONTINUERS LIST abhinc ago, from this time/place acriter fiercely, sharply adhuc to this point, still aegre with difficulty, scarcely aeque equally aliquamdiu for some time aliquando sometimes, formerly aliter otherwise, else amplius more aperte openly attente carefully breviter briefly certe surely, indeed, at least cito soon clam secretly continuo immediately crudeliter cruelly demum at last eodem to the same place, for the same purpose ergo therefore, then feliciter luckily, happily foede foully foras out of doors, forth forsitan perhaps fortasse perhaps forte by chance furtim by stealth haud not ibidem at the same place identidem again and again ideo for that reason, therefore impune with impunity interdiu by day

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interdum sometimes intus inside, at home iterum again leniter mildly, gently leviter lightly longe far off, very much magis more, rather magnopere greatly male badly mane in the morning, early modo only, just now, now...now... multo by much, by far nequaquam by no means, not at all nequiquam in vain non iam no longer nonne is it not that ...? num surely not? nuper recently nusquam nowhere obviam in the way of, to meet ... ocius sooner, swifter olim once, formerly, some day omnino altogether palam openly partim partly parum too little passim here and there paulo by a little placide peacefully potius rather praeterea besides, moreover pridie on the day before primo in the first place primum first, for the first time prius before procul far away profecto assuredly propterea therefore protinus forthwith, immediately, straight on qua where, by what means, how, in so far as

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quam how, than quando when? quidem indeed, in fact; ne ...quidem not even quin etiam why not, indeed quomodo how quondam formerly, some day quotiens how often recte rightly, straight repente suddenly retro back rite duly sane certainly sapienter wisely scilicet evidently, to be sure semel once, a single time sero late sic thus, like this sponte of one’s own accord stulte foolishly suaviter sweetly supra above tacite silently tamquam just as tantum so much, only, just temere rashly, at random totidem just so many totiens so often ultro of one’s own accord una at the same time, together usquam anywhere usque all the way, constantly utinam if only ..... utrimque from both sides utrum whether valde very much varie in different ways vehementer strongly vero in fact, truly, certainly videlicet evidently, plainly namely vix hardly, scarcely, with difficulty

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VERBS FIRST CONJUGATION K-10 LIST Principal parts are –are –avi -atum unless otherwise specified. aestimo value, estimate, consider agito drive, shake, exercise, disturb ambulo walk amo love appropinquo approach canto sing, recite, enchant celebro crowd, frequent, celebrate celo hide ceno dine circumspecto look around clamo shout cogito consider, ponder, think, intend colloco place, arrange, lay out comparo acquire, compare, provide for delecto entice, delight despero despair do dare dedi datum give excito wake up, rouse up, raise exspecto wait for, await festino hurry fugo chase, drive out, rout gusto taste habito live, dwell impero order, command, rule over + dative incito stir up, incite intro enter iuvo iuvare iuvi iutum help laboro work laudo praise libero set free mando command, entrust to muto change, exchange

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narro tell, narrate navigo sail neco kill nuntio announce, report orno adorn, honour oro beg, plead, beseech paro prepare

porto carry postulo demand, require, request praesto –stare-stiti- stitum/statum stand out, be superior to, surpass pugno fight puto think rogo ask servo save, protect, preserve specto look at, watch, regard spero hope sto stare steti statum stand, be fixed, persist supero surpass, defeat, conquer, survive tempto try, attempt, test, prove verbero beat, flog vitupero blame, curse voco call, summon, name vulnero wound, hurt

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FIRST CONJUGATION CONTINUERS LIST Principal parts are –are –avi -atum unless otherwise specified.

accuso accuse, blame adiuvo help, favour administro manage, serve adsto (-stiti) stand at, stand by, assist aedifico build appello call, bring to court, accuse, name arbitror (dep) think, observe, believe armo arm, equip, rig out castigo punish, chastise circumdo (dedi, datum) surround, enclose cito summon, encourage, excite cohortor (dep) cheer up encourage commemoro recall, mention concilio win over, call together, recommend concito rouse, disturb condemno condemn, doom, convict confirmo strengthen, prove, confirm coniuro conspire conor (dep) try, venture conservo preserve considero consider, inspect, contgemplate constat it is agreed convoco call together creo create, elect, cause crucio torture, crucify cunctor (dep) delay, linger curo take care of, attend to , worry, heal damno condemn, sentence delibero consult, deliberate demonstro point at, prove, show dimico fight dissimulo disguise, hide, pretend dubito doubt, hesitate erro wander, make a mistake, vacillate

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evoco call out, summon exclamo call out excuso excuse, plead as excuse, absolve exhortor (dep) encourage, exhort existimo judge, value, think explico unfold, display, spread out, explain exploro reconnoitre, test, investigate expugno take by assault exsulto jump about, exult firmo make firm, strengthen, establish for (dep) speak, say fumo smoke, steam hortor (dep) exhort, encourage iacto throw, hurl, boast ignoro be ignorant of, not know imitor (dep) copy, resemble imploro invoke, entreat, appeal invoco call upon, pray for iudico judge, sentence, decide, give judgement iuro swear, conspire levo lift, support, relieve loco place, station memoro remind of, mention, relate minor (dep) threaten + dative miror (dep) wonder at, be amazed at, admire miseror (dep) lament, pity monstro show, reveal moror (dep) delay, linger nego deny, refuse, say ....not noto mark, write down, brand obsecro implore, beg observo watch, respect obtestor (dep) call upon as witness, invoke occulto hide occupo seize, occupy, engross oppugno attack opto choose, desire

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paco bring under control, settle down, pacify perturbo disorder, confuse, disturb placo calm, placate, appease precor (dep) pray to , beseech, ask for, invoke privo deprive (of) probo test, recommend, approve of, prove recuso decline, reject, refuse regno reign, be king restat it remains, is left retardo delay revoco call back, recall seco (secui, sectum)cut simulo imitate, copy, pretend sono (sonui, sonitum)sound, make a noise spolio plunder, rob, strip suspicor (dep) suspect testor (dep) be a witness, invoke as witness trepido shake, be nervous, tremble turbo confuse, disturb, trouble vagor (dep) wander, roam vasto destroy, plunder, lay waste verso turn round, spin, adapt, ponder versor (dep) come and go, be involved, concern oneself, pass time in veto (vetui vetitum) forbid vexo upset, agitate, afflict, annoy vigilo watch, be awake, stay awake vito avoid

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SECOND CONJUGATION K-10 LIST augeo -ēre auxi auctum increase commoveo –ēre -movi –motum stir up, move, affect compleo –ēre -evi etum fill, complete, fulfil debeo –ēre –ui –itum owe, be obliged; ought, must deleo –ēre –evi –etum efface, destroy doceo –ēre –ui doctum teach, tell, explain doleo –ēre –ui –itum feel pain, grieve exerceo –ēre –ui –itum train, employ, practise, harass faveo –ēre favi fautum favour, support + dative fleo –ēre flevi fletum weep, cry, bewail habeo –ēre habui habitum have, hold, contain, regard, treat iaceo –ēre iacui lie, be situated impleo –ēre –evi –etum fill, fulfil iubeo –ēre iussi iussum order, command lateo –ēre –ui lie hid, escape notice maneo –ēre mansi mansum stay, remain, await moneo –ēre –ui –itum warn, advise moveo –ēre movi motum move, stir, affect, provoke noceo –ēre -ui –itum hurt, injure + dative obsideo –ēre –sedi –sessum besiege, blockade obtineo –ēre –ui –tentum hold, support, obtain, prevail pareo –ēre parui obey, submit to + dative persuadeo –ēre –si –sum persuade + dative placeo –ēre –ui please, satisfy + dative; placet it

seems good, it is agreed prohibeo –ēre –ui –itum keep off, prevent, forbid respondeo –ēre –di –sum replay, answer retineo –ēre -ui –tentum hold back, detain, retain rideo –ēre risi risum laugh, smile sedeo –ēre sedi sessum sit sustineo –ēre -tinui-tentum hold up, support, withstand,

endure taceo –ēre -ui –itum be silent teneo –ēre –ui tentum hold, keep, occupy, keep in check terreo –ēre -ui –itum terrify, frighten timeo –ēre -ui fear, be afraid video –ēre vidi visum see, understand

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SECOND CONJUGATION CONTINUERS LIST adhibeo –ēre -ui –itum apply, hold to, use, admit appareo –ēre -ui –itum appear; +dat: attend to ardeo –ēre arsi arsum burn, be inflamed, blaze audeo –ēre ausus sum dare, venture careo–ēre -ui –itum be without, lack, miss + dat. caveo–ēre cavi cautum beware, take care censeo–ēre censui censum count, reckon, assess, estimate, think, decree cieo–ēre civi citum move, shake, rouse, provoke confiteor –ēri confessus sum confess, admit contineo–ēre -ui –tentum hold together, contain, keep, confine, prevent decet decuit it is proper, right, becoming defleo–ēre –ēvi –ētum weep for, bewail egeo–ēre -ui need, require, lack, be without +gen. or abl. fateor–ēri fassus sum confess, acknowledge gaudeo –ēre gavisus sum rejoice, be glad haereo–ēre haesi haesum stick, cling, be fixed horreo–ēre bristle, shiver, shudder, look rough immineo–ēre overhang, threaten, be imminent impendeo–ēre hang over, impend indulgeo–ēre indulsi indultum be kind to, grant, give way to + dat. invideo–ēre invidi invisum envy, grudge, hate + dat. libet libuit it pleases, is agreeable + mihi I want, feel like licet licuit it is lawful, permitted +mihi I am allowed lugeo–ēre luxi luctum mourn, lament mereor–ēri meritus sum earn, deserve misceo–ēre -ui mixtum/mistum mix, mingle, stir up, confound misereor–ēri miseritus sum pity + gen. oportet oportuit it is necessary, proper pateo–ēre -ui be open, be exposed, be evident, be accessible pendeo–ēre pependi hang down, depend on, be uncertain

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perterreo–ēre -ui –itum frighten thoroughly pertineo–ēre -ui continue through to, reach, belong to, pertain to polliceor–ēri pollicitus sum promise praebeo–ēre -ui –itum offer, present, show, provide praesideo–ēre -sedi preside over, protect, superintend +dat. provideo–ēre -vidi –visum foresee, provide for pudet puduit be ashamed reor reri ratus sum think, suppose, deem sileo–ēre -ui be silent soleo–ēre solitus sum be accustomed to studeo–ēre -ui be keen on, devote oneself to, study +dat. stupeo–ēre -ui be stunned, astonished suadeo–ēre suasi suasum advise, recommend, urge taedet taeduit be tired of torqueo–ēre torsi tortum turn, twist, hurl, torture, distort, whirl tueor –ēri tuitus sum look at, view, keep safe, watch over, look after urgeo–ēre ursi press, squeeze, shove, spur on, follow closely on valeo–ēre -ui –itum be well, be strong, have the ability to; farewell vereor–ēri veritus sum fear, respect voveo–ēre vovi votum vow, pray, long for

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THIRD CONJUGATION K-10 LIST addo –ere addidi additum add, give, bring to

agnosco –ere agnovi agnitum recognize, acknowledge ago –ere egi actum drive, act, do, rouse, urge, deal,

behave, pass amitto –ere amisi amissum lose, dismiss, let fall, let slip ascendo –ere ascendi ascensum mount, climb, ascend

bibo –ere bibi bibitum drink, absorb cado –ere cecidi casum fall, be slain, abate, happen cogo –ere coegi coactum drive together, collect, force, compel

concedo –ere concessi concessum withdraw, yield, allow, grant contendo –ere contendi contentum stretch, strain, fight, strive, march, hasten coquo –ere coxi coctum cook, bake credo –ere credidi creditum +dat. believe, trust, entrust curro –ere cucurri cursum run, hurry defendo –ere defendi defensum defend, guard, preserve, keep off desisto –ere destiti destitum leave off, cease, desist from dico –ere dixi dictum say, tell, call, declare,designate dimitto –ere dimisi dimissum send away, dismiss, disband, release, divorce discedo –ere discessi discessum go off, depart duco –ere duxi ductum lead, conduct, draw, bring, guide, think, esteem, marry, pass, spend

emitto –ere emisi emissum send out, set free, let fall, emo –ere ēmi emptum buy

fallo –ere fefelli falsum cheat, deceive, escape notice fluo –ere fluxi fluxum flow, stream, proceed from

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gero –ere gessi gestum wear, carry on, govern, achieve, impono –ere imposui impositum put upon, assign, place in command intellego –ere intellexi intellectum understand mitto –ere misi missum send, cast, hurl occido –ere occidi occasum fall down, set, die, be ruined

occīdo –ere occīdi occīsum kill ostendo –ere ostendi ostentum/-sum show, demonstrate,

offer,hold out

pello –ere pepuli pulsum push, strike, drive out, banish permitto –ere –misi –missum let through, allow, permit, grant peto –ere petivi petitum make for, seek, fetch, seek after, attack, ask for, be a candidate pono –ere posui positum put, place, lay, station, appoint premo –ere pressi pressum press, oppress, squeeze, thrust, overpower, afflict, pursue promitto –ere –misi- missum send forth, promise, let forth

quaero –ere quaesivi quaesitum look for, get, procure, enquire into

reddo –ere reddidi redditum give back, return, restore, give up rego –ere rexi rectum rule, guide, conduct, direct relinquo –ere reliqui relictum leave behind, disregard resisto –ere restiti stop; +dat. resist, stand up to rumpo –ere rupi ruptum burst, break off, force open, violate

scribo –ere scripsi scriptum write, compose statuo –ere statui statutum place, put up, set up, appoint,

decide, judge

tango –ere tetigi tactum touch, reach, be next to, arrive at, tollo –ere sustuli sublatum lift, raise, remove, steal, eliminate traho –ere traxi tractum draw, drag, trail, draw out, extend

vendo –ere vendidi venditum sell, betray for money verto –ere verti versum turn, overthrow,change, transform, translate

