CH. 12: INDUSTRIALIZATION AND NATIONALISM, 1800 - 1870 Text pgs. 360 - 391

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> CH. 12: INDUSTRIALIZATION AND NATIONALISM, 1800 - 1870 Text pgs. 360 - 391 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution A. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain The Industrial Revolution is a period of European history in which new agricultural, manufacturing and transport technologies changed the way goods were produced. This had a major effect on society as a whole and peoples lives particularly. Changes in manufacturing began in Great Britain in the late 1700s, but it was not until decades later that these changes were introduced to other nations. Why was Britain first? There are a number of factors that gave Britain an advantage. English factory </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution B. Contributing Factors Agriculture in Britain had been changed dramatically in the 1700s. More farmland was cultivated. A four-field crop rotation was introduced that made better use of fields. New crops, like potatoes and corn, were imported. Food became cheaper and required less labor. With greater availability of food, the population began to rise. During this time, Parliament passed laws that allowed large- scale landowners to take land that had been for common use and fence it in. This enclosure movement forced thousands of rural laborers to move into large cities and look for work. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution B. Contributing Factors Britain had a large amount of money available for investment, called capital. Some people, known as entrepreneurs, used their capital to found new businesses, buy machinery and build factories. Britain also had natural resources. Early factories relied on rivers for power and transportation. Later, coal was used as a power source. Iron and tin were necessary for building machinery. Britain had all of these in huge quantities. Finally, British merchants had access to markets for manufactured goods. People in Britain had money to spare, and British colonies required finished products. The merchant marine could transport goods all over the world. Rivers &amp; Canals Cutty Sark </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution Preview Change in Cotton Production The Coal and Iron Industries Railroads Pgs. 364 - 365 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution C. Change in Cotton Production Britain dominated the manufacture of cotton cloth in the 1700s. Production required two steps: Cotton fiber was pulled into thread by spinners, then thread was woven into cloth on looms. Traditionally, this was all done by individuals in their homes, a system called cottage industry. Cottage industry was rendered redundant by technological advances in the 1700s. The invention of the flying shuttle made weaving faster, which increased demand for thread. The spinning jenny, an automatic thread puller, was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves. Other spinning machines increased the production of thread beyond what weavers could use. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution C. Change in Cotton Production The power loom, invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787, used a water wheel to drive weaving machines. Factories had to be located near rivers, so it was more practical to bring workers to the mills. Water power was replaced by steam engines, invented by James Watt and perfected by 1782. Steam could power both spinning and weaving equipment, and these mills could be located anywhere. Cotton cloth production increased by over 1000 percent from 1760 to 1840. Cotton goods became Britains primary export, and nearly all of it was made in factories. Power loom James Watt </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution D. The Coal and Iron Industries The success and versatility of the steam engine caused its use to expand rapidly in the late eighteenth century. These machines burned coal for fuel, which meant that there was a parallel increase in coal mining. The abundance of coal also led to changes in the iron industry. In the 1780s, Henry Cort introduced the process of puddling, in which coke (derived from coal) was used to drive out the impurities in pig iron. This produced a much higher quality of iron. The puddling process led to a boom in British iron production. By 1852, British foundries produced 3 million tons of iron a year, more than all other countries combined. Child coal miners Puddling furnace </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution E. Railroads Several developments in transportation occurred in the late 1700s. Paved roads and canals improved transport efficiency, but the railway system made the greatest impact. The first commercial railway in Britain opened in 1804. It only hauled 10 tons of cargo at 5 mph. By 1850, trains could reach 50 mph and pull up to 40 tons. There were 6,000 miles of track covering Britain. Reliable rail transport allowed merchants to move their products to market faster and cheaper than ever before. Communication between cities improved. Workers could commute to factories with ease, and thousands of railway jobs were created. The Rocket </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution Preview The New Factories The Spread of Industrialization Europe Pgs. 365 - 366 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution F. The New Factories The factory system drastically changed how labor was organized. Machines and facilities were expensive to build, so factory owners wanted to get as much use out of them as possible. Consequently, owners organized their workers into shifts that worked as much as 18 hours at a stretch, often overnight. Men, women, and children as young as six worked in the mills. Early factory employees had mostly come from farming backgrounds, where they were used to periods of heavy labor broken up by slower periods. In order to adapt them to the factory system, owners would charge fines for being late, punish workers for being drunk, and beat child laborers for being disobedient. 19 th century machine shop Factory girls </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution G. The Spread of Industrialization By the mid-1800s, industrialization had made Great Britain the most prosperous and economically powerful nation in the world. In 1850, Britain produced over half of the coal used and manufactured goods bought. Cotton production was equal to all other nations combined. Naturally, other nations had witnessed what Britain was able to do. They wished to copy the British model and increase their own production. The Industrial Revolution spread to Europe and North America by the early nineteenth century. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution H. Europe The Industrial Revolution reached different European nations at different times. Those countries that had urbanized populations and manufacturing traditions, like France, Belgium and the German states, adapted to the factory system more quickly. In each of these cases, the government took an active role in the spread of industrialization. States built railroads and canals to facilitate transport. By contrast, nations like Spain and Russia had agrarian populations, relatively little manufacturing, and disinterested governments. They adopted industrialization much later. European tenements </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution Preview North America Social Impact in Europe Growth of Population and Cities Pgs. 366 - 368 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution Homework Answer each question in a half-page response with complete sentences. Be accurate, be specific, be complete. Due tomorrow. 1. In what ways did British workers have to adapt to the factory system? What did owners do to make them adapt? 2. What technological changes led to the development of industrialization? 3. Critical Thinking (10 pts.): Look at the graph on pg. 366. How did Britains population growth compare to the United States growth between 1830 and 1870? How do they compare between 1870 and 1900? Why is there a difference? </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution I. North America Beginning in 1800, the United States underwent an industrial revolution as well. By 1860, half of all workers were employed in factories, and nine cities had populations over 100,000. For a nation the size of the U.S., transportation was key. Robert Fulton invented the first paddlewheel steamer in 1807. 50 years later, thousands of them cruised the Mississippi. Between 1830 and 1860, almost 30,000 miles of railroad track were added. Heavy industry was mostly located in the northeast, where textile factories predominantly hired women. In some factory towns, whole families were hