Konsep-konsep Biaya Dan Lingkungan Ekonomi

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Konsep-konsep Biaya Dan Lingkungan Ekonomi

Text of Konsep-konsep Biaya Dan Lingkungan Ekonomi

  • 121 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 1

    KONSEP-KONSEP BIAYA

    DAN LINGKUNGAN

    EKONOMI

    Dr. Mohammad Abdul Mukhyi, SE., MM

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 2

    Terminologi Biaya Biaya Tetap (Fixed Cost) Biaya Variabel (Variable Cost) Biaya Inkremental (Incremental Cost) Biaya Berulang dan Tidak Berulang Biaya langsung, Tidak Langsung dan Overhead. Biaya Tunai, Biaya Tunai Biaya Hangus Biaya Kesempatan Biaya Siklus Hidup

  • 221 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 3

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 4

  • 321 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 5

    Contoh 1:Pengerjaan pelapisan jalan, seorang kontraktor memperkirakan biaya $ 1,15 per yard kubik per mil untuk mengangkut material pelapis aspal dari pabrik pencampuran ke lokasi kerja.

    $1,15/yd3mil$1,15/yd3milOngkos angkut

    $ 25.000$ 15.000Biaya memasang dan memindahkan peralatan

    $ 5.000$ 1.000Biaya sewa lokasi tiap bulan4,3 mil6 milJarak muatan rata-rata

    Lokasi BLokasi AFaktor Biaya

    Bila lokasi B dipilih ada biaya tambahan $ 96 tiap hari untuk petugas pemberi isyarat. Pekerjaan ini memerlukan 50.000 yard kubil material. Pekerjaan ini memerlukan waktu 4 bulan (17 minggu dari 5 hari kerja per minggu. Jika untuk tiap yard kubik pengangkutan ke lokasi kerja di bayar $ 8,05

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 6

    Pemenciunan dan pembuangan

    Pemanfaatan untuk operasi atau konsumen, pemeliharaan dan dukungan

    Produksi atau konstruksi

    Rancangan terinci, perencanaan produksi atau konstruksi, pengadaan fasilitas dan sumberdaya

    Rancangan konseptual (pendahuluan), pengembangan jamu, pengujian purwarupa

    Memerlukan penaksiran, definisi keperluan

    FASE AKUISISI FASE OPERASI

    Potensi penghematan biaya siklus hidup

    Biaya siklus hidup kumulatif

    Biaya siklus hidup kumulatif yang dicadangkan

    waktu

    Biaya

    SIKLUS HIDUP DAN BIAYA RELATIF

  • 421 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 7

    TEORI PERMINTAAN

    Permintaan Jumlah permintaan Harga permintaan Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi permintaan Hukum permintaan Teori Permintaan Fungsi Permintaan Permintaan individu Permintaan pasar

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 8

    Skedul dan Kurva Permintaan

    F100.000~0

    E100.000500200

    D100.000250400

    C100.000166.67600

    B100.000125800

    A100.0001001000

    TitikPendapatan Kuantitas

    yang diminta (Q)Harga

  • 521 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 9

    A

    B

    0200400600800

    10001200

    0 2 4 6 8

    kuantitas (Q)

    Ha

    rga

    (P

    )C

    D

    E

    F

    Permintaan (D)

    Marginal quantity of price deadweight loss (DWL)

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 10

    Perkecualian Hukum Permintaan

    Barang yang memiliki unsur spekulasi. Barang prestise Barang giffen

  • 621 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 11

    TEORI PENAWARAN

    Penawaran Jumlah penawaran Harga penawaran Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penawaran Hukum penawaran Teori Penawaran Fungsi Penawaran Penawaran individu Penawaran pasar

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 12

    Skedul dan Kurva Penawaran

    F1000

    E200200

    D300400

    C400600

    B500800

    A6001000

    TitikKuantitas

    yang diminta (Q)Harga

  • 721 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 13

    0200400600800

    10001200

    0 200 400 600 800

    Kuantitas (Q)

    Ha

    rga

    (P

    ) AB

    C

    D

    EF

    Penawaran (S)

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 14

    Perkecualian Hukum Penawaran

    Backward bending supply Decreasing cost supply Constant cost supply Biaya yang meningkat dan pendapatan yang menurun Penawaran yang tetap (in-elastis sempurna) dan masalah

    sewa

    Kasus situasi dinamis Osilasi divergen Osilasi abadi Osilasi non linear

  • 821 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 15

    Keseimbangan Pasar

    QD= -1,25P + 750 QS = 0,5P + 100Jawab:QD = QS1,25P + 750 = 0,5P + 1001,25P 0,5P = 100 7501,75P = 650P = 371.43 Q = 285.715