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vinco –ere vici victum conquer, defeat,subdue, win, exceed, excel, prevail

vivo –ere vixi victum live, be alive, survive

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THIRD CONJUGATION CONTINUERS LIST accedo –ere accessi accessum approach, attack, be added, come over

to accidit it happens accurro –ere accurri accursum to run to adduco –ere adduxi adductum bring to, induce, contract adimo –ere ademi ademptum take away, deprive, rescue adloquor adloqui adlocutus sum (all-) speak to, address admitto –ere admisi admissum let in, admit, grant, permit, let go,

commit adverto –ere adverti adversum turn to, direct to, apply amplector amplecti amplexus sum embrace, surround, contain, cherish animadverto –ere –verti versum notice,attend to, observe,avenge,

punish, blame arcesso –ere arcessivi arcessitum send for, summon, accuse attingo –ere attigi attactum touch, arrive at, border on, affect,

mention,achieve, relate to

cano –ere cecini cantum sing, play (music), recite, prophesy, sound

cedo –ere cessi cessum go, walk, come to pass, fail to, yield, give

way, withdraw, allow, grant, give up cerno –ere crevi cretum discern, perceive, decide, accept

formally cingo -ere cinxi cinctum surround, crown, gird claudo –ere clausi clausum shut, conclude, enclose, imprison,

besiege cognosco –ere cognovi cognitum learn, get to know, understand, observe collabor collabi collapsus sum collapse, fall in ruins colligo –ere collegi collectum collect, assemble, acquire, pick up,

reckon colloquor colloqui collocutus sum converse, talk together colo –ere colui cultum cultivate, take care of, honour, worship, dwell, adorn, practise committo –ere commisi commissum join, commit, entrust, match, compare,

begin engage in, venture compono –ere composui compositum put together, arrange, compose, adjust, compare, construct, settle, appease comprehendo –ere comprehendi –sum seize, grasp, include, embrace,

describe,understand concido –ere concidi fall, decay, be killed, die

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concīdo –ere concīdi concīsum cut down, weaken, destroy, kill concurro –ere concurri concursum run together, assemble,meet, join battle, happen at the same time condo –ere condidi conditum build, found,compose, make; hide,

preserve, bury, thrust into conduco –ere conduxi conductum assemble, hire, undertake, profit confido –ere confisus sum +dat. trust, have confidence in coniungo –ere coniunxi coniunctum join together, unite, connect conscendo –ere, conscendi, conscensummount, ascend, embark conscribo –ere conscripsi conscriptum enlist, enrol, compose, write consequor consequi consecutus sum follow, overtake, get, procure, reach, imitate, befall, achieve, bring about consido –ere consedi consessum sit down, settle, sink, encamp, hold a session consisto –ere constiti constitum stand fast, make a stand, exist, consist

of; halt, cease constituo –ere constitui constitutum put, set, appoint, decree, decide, fix,

establish, agree on, manage, intend, settle

construo –ere construxi constructum heap up, build, make consuesco –ere consuevi consuetum be accustomed, become accustomed consulo –ere consului consultum take counsel, consider, consult;

+ dat: consult the interests of; provide for

contemno –ere contempsi contemptum scorn, despise contingo –ere contigi contactum touch, seize, border on, reach,

influence, stain, come to pass, be connected with contraho –ere contraxi contractum draw together, gather, tighten, abridge, agree, get, cause converto –ere converti conversum turn around, convert, change, translate corrumpo –ere corrupi corruptum spoil, destroy, falsify, bribe, seduce,

corrupt cresco –ere crevi cretum grow, arise, get advantage, increase

decedo –ere decessi decessum depart, retire, yield, cease, die,

disappear decerno –ere decrevi decretum distinguish, decide, judge, settle,

propose decurro –ere decurri decursum run down, sail downstream, have

recourse to dedo –ere dedidi deditum surrender, abandon, yield deduco –ere deduxi deductum lead/draw down, bring away, launch,

conduct, escort, derive, compose, withdraw,subtract, found (colony)

