KONSEP-KONSEP BIAYA DAN LINGKUNGAN .KONSEP-KONSEP BIAYA DAN LINGKUNGAN EKONOMI Dr. Mohammad Abdul

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Text of KONSEP-KONSEP BIAYA DAN LINGKUNGAN .KONSEP-KONSEP BIAYA DAN LINGKUNGAN EKONOMI Dr. Mohammad Abdul

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 1

KONSEP-KONSEP BIAYA

DAN LINGKUNGAN

EKONOMI

Dr. Mohammad Abdul Mukhyi, SE., MM

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 2

Terminologi Biaya Biaya Tetap (Fixed Cost)

Biaya Variabel (Variable Cost)

Biaya Inkremental (Incremental Cost)

Biaya Berulang dan Tidak Berulang

Biaya langsung, Tidak Langsung dan Overhead.

Biaya Tunai, Biaya Tunai

Biaya Hangus

Biaya Kesempatan

Biaya Siklus Hidup

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 3

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 4

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 5

Contoh 1:Pengerjaan pelapisan jalan, seorang kontraktor memperkirakan biaya $ 1,15 per yard kubik per mil untuk mengangkut material pelapis aspal dari pabrik pencampuran ke lokasi kerja.

$1,15/yd3mil$1,15/yd3milOngkos angkut

$ 25.000$ 15.000Biaya memasang dan memindahkan peralatan

$ 5.000$ 1.000Biaya sewa lokasi tiap bulan

4,3 mil6 milJarak muatan rata-rata

Lokasi BLokasi AFaktor Biaya

Bila lokasi B dipilih ada biaya tambahan $ 96 tiap hari untuk petugas pemberi isyarat. Pekerjaan ini memerlukan 50.000 yard kubil material. Pekerjaan ini memerlukan waktu 4 bulan (17 minggu dari 5 hari kerja per minggu. Jika untuk tiap yard kubik pengangkutan ke lokasi kerja di bayar $ 8,05

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 6

Pemenciunan dan pembuangan

Pemanfaatan untuk operasi atau konsumen, pemeliharaan dan dukungan

Produksi atau konstruksi

Rancangan terinci, perencanaan produksi atau konstruksi, pengadaan fasilitas dan sumberdaya

Rancangan konseptual (pendahuluan), pengembangan jamu, pengujian purwarupa

Memerlukan penaksiran, definisi keperluan

FASE AKUISISI FASE OPERASI

Potensi penghematan biaya siklus hidup

Biaya siklus hidup kumulatif

Biaya siklus hidup kumulatif yang dicadangkan

waktu

Biaya

SIKLUS HIDUP DAN BIAYA RELATIF

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 7

TEORI PERMINTAAN

Permintaan

Jumlah permintaan

Harga permintaan

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi permintaan

Hukum permintaan

Teori Permintaan

Fungsi Permintaan

Permintaan individu

Permintaan pasar

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 8

Skedul dan Kurva Permintaan

F100.000~0

E100.000500200

D100.000250400

C100.000166.67600

B100.000125800

A100.0001001000

TitikPendapatan Kuantitas

yang diminta (Q)

Harga

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 9

A

B

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0 2 4 6 8

kuantitas (Q)

Ha

rga

(P

)

C

D

E

F

Permintaan (D)

Marginal quantity of

price deadweight

loss (DWL)

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 10

Perkecualian Hukum Permintaan

Barang yang memiliki unsur spekulasi.