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 16

    0200400600800

    10001200

    0 200 400 600 800

    Kuantitas (Q)

    Ha

    rga

    (P)

    S

    D

    E

    285.715

    371.43

    KESEIMBANGAN PASAR

  • 921 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 17

    Kegagalan Pasar

    Informasi tidak sempurna (incomplete information) Daya monopoli (monopoli power) Eksternalitas (externality) Barang public (public goods) Barang altruisme (altruism goods)

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 18

    The Market Forces of Supply and

    Demand Supply and demand are the two words that

    economists use most often. Supply and demand are the forces that make

    market economies work. Modern microeconomics is about supply,

    demand, and market equilibrium.

  • 10

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 19

    WHAT ARE COSTS?

    According to the Law of SupplyLaw of Supply: Firms are willing to produce and sell a greater

    quantity of a good when the price of the good is high.

    This results in a supply curve that slopes upward.

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 20

    WHAT ARE COSTS?

    The Firms Objective The economic goal of the firm is to maximize

    profits.

  • 11

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 21

    Total Revenue, Total Cost, and Profit

    Total Revenue The amount a firm receives for the sale of its

    output. Total Cost

    The market value of the inputs a firm uses in production.

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 22

    Total Revenue, Total Cost, and Profit

    Profit is the firms total revenue minus its total cost.

    Profit = Total revenue Profit = Total revenue -- Total costTotal cost

  • 12

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 23

    Costs as Opportunity Costs

    A firms cost of production includes all the opportunity costs of making its output of goods and services.

    Explicit and Implicit Costs A firms cost of production include explicit costs

    and implicit costs. Explicit costs are input costs that require a direct outlay

    of money by the firm. Implicit costs are input costs that do not require an

    outlay of money by the firm.

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 24

    Economic Profit versus Accounting Profit

    Economists measure a firms economic profit as total revenue minus total cost, including both explicit and implicit costs.

    Accountants measure the accounting profit as the firms total revenue minus only the firms explicit costs.

  • 13

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 25

    Economic Profit versus Accounting Profit

    When total revenue exceeds both explicit and implicit costs, the firm earns economic profit. Economic profit is smaller than accounting profit.

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 26

    Figure 1 Economic versus Accountants

    Copyright 2004 South-Western

    RevenueTotalopportunitycosts

    How an EconomistViews a Firm

    How an AccountantViews a Firm

    Revenue

    Economicprofit

    Implicitcosts

    Explicitcosts

    Explicitcosts

    Accountingprofit

  • 14

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 27

    Table 1 A Production Function and Total Cost: Hungry

    Helens Cookie Factory

    Copyright2004 South-Western

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 28

    PRODUCTION AND COSTS

    The Production Function The production function shows the relationship

    between quantity of inputs used to make a good and the quantity of output of that good.

  • 15

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 29

    The Production Function

    Marginal Product The marginal product of any input in the

    production process is the increase in output that arises from an additional unit of that input.

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 30

    The Production Function

    Diminishing Marginal Product Diminishing marginal product is the property

    whereby the marginal product of an input declines as the quantity of the input increases. Example: As more and more workers are hired at a firm,

    each additional worker contributes less and less to production because the firm has a limited amount of equipment.

  • 16

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 31

    Figure 2 Hungry Helens Production Function

    Copyright 2004 South-Western

    Quantity ofOutput

    (cookiesper hour)

    150140130120110100908070605040302010

    Number of Workers Hired0 1 2 3 4 5

    Production function

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 32

    The Production Function

    Diminishing Marginal Product The slope of the production function measures the

    marginal product of an input, such as a worker. When the marginal product declines, the

    production function becomes flatter.

  • 17

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 33

    From the Production Function to the Total-

    Cost Curve

    The relationship between the quantity a firm can produce and its costs determines pricing decisions.

    The total-cost curve shows this relationship graphically.

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 34

    Table 1 A Production Function and Total Cost: Hungry

    Helens Cookie Factory

    Copyright2004 South-Western

  • 18

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 35

    Figure 3 Hungry Helens Total-Cost Curve

    Copyright 2004 South-Western

    TotalCost

    $80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    Quantityof Output

    (cookies per hour)

    0 10 20 30 15013011090705040 1401201008060

    Total-costcurve

    21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 36

    THE VARIOUS MEASURES OF

    COST Costs of production may be divided into fixed

    costs and variable costs.

  • 19

    21 October 2009 Ek