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deligo –ere delegi delectum choose, select demitto –ere demisi demissum lower, sed down, dismeiss, plunge,

depose depello –ere depuli depulsum expel, dislodge, avert depono –ere deposui depositum lay aside, commit, entrust, resign, fix deprehendo –ere –ndi –nsum catch, find out, discern, perceive, reach, overtake, catch in the act, surprise descendo –ere descendi descensum descend, fall, alight, slope, demean

oneself desero –ere deserui desertum forsake, desert, give up, fail desino –ere desivi desitum cease, desist diffido –ere diffisus sum + dat: lack confidence in, despair diffundo –ere diffudi diffusum pour forth, spread, cheer diligo –ere dilexi dilectum hold dear, love, esteem highly disco –ere didici learn dispello –ere dispuli dispulsum drive apart, drive away, disperse divido –ere divisi divisum separate, divide, distribute, distinguish, break up edo –ere ēdi ēsum eat, devour ēdo –ere ēdidi ēditum put forth, emit, publish, proclaim, cause educo –ere eduxi eductum lead/ draw out, raise, educate, produce effundo –ere effusi effusum pour out, shed, discharge, let fall, waste eligo –ere elegi electum choose eloquor eloqui elocutus sum speak out utter erigo –ere erexi erectum raise, build evado –ere evasi evasum go out, come out, escape, avoid, turn

out excedo –ere excessi excessum go out, withdraw, go beyond, die,

exceed exigo –ere exegi exactum drive out, thrust, exact, finish, examine expello –ere expuli expulsum expel, banish, reject expono –ere exposui expositum set out, explain, publish, exhibit,

disembark expromo –ere exprompsi expromptum bring out, disclose ex(s)tinguo –ere –tinxi –tinctum quench, kill, destroy extraho –ere extraxi extractum draw out, extract, prolong

fido –ere fisus sum +dat. or abl. trust, have confidence figo –ere fixi fixum fix, fasten, extablish fingo –ere finxi fictum shape, fashion, contrive, invent flecto –ere flexi flexum bend, curve, turn, prevail on, soften frango –ere fregi fractum break, crush, vanquish, weaken fruor frui fructus sum + abl. enjoy, profit by fundo –ere fudi fusum pour, shed, rout, scatter, produce

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fungor fungi functus sum +acc. or abl. perform, discharge furo –ere furui rage, be furious, be mad, be wild gemo –ere gemui gemitum moan, groan, lament over ignosco –ere ignovi ignotum +dat. forgive, pardon immergo –ere immersi immersum plunge into, immerse impello –ere impuli impulsum push against, impel, urge on incendo –ere incendi incensum set fire to, kindle, inflame, aggravate includo –ere inclusi inclusum shut in, enclose incolo –ere incolui dwell in, inhabit induco –ere induxi inductum lead into, introduce, persuade insequor insequi insecutus sum follow closely, pursue, persecute, come

after instituo –ere institui institutum set up, found, build, make, establish, instruct intendo –ere intendi intentum/-sum stretch, strain, exert, direct intercludo –ere interclusi interclusum cut off, blockade, hinder intermitto –ere intermisi intermissum leave off, leave a gap interpello –ere interpuli interpulsum interrupt, obstruct invado –ere invasi invasum go into, invade, rush into, seize, attack irrumpo –ere irrupi irruptum break into, rush into, interrupt iungo –ere iunxi iunctum yoke, harness, join, clasp (hands), unite labor labi lapsus sum slide, slip, fall, drop, perish lego –ere legi lectum gather, choose, read loquor loqui locutus sum speak, talk ludo –ere lusi lusum play, tease, trick manumitto –ere –misi –missum set free, emancipate metuo –ere metui metutum fear, be afraid of/to minuo –ere minui minutum lessen, impair, abate, make smalle

nascor nasci natus sum be born, proceed from, rise, grow neglego –ere neglexi neglectum overlook, neglect, do without nosco –ere novi notum learn to know, get knowledge of, know obliviscor oblivisci oblitus sum forget occurro –ere occurri occursum +dat. run to, meet, appear before, occur omitto –ere omisi omissum let go, give up, neglect, disregard, cease opprimo –ere oppressi oppressum press against, crush, overpower,

surprise,suppress, conceal, cover parco –ere peperci +dat. spare, pardon, forbear, be thrifty, refrain from

