Industrialization & Nationalism 1800-1870. Factors of Production

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<ul><li><p>Industrialization &amp; Nationalism</p><p>1800-1870</p></li><li><p>Factors of Production</p></li><li><p>PeopleJames WattsStevensonEli WhitneyHenry FordKarl MarxProletariat Bourgeoisie Class struggleMarxismGreat Famine</p></li><li><p>Essential QuestionsTrace patterns of industrialism in the world.Analyze how new innovations made industrialism more successful.Contrast the circumstances of labor [workers] before and after the Industrial Revolution.Discuss the emergence of industrial capitalism and its implications.Discuss the impact of industrialism on society.</p></li><li><p>Cottage Industry / Factory SystemCottage IndustryPieceworkEarnings directly tied to how much produced.Made in homeFamily enterpriseWhole families helpedFactory SystemCentralized work place&gt; outside homePaid by how much time you workedWomen &amp; children paid less $ than menMachines set paceDirect control of workforceLimited breaks to maximize production</p></li><li><p>Cottage Industry</p><p>A Diagram of The Factory System </p></li><li><p>Factory System</p></li><li><p>Patterns of IndustrializationGreat BritainFirst emerged thereFavorable conditions &amp; demand for textilesMechanization of IndustryKay [1733]&gt; flying shuttleincreased production 100 X previous productionCromptons mule [1779]&gt; new spinning machineCartwrights [1785]&gt; power loom</p></li><li><p>Industrial InnovationBritain source of many innovationsJames Watts [1765]&gt; steam engineIron &amp; SteelUse of coke to fuel furnacesBessemer Process &gt; cheap steel makingTransportationRailroads &amp; steam ships lowered costsStevenson [1815]Steam powered locomotive</p></li><li><p>New Social Classes EmergeOwner classWealthy entrepreneurs &amp; investorsWell educatedHigh standard of living</p><p>Working classLabor force of poor / immigrantsNo education b/c child laborExploited for their labor</p></li><li><p>Industrial CapitalismEli WhitneyMachine tools Standardized interchangeable partsHenry FordAssembly line production of automobileLowered costsPaid workers more [$5 a day]Workers could afford cars [$200]</p></li><li><p>Industrial CapitalismBig Businesses / corporationsWere promoted b/cHigh cost of factoriesCapital investmentBritish &amp; French Laid legal groundwork for modern corporations</p></li><li><p>Industrial CapitalismMONOPOLIESDirect domination of any industryCAPITALISTS Either formed:TrustsMany businesses run as oneCartelsGroups that set production &amp; priceO.P.E.C.</p></li><li><p>Spread of IndustrialismNapoleonic Wars abolished guilds &amp; trade barriersFacilitated industrialization in W. EuropeBelgium, Germany, &amp; France Industrialized by 1900</p></li><li><p>Social Impact of IndustrialismPopulation growthBetter diets &amp; improved sanitationUrbanizationInternal migrationrural to urbanDemographic transitionRelative stabilityVoluntary birth control low fertility rate</p></li><li><p>Urbanization &amp; MigrationUrbanizationInternal migration From farms to factoriesGrowth in number &amp; size of citiesTRANSCONTINENTALExternal migrationMostly Europe to America50M from early 19th to early 20th Cent.</p></li><li><p>Social Impact of IndustrializationNew Social ClassesCaptains of Industry extreme wealthMiddle class largest beneficiaryWorking class poorly paid, unskilled</p></li><li><p>Social ImplicationsINDUSTRIAL FAMILIES:Families lead separate livesMen gain statureWorkers resisted work disciplineWorking women [only lower class]Child labor common because of low wages to family &amp; child</p></li><li><p>http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/Casualties: 148</p></li><li><p>Great FamineIrelandA direct colony of BritainOppressed among Western nationsDispossessed of their land and voteTenants in their own landPotatoesCrop failure lead to famineBritain exported food during the famine1M died / 2M emigrate</p></li><li><p>Resistance to Industrial DominationKARL MARXIntense competition lead to exploitationPolitical &amp; social institutions served only the interests of the capitalistsPromoted class struggleBourgeoisie vs. ProletariatBusiness owners / workersDid not believe capitalism could reform itself</p></li><li><p>Nationalism Part 2</p></li><li><p>Essential QuestionsWhat influence did the Crimean War have on European nationalism?How did the Principles of Legitimacy and of Intervention impact European relationships?Compare the unification of Italy and the unification of Germany.Identify the reform movements of the era.