Industrialization & Nationalism 1800-1870. Factors of Production

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  • Industrialization & Nationalism


  • Factors of Production

  • PeopleJames WattsStevensonEli WhitneyHenry FordKarl MarxProletariat Bourgeoisie Class struggleMarxismGreat Famine

  • Essential QuestionsTrace patterns of industrialism in the world.Analyze how new innovations made industrialism more successful.Contrast the circumstances of labor [workers] before and after the Industrial Revolution.Discuss the emergence of industrial capitalism and its implications.Discuss the impact of industrialism on society.

  • Cottage Industry / Factory SystemCottage IndustryPieceworkEarnings directly tied to how much produced.Made in homeFamily enterpriseWhole families helpedFactory SystemCentralized work place> outside homePaid by how much time you workedWomen & children paid less $ than menMachines set paceDirect control of workforceLimited breaks to maximize production

  • Cottage Industry

    A Diagram of The Factory System

  • Factory System

  • Patterns of IndustrializationGreat BritainFirst emerged thereFavorable conditions & demand for textilesMechanization of IndustryKay [1733]> flying shuttleincreased production 100 X previous productionCromptons mule [1779]> new spinning machineCartwrights [1785]> power loom

  • Industrial InnovationBritain source of many innovationsJames Watts [1765]> steam engineIron & SteelUse of coke to fuel furnacesBessemer Process > cheap steel makingTransportationRailroads & steam ships lowered costsStevenson [1815]Steam powered locomotive

  • New Social Classes EmergeOwner classWealthy entrepreneurs & investorsWell educatedHigh standard of living

    Working classLabor force of poor / immigrantsNo education b/c child laborExploited for their labor

  • Industrial CapitalismEli WhitneyMachine tools Standardized interchangeable partsHenry FordAssembly line production of automobileLowered costsPaid workers more [$5 a day]Workers could afford cars [$200]

  • Industrial CapitalismBig Businesses / corporationsWere promoted b/cHigh cost of factoriesCapital investmentBritish & French Laid legal groundwork for modern corporations

  • Industrial CapitalismMONOPOLIESDirect domination of any industryCAPITALISTS Either formed:TrustsMany businesses run as oneCartelsGroups that set production & priceO.P.E.C.

  • Spread of IndustrialismNapoleonic Wars abolished guilds & trade barriersFacilitated industrialization in W. EuropeBelgium, Germany, & France Industrialized by 1900

  • Social Impact of IndustrialismPopulation growthBetter diets & improved sanitationUrbanizationInternal migrationrural to urbanDemographic transitionRelative stabilityVoluntary birth control low fertility rate

  • Urbanization & MigrationUrbanizationInternal migration From farms to factoriesGrowth in number & size of citiesTRANSCONTINENTALExternal migrationMostly Europe to America50M from early 19th to early 20th Cent.

  • Social Impact of IndustrializationNew Social ClassesCaptains of Industry extreme wealthMiddle class largest beneficiaryWorking class poorly paid, unskilled

  • Social ImplicationsINDUSTRIAL FAMILIES:Families lead separate livesMen gain statureWorkers resisted work disciplineWorking women [only lower class]Child labor common because of low wages to family & child

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  • Great FamineIrelandA direct colony of BritainOppressed among Western nationsDispossessed of their land and voteTenants in their own landPotatoesCrop failure lead to famineBritain exported food during the famine1M died / 2M emigrate

  • Resistance to Industrial DominationKARL MARXIntense competition lead to exploitationPolitical & social institutions served only the interests of the capitalistsPromoted class struggleBourgeoisie vs. ProletariatBusiness owners / workersDid not believe capitalism could reform itself

  • Nationalism Part 2

  • Essential QuestionsWhat influence did the Crimean War have on European nationalism?How did the Principles of Legitimacy and of Intervention impact European relationships?Compare the unification of Italy and the unification of Germany.Identify the reform movements of the era.