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perago –ere peregi peractum execute, finish, accomplish, pierce through,

pass through, relate perdo –ere perdidi perditum lose, destroy, ruin, waste, spoil, impair pergo –ere perrexi perrectum advance, continue, proceed, go on persolvo –ere persolvi persolutum pay in full, pay off porrigo –ere porrexi porrectum put forward, extend, stretch out, offer posco –ere poposci demand, demand for trial etc. praemitto –ere –misi –missum send in advance prehendo –ere prehendi prehensum seize, take hold of, catch procedo –ere processi processum go forward, proceed, advance, be

successful procurro –ere procurri procursum run forwards, extend prodo –ere prodidi proditum betray, nominate, publish, give birth to,

hand down produco –ere produxi productum bring forward, draw out, lengthen,

prolong proficiscor proficisci profectus sum set out, depart, arise from propono –ere proposui propositum put out, display, expose, report prosequor prosequi prosecutus sum follow up, pursue, accompany proveho –ere provexi provectum carry forward, convey quaeso –ere quaesivi quaesitum ask for, pray, please! queror queri questus sum complain, protest quiesco –ere quievi quietum rest, keep quiet redimo –ere redemi redemptum buy back, ransom, redeem, rescue, buy

off reduco –ere reduxi reductum bring back, withdraw, reduce to remitto –ere remisi remissum send back, relax, grant, remit repello –ere repuli repulsum drive back, reject repeto –ere repetivi repetitum return to, demand back, recall, attack

again,repeat reprehendo –ere reprehendi –sum catch hold of, censure, rebuke requiesco –ere requievi requietum rest, quieten down, take holiday requiro –ere requisivi requisitum seek, need, ask about restituo –ere restitui restitutum replace, restore, revive, give back, reinstate retraho –ere retraxi retractum drag back, summon back, win back, withdraw revertor reverti reversus sum come back, return ruo –ere rui rutum collapse, fall into ruin, rush headlong, overthrow, sweep headlong secerno –ere secrevi secretum cut off, set aside, treat as distinct

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sequor sequi secutus sum follow, come after, attend, aim at, conform to sino –ere sivi situm let, allow, permit, leave alone, grant sisto –ere steti/stiti statum set up, erect, plant, stand firm solvo –ere solvi solutum loosen, separate, melt, open, perform, release, pay spargo –ere sparsi sparsum strew, scatter, sprinkle, let stream out, spread about sperno –ere sprevi spretum disdain, scorn, disregard sterno –ere stravi stratum spread, extend, level, make subside, flatten stringo –ere strinxi strictum draw tight, skin, graze, pluck, prune, draw (weapon) subduco –ere subduxi subductum draw from below, extricate, steal subsequor subsequi subsecutus sum follow closely, succeed succedo –ere successi successum go below, come up to, take the place of succurro –ere succurri succursum +dat. run to help, come into mind sumo –ere sumpsi sumptum take, receive, spend, adopt, assume,

take on supprimo –ere suppressi suppressum suppress, keep back, contain, stop surgo –ere surrexi surrectum rise, stand high, grow tall tego –ere texi tectum cover, hide, roof over, shield, protect tendo –ere tetendi tentum/tensum stretch out, pitch tent, string bow, make for, reach, aim at trado –ere tradidi traditum hand over, deliver, surrender, hand down, relate, tell of traduco –ere traduxi traductum lead over, lead across, transfer, convert ulciscor ulcisci ultus sum avenge utor uti usus sum + abl. use, employ, apply, enjoy,

practise vado –ere advance, proceed veho –ere vexi vectum carry, convey, passive ride vescor vesci eat, put to use, feed on volvo –ere volvi volutum roll, cause to roll, unroll, turn over in


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THIRD CONJUGATION (-io) K-10 LIST accipio –ere accepi acceptum accept, receive, hear, learn, get

capio –ere cepi captum take, seize, capture, get, obtain conficio –ere confeci confectum accomplish, finish, effect conspicio –ere conspexi conspectum catch sight of, see, observe cupio –ere cupivi cupitum long for, desire, want

efficio –ere effeci effectum effect, accomplish, make, produce,

effugio –ere effugi effugitum escape, avoid, be unnoticed eicio –ere eieci eiectum throw out,thrust out, expel, vomit excipio –ere excepi exceptum exempt, release, catch, receive,

listen facio –ere feci factum make, do, cause, compose,

practise, value fugio –ere fugi fugitum flee, run away, go into exile, shun iacio –ere ieci iectum throw, hurl, toss, utter incipio –ere incepi inceptum begin, undertake interficio –ere interfeci interfectum kill, destroy

obicio –ere obieci obiectum throw before, expose, interpose,

lay,to charge

praeficio –ere praefeci praefectum put in charge of, appoint rapio –ere rapui raptum snatch, tear away, catch

off,plunder recipio –ere recepi receptum get back, regain, recover,

withdraw, accept, undertake

respicio –ere respexi respectum look around for, look back at, take notice of suscipio –ere suscepi susceptum take up, support, receive, adopt,

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undertake, perform, venture on, accept