</p></li><li><p>People &amp; ConceptsCrimean WarFlorence NightingaleMetternichOtto Von BismarckCavour &amp; GirabaldiCzar Alexander IIBritish North America ActQueen Victoria</p><p>NationalismCongress of ViennaPrinciple of InterventionPrinciple of LegitimacyEmancipation of SerfsAusgleichDocuments of LiberalismRealpolitik</p></li><li><p>NationalismNationalismIDEOLOGY OF A NATION STATEEmerged after the French RevolutionRevolutions in Central EuropeBased on universal male suffrageAustrian EmpireMultinational stateFragmentation of interests of its people</p></li><li><p>Impact of Crimean WarCRIMEAN WARDirect impetus for new alliances in EuropeRussia &amp; Austria now enemiesPromoted a new rise of nationalism in the BalkansSpread throughout Europe</p></li><li><p>Crimean War1853-1856</p></li><li><p>Crimean WarFlorence Nightingale</p></li><li><p>Congress of ViennaPEACE SETTLEMENT AFTER NAPOLEONIC WARSMetternich [Austrian foreign minister]Conservative ideologistPRINCIPLE OF LEGITIMACYGreat PowersPRINCIPLE OF INTERVENTIONRight to send armies to intervene with revolutions</p></li><li><p>Opposition to ConservatismLiberalism &amp; nationalismPowerful forces for changeLiberalism Enlightenment was the sourceSupported Civil liberties, free speech, press, religionSeparation of church &amp; stateWere not democratsOnly equality and power to white men of property</p></li><li><p>Documents of LiberalismAmerican Declaration of IndependenceEquality Popular SovereigntyLife liberty pursuit of happinessDeclaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenLiberty equality - fraternity </p></li><li><p>Map Austria-Hungarian Empire</p></li><li><p>National Unification MovementsITALY [1860]Mazzinis Young Italy spurred uprisingsCavour Expelled Austria from northern ItalyGaribaldiConsolidated southVittore Emmanuele GERMANY [1871]Otto Von BismarckPrime MinisterProvoked wars to swell German pridePrussian Self-proclaimedEmperor of 2nd Reich</p></li><li><p>Giuseppe Garibaldi</p></li><li><p>Unification of GermanyBismarckUnified by forceAutocratic ruleMilitarismPower baseRealpolitikPractical politics not based in ideology</p></li><li><p>Franco-Prussian War [1870]</p></li><li><p>ReformsFranceKing Louis NapoleonCreated empireVery successful until war with PrussiaFrance returned to republicNapoleon III (r.1852-1870</p></li><li><p>ReformAustriaAusgleich 1867Split into two:Austria-Hungarian EmpireEmperor Francis Joseph (r. 1848-1916)</p></li><li><p>RussiaCzar Alexander IIEmancipation of serfsOpposition of conservatives &amp; demands of liberals forced his return to repressive rule</p><p>Reform</p></li><li><p>ReformsReforms Changes brought about indirectly by revolutionsBritainLiberal parliamentary reformQueen Victorias sense of respectabilityPromoted economic &amp; political stability</p></li><li><p>Canadian NationUnited Provinces of CanadaUnited upper &amp; lower CanadaBritish North American ActParliamentary move feared American intentionsDominion of CanadaDomestic self ruleNo control over foreign affairs</p></li><li><p>Reform in the U.S.Divisive factor in U.S.Industrial north / agricultural southLincoln dedicated to free territories Southern economy base slaveryDemocratic politics brought many into the frayAbolition source of division</p></li><li><p>Enduring QuestionsWhat are the long and short-term benefits of industrialism globally?What are the long and short-term problems that have emerged locally and globally as a result of industrialism?What past and present problems in the world can be traced to nationalism?</p><p>*The key component for industrialism is availability of resources, labor, capital investment, efficient transportation &amp; communication.*Factors of production:Factors of production are various types of resources used in the production of goods and services. They are: Land (natural resource) - natural resources used in the creation of products, paid in economic rent, because they are simply irreproduceable. Labor - human efforts provided in the creation of products, paid in wage. Capital goods - human-made goods or means of production (including machinery, building and so forth) used in the production of other goods, paid in interest. Income from exploiting the 3 production factors comprises the national income.Capital and labor are active factors while land is passive. One can only shift capital and labor rather than land which is given limited, to get a production-factor combination, which is further reflected in the technology a firm employs to produce products and services.Labor operates capital to produce. The ratio of labor over capital is a major decision almost all firms must make. In the decision process, decision makers must understand that neither too much labor per unit of capital nor too much capital per unit of labor is acceptable since either way efficiency is not achieved. The 2 factors must come around someplace that both of them contribute equally to the final economic value realized.*The International Labor Organization (ILO) has estimated that 218 million children between the ages of five and seventeen work in developing countries. Of these, 122.3 million children work in the Asia-Pacific region, 49.3 million work in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 5.7 million work in Latin America and the Caribbean. Most working children in rural areas are found in agriculture; many children work as domestics; urban children work in trade and services, with fewer in manufacturing and construction. Child labor ranges from four-year-olds tied to rug looms to keep them from running away, to seventeen-year-olds helping out on the family farm. In some cases, a child's work can be helpful to him or her and to the family; working and earning can be a positive experience in a child's growing up. This depends largely on the age of the child, the conditions in which the child works, and whether work prevents the child from going to school. The Children's Rights Division at Human