  • People & ConceptsCrimean WarFlorence NightingaleMetternichOtto Von BismarckCavour & GirabaldiCzar Alexander IIBritish North America ActQueen Victoria

    NationalismCongress of ViennaPrinciple of InterventionPrinciple of LegitimacyEmancipation of SerfsAusgleichDocuments of LiberalismRealpolitik

  • NationalismNationalismIDEOLOGY OF A NATION STATEEmerged after the French RevolutionRevolutions in Central EuropeBased on universal male suffrageAustrian EmpireMultinational stateFragmentation of interests of its people

  • Impact of Crimean WarCRIMEAN WARDirect impetus for new alliances in EuropeRussia & Austria now enemiesPromoted a new rise of nationalism in the BalkansSpread throughout Europe

  • Crimean War1853-1856

  • Crimean WarFlorence Nightingale

  • Congress of ViennaPEACE SETTLEMENT AFTER NAPOLEONIC WARSMetternich [Austrian foreign minister]Conservative ideologistPRINCIPLE OF LEGITIMACYGreat PowersPRINCIPLE OF INTERVENTIONRight to send armies to intervene with revolutions

  • Opposition to ConservatismLiberalism & nationalismPowerful forces for changeLiberalism Enlightenment was the sourceSupported Civil liberties, free speech, press, religionSeparation of church & stateWere not democratsOnly equality and power to white men of property

  • Documents of LiberalismAmerican Declaration of IndependenceEquality Popular SovereigntyLife liberty pursuit of happinessDeclaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenLiberty equality - fraternity

  • Map Austria-Hungarian Empire

  • National Unification MovementsITALY [1860]Mazzinis Young Italy spurred uprisingsCavour Expelled Austria from northern ItalyGaribaldiConsolidated southVittore Emmanuele GERMANY [1871]Otto Von BismarckPrime MinisterProvoked wars to swell German pridePrussian Self-proclaimedEmperor of 2nd Reich

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • Unification of GermanyBismarckUnified by forceAutocratic ruleMilitarismPower baseRealpolitikPractical politics not based in ideology

  • Franco-Prussian War [1870]

  • ReformsFranceKing Louis NapoleonCreated empireVery successful until war with PrussiaFrance returned to republicNapoleon III (r.1852-1870

  • ReformAustriaAusgleich 1867Split into two:Austria-Hungarian EmpireEmperor Francis Joseph (r. 1848-1916)

  • RussiaCzar Alexander IIEmancipation of serfsOpposition of conservatives & demands of liberals forced his return to repressive rule


  • ReformsReforms Changes brought about indirectly by revolutionsBritainLiberal parliamentary reformQueen Victorias sense of respectabilityPromoted economic & political stability

  • Canadian NationUnited Provinces of CanadaUnited upper & lower CanadaBritish North American ActParliamentary move feared American intentionsDominion of CanadaDomestic self ruleNo control over foreign affairs

  • Reform in the U.S.Divisive factor in U.S.Industrial north / agricultural southLincoln dedicated to free territories Southern economy base slaveryDemocratic politics brought many into the frayAbolition source of division

  • Enduring QuestionsWhat are the long and short-term benefits of industrialism globally?What are the long and short-term problems that have emerged locally and globally as a result of industrialism?What past and present problems in the world can be traced to nationalism?

    *The key component for industrialism is availability of resources, labor, capital investment, efficient transportation & communication.*Factors of production:Factors of production are various types of resources used in the production of goods and services. They are: Land (natural resource) - natural resources used in the creation of products, paid in economic rent, because they are simply irreproduceable. Labor - human efforts provided in the creation of products, paid in wage. Capital goods - human-made goods or means of production (including machinery, building and so forth) used in the production of other goods, paid in interest. Income from exploiting the 3 production factors comprises the national income.Capital and labor are active factors while land is passive. One can only shift capital and labor rather than land which is given limited, to get a production-factor combination, which is further reflected in the technology a firm employs to produce products and services.Labor operates capital to produce. The ratio of labor over capital is a major decision almost all firms must make. In the decision process, decision makers must understand that neither too much labor per unit of capital nor too much capital per unit of labor is acceptable since either way efficiency is not achieved. The 2 factors must come around someplace that both of them contribute equally to the final economic value realized.*The International Labor Organization (ILO) has estimated that 218 million children between the ages of five and seventeen work in developing countries. Of these, 122.3 million children work in the Asia-Pacific region, 49.3 million work in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 5.7 million work in Latin America and the Caribbean. Most working children in rural areas are found in agriculture; many children work as domestics; urban childre