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THIRD CONJUGATION (-io) CONTINUERS LIST abicio-ere abieci abiectum throw away, give up, humble, debase adicio –ere adieci adiectum throw to, add to afficio –ere affeci affectum affect, move, influence aggredior aggredi aggressus sum approach, attack, undertake arripio –ere arripui arreptum snatch away, take hold of, pick up,

arrest aspicio –ere aspexi aspectum look at, look towards, consider aufugio –ere aufugi flee away congredior congredi congressus sum meet, join battle conicio-ere conieci coniectum throw together, cast, fling,conjecture, interpret corripio –ere corripui correptum snatch up, rebuke, hasten, seize

decipio –ere decepi deceptum deceive, cheat deficio –ere defeci defectum fail, cease, faint, be discouraged, decay, die, forsake deicio –ere deieci deiectum throw down, dislodge, kill, rob of, despicio –ere despexi despectum look down upon, despise diffugio –ere diffugi diffugitum flee in different directions, scatter,

disperse diripio –ere diripui direptum snatch away, tear to pieces, rob, loot egredior egredi egressus sum march out, set sail, go beyond eripio –ere eripui ereptum snatch away, take by force, rescue

ingredior ingredi ingressus sum step into, enter, begin, walk

morior mori mortuus sum die, fail, decay

pario –ere peperi paritum/partum bring forth, produce, create, bear, procure patefacio –ere patefeci patefactum open, throw open, disclose, bring to light patior pati passus sum bear, undergo, suffer, allow, leave, let be perficio –ere perfeci perfectum finish, perform, complete, accomplish perspicio –ere perspexi perspectum look through, look into, examine, inspect praecipio –ere praecepi praeceptum obtain in advance, anticipate, teach, recommend, order progredior progredi progressus sum march forwards,go on, proceed proicio –ere proieci proiectum throw forth, fling away, expose

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reficio –ere refeci refectum restore, repair, reappoint regredior regredi regressus sum go back, return, retreat

subicio –ere subieci subiectum throw up, place before, put under, expose, introduce, make subject to suspicio –ere suspexi suspectum look up at, esteem, admire,be suspicious of traicio –ere traieci traiectum cast over, convey across, transfix, thrust through, transfer, cross over

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In many of these verbs, the perfect in –ivi may be written as ii.

advenio –ire adveni adventum come to, arrive at aperio –ire aperui apertum open, discover, show audio –ire audivi auditum hear, listen, obey comperio –ire comperi compertum find out, learn, know consentio –ire consensi consensum consent, agree, decree, conspire convenio –ire conveni conventum assemble, meet, agree, fit, suit custodio –ire custodivi custoditum watch, guard, preserve desilio –ire desilui desultum jump down, alight dormio –ire dormivi dormitum sleep

haurio –ire hausi haustum drink, drain, derive, have one’s fill of impedio –ire impedivi impeditum entangle, hamper, hinder invenio –ire inveni inventum find, invent, discover munio –ire munivi munitum fortify, build, defend nescio nescire nescivi nescitum not know, be unaware of

pervenio –ire perveni perventum arrive at, reach punio –ire punivi punitum punish, avenge

reperio –ire repperi repertum find, discover, invent revenio –ire reveni reventum come back, return scio –ire scivi scitum know

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sentio –ire sensi sensum feel, perceive, notice servio –ire servivi servitum + dat. serve, be of use to, be a slave, be subject to venio –ire veni ventum come, arrive, arise vincio –ire vinxi vinctum bind, tie up

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FOURTH CONJUGATION CONTINUERS LIST *In many of these verbs, the perfect in –ivi may be written as ii. adorior adoriri adortus sum attack, undertake, try

coorior cooriri coortus sum arise, break forth

expedio –ire expedivi expeditum extricate, free, make ready; it is expedient orior oriri ortus sum rise, appear, arise, begin, be born potior potiri potitus sum get, obtain, receive, possess sepelio –ire sepelivi sepultum bury, suppress subvenio –ire subveni subventum * dat. come to the help of, relieve supervenio –ire superveni superventum arrive; + dat. come up to