Rights Watch has focused its efforts on the worst forms of child labor, those prohibited by the ILOs Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention. Children who work long hours, often in dangerous and unhealthy conditions, are exposed to lasting physical and psychological harm. Working at rug looms, for example, has left children disabled with eye damage, lung disease, stunted growth, and a susceptibility to arthritis as they grow older. Children making silk thread in India dip their hands into boiling water that burns and blisters them, breath smoke and fumes from machinery, handle dead worms that cause infections, and guide twisting threads that cut their fingers. Children harvesting sugar cane in El Salvador use machetes to cut cane for up to nine hours a day in the hot sun; injuries to their hands and legs are common and medical care is often not available. Denied an education and a normal childhood, some children are confined and beaten, reduced to slavery. Some are denied freedom of movementthe right to leave the workplace and go home to their families. Some are abducted and forced to work. The human rights abuses in these practices are clear and acute. We have found similar problems in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the United States: children who work for too many hours and too many days, for too little, or sometimes no pay, subject often to physical abuse, exposed to dangerous pesticides, and made to work with too dangerous tools. Our objectives in tackling these aspects of the complex and troubling child labor issue include drawing attention to the plight of child workers, helping to end these appalling practices, and contributing to the debate on the rights dimension of the larger issue of children and work. *"In the eighty years or so after 1780 the population of Britain nearly tripled, the towns of Liverpool and Manchester became gigantic cities, the average income of the population more than doubled, the share of farming fell from just under a half to just under a fifth of the nation's output, and the making of textiles and iron moved into steam-driven factories. So strange were these events that before they happened they were not anticipated, and while they were happening, they were not comprehended The British economy from 1780 to 1860 was unpredictable because it was novel, not to say bizarre."(D. N. McCloskey, 1981) *Workers resist pace and discipline of factory system. The system was so restrictive that workers labored for long hours w/o breaks for very little compensation.*The conditions of the factory were typical of the time. Flammable textiles were stored throughout the factory, scraps of fabric littered the floors, patterns and designs on sheets of tissue paper hung above the tables, the men who worked as cutters sometimes smoked, illumination was provided by open gas lighting, and there were a few buckets of water to extinguish fires. The ninth floor had only two doors leading out. One stairwell was already filling with smoke and flames by the time the seamstresses realized the building was on fire. The other door had been locked, ostensibly to prevent workers from stealing materials or taking breaks and to keep out union organizers.The single exterior fire escape, a flimsy, and poorly-anchored iron structure, soon twisted and collapsed under the weight of people trying to escape. The elevator also stopped working, cutting off that means of escape, partly because the panicked workers tried to save themselves by jumping down the shaft to land on the roof of the elevator.Sixty-two of the women who died did so when, realizing there was no other way to avoid the flames, they broke windows and jumped to the pavement nine floors below, much to the horror of the large crowd of bystanders gathering on the street level.[4] Others pried open the elevator doors and tumbled down the elevator shaft. Of the jumpers, a single survivor was found close to drowning in water collecting in the elevator shaft.[citation needed] The fallen bodies and falling victims made it difficult for the fire department to reach the building.</p><p>*The famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland. Its effects extended well beyond its immediate demographic impact and permanently changed the island's political and cultural landscape. For both the native Irish and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memory and became a rallying point for various nationalist movements. Virtually all modern historians of Ireland regard it as a dividing line in the Irish historical narrative, referring to the preceding period of Irish history as "pre-Famine.In 1845, the onset of the Famine resulted in over 1,000,000 deaths. Ottoman Caliph Abdlmecid declared his intention to send 10,000 sterling to Irish farmers but Queen Victoria requested that the Caliph send only 1,000 sterling, because she had sent only 2,000 sterling. The Caliph sent the 1,000 sterling but also secretly sent 3 ships full of food. The English[citation needed] courts tried to block the ships, but the food arrived in Drogheda harbour and was left there by Ottoman sailors. *The chain of events leading to Britain and France declaring war on Russia on 28 March 1854 can be t...</p></li></ul>