Barang prestise

Barang giffen

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 11

TEORI PENAWARAN

Penawaran

Jumlah penawaran

Harga penawaran

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penawaran

Hukum penawaran

Teori Penawaran

Fungsi Penawaran

Penawaran individu

Penawaran pasar

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 12

Skedul dan Kurva Penawaran

F1000

E200200

D300400

C400600

B500800

A6001000

TitikKuantitas

yang diminta (Q)

Harga

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 13

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0 200 400 600 800

Kuantitas (Q)

Ha

rga

(P

)A

B

C

D

E

F

Penawaran (S)

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 14

Perkecualian Hukum Penawaran

Backward bending supply

Decreasing cost supply

Constant cost supply

Biaya yang meningkat dan pendapatan yang menurun

Penawaran yang tetap (in-elastis sempurna) dan masalah

sewa

Kasus situasi dinamis

Osilasi divergen

Osilasi abadi

Osilasi non linear

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 15

Keseimbangan Pasar

QD= -1,25P + 750

QS = 0,5P + 100

Jawab:

QD = QS1,25P + 750 = 0,5P + 100

1,25P 0,5P = 100 750

1,75P = 650

P = 371.43 Q = 285.715

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 16

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0 200 400 600 800

Kuantitas (Q)

Ha

rga

(P

)

S

D

E

285.715

371.43

KESEIMBANGAN PASAR

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 17

Kegagalan Pasar

Informasi tidak sempurna (incomplete information)

Daya monopoli (monopoli power)

Eksternalitas (externality)

Barang public (public goods)

Barang altruisme (altruism goods)

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 18

The Market Forces of Supply and

Demand Supply and demand are the two words that

economists use most often.

Supply and demand are the forces that make market economies work.

Modern microeconomics is about supply, demand, and market equilibrium.

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 19

WHAT ARE COSTS?

According to the Law of SupplyLaw of Supply:

Firms are willing to produce and sell a greater quantity of a good when the price of the good is high.

This results in a supply curve that slopes upward.

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 20

WHAT ARE COSTS?

The Firms Objective

The economic goal of the firm is to maximize profits.

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 21

Total Revenue, Total Cost, and Profit

Total Revenue

The amount a firm receives for the sale of its output.

Total Cost

The market value of the inputs a firm uses in production.

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 22

Total Revenue, Total Cost, and Profit

Profit is the firms total revenue minus its total cost.

Profit = Total revenue Profit = Total revenue -- Total costTotal cost

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 23

Costs as Opportunity Costs

A firms cost of production includes all the opportunity costs of making its output of goods and services.

Explicit and Implicit Costs

A firms cost of production include explicit costs and implicit costs.

Explicit costs are input costs that require a direct outlay of money by the firm.

Implicit costs are input costs that do not require an outlay of money by the firm.

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 24

Economic Profit versus Accounting Profit

Economists measure a firms economic profit as total revenue minus total cost, including both explicit and implicit costs.

Accountants measure the accounting profit as the firms total revenue minus only the firms explicit costs.

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 25

Economic Profit versus Accounting Profit

When total revenue exceeds both explicit and implicit costs, the firm earns economic profit.

Economic profit is smaller than accounting profit.

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 26

Figure 1 Economic versus Accountants

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Revenue

Total

opportunitycosts

How an Economist

Views a Firm

How an Accountant

Views a Firm

Revenue

Economic

profit

Implicit

costs

Explicitcosts

Explicitcosts

Accounting

profit

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 27

Table 1 A Production Function and Total Cost: Hungry

Helens Cookie Factory

Copyright2004 South-Western

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 28

PRODUCTION AND COSTS

The Production Function

The production function shows the relationship between quantity of inputs used to make a good and the quantity of output of that good.

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 29

The Production Function

Marginal Product

The marginal product of any input in the production process is the increase in output that arises from an additional unit of that input.

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 30

The Production Function

Diminishing Marginal Product

Diminishing marginal product is the property whereby the marginal product of an input declines as the quantity of the input increases.

Example: As more and more workers are hired at a firm, each additional worker contributes less and less to production because the firm has a limited amount of equipment.

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21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 31

Figure 2 Hungry Helens Production Function

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Quantity of

Output

(cookiesper hour)

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

Number of Workers Hired0 1 2 3 4 5

Production function

21 October 2009 Ekonomi Teknik 32

The Production Function

Diminishing Marginal Product

The slope of the production function measure