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IRREGULAR VERBS K-10 LIST abeo abire abivi abitum go away, depart, escape absum abesse afui be absent, be away, be distant; be lacking adeo adire adivi aditum go to, approach, address, accost adsum adesse adfui be present, be near, arrive; + dat. help

eo ire ivi/ii itum go, march, proceed exeo exire exivi exitum go out, die, rise

fero ferre tuli latum carry, bring, bear, lead, carry off, endure, tell infero inferre intuli illatum bring in, produce, cause, inflict,

bring forward to attack

nolo nolle nolui not wish, be unwilling, refuse

pereo perire perii peritum vanish, disappear, perish, be ruined possum posse potui be able, can, have power to

redeo redire redii reditum come back, return supersum –esse –fui have the strength for, be left over, survive, remain

volo velle volui be willing, wish, want, desire

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IRREGULAR VERBS CONTINUERS LIST affero afferre attuli allatum bring to, allege, produce, contribute, cause aio, ait, aiunt say, assent aufero auferre abstuli ablatum carry off, steal, snatch, destroy coepi coepisse coeptum begin confero conferre contuli collatum bring together, collect, match, compare,

betake oneself, bestow defero deferre detuli delatum bring down, bring word, present, tell, accuse desum deesse defui + dat. be lacking, fail differo differre distuli dilatum put off, delay, disperse, differ, disagree, effero efferre extuli elatum bring out, produce, utter, proclaim, carry out for burial fio fieri factus sum be done, happen, be made, become ineo inire inivi initum enter into/upon, commence, form a plan inquam, inquit say interest it makes a difference, it matters, it benefits malo malle malui wish rather, prefer memini meminisse remember, attend to, recall obeo obire obii obitum meet, visit, die, set(sun) odi odisse hate offero offerre obtuli oblatum bring before, offer, exhibit, inflict perfero perferre pertuli perlatum carry through, convey, report, tell, endure praefero praeferre praetuli praelatum prefer, display, reveal, give precedence to praesum praeesse praefui + dat.be in charge of, take the lead in praetereo praeterire praeterii praeteritumgo past, pass by, escape notice of, neglect, surpass profero proferre protuli prolatum bring out, bring forth, extend, defer, reveal, utter, produce, publish prosum proesse profui + dat. benefit, do good, profit

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refero referre rettuli relatum bring back, tell, propose, record, restore, answer subeo subire subivi subitum go underneath, come up to, approach,

undergo, endure, come next, succeed to,

transeo transire transii transitum go across/over, pass by, pass away

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CONJUNCTIONS K-10 LIST an whether, or, either antequam before aut or, or else aut…aut either…or autem but, however, indeed, moreover, on the contrary cum when, since, although enim for, indeed, yes indeed, certainly et and, also, too, even et…et both…and itaque and so, therefore, consequently nam for nec/neque and not nec…nec/neque…neque neither…nor postquam after

quamquam although, yet -que and quod because, that, as to the fact that

sed but

si if simulac/simulatque as soon as, the moment that

ubi when, where ut as, when, as if; in order that, so that, that

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CONJUNCTIONS CONTINUERS LIST ac/atque and, and besides, and even, than an whether, or, either antequam before at but then, on the contrary, at least

donec as long as, until dum while, until, so long as, provided that dummodo provided that

ne lest, so that…not, in order that…not, so as not to neve/neu and not, nor nisi if not, unless, except priusquam before quamvis although, however, to any degree you like quasi as if, just as quia because quin that not, but that, indeed, why not? quominus so as to prevent, so that…not quoniam since, because, seeing that seu/sive or if, whether…or

sicut just as, in the same way as, as it were, as indeed sin but if, if however tametsi even though vel or, even, for instance, quite; either…or velut just as, just like, as if, as though verum but

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PREPOSITIONS K-10 LIST The meanings given are the most common; as in English, the use of prepositions in Latin is idiomatic and must be deduced from the context in many instances.

With ablative a/ab from, by (person), away from, since cum with, along with, amid de down from, from, about, concerning, by reason of e/ex out of, from, after, on account of in in, on pro before, in front of; in favour of; instead of; for; on behalf of, for the sake of sine without

sub under, below, beneath

With accusative ad to, towards, near, at, up to, until, according to, for ante before, in front of apud at the house of, at, with, among, in the time of circum around, about, among, near contra against, opposite, contrary to in into, on to, against, towards inter among, between, during

per through, throughout, during, by means of, along post after, behind, inferior to praeter past, except, beyond, besides, unless prope near, almost propter near, because of, on account of

trans across, over, beyond, through

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PREPOSITIONS CONTINUERS LIST The meanings given are the most common; as in English, the use of prepositions in Latin is idiomatic and must be deduced from the context in many instances.

With ablative prae before, in front of, in the face of, compared with super about, concerning, in addition to

With accusative extra outside, out of, beyond intra inside, within, under, fewer than ob by reason of, on account of sub near to, about, up to, just befor super above, on over on top of, besides supra above, over, on the upper side of, beyond, more than

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ecce look! see! behold! eheu alas! oh dear! euge fine! well done! good! o O! oh!

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INTERJECTIONS CONTINUERS LIST en behold! see! heu alas! ah! immo rather

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ENCLITICS -ne attached to first word in sentence, to create a question

-que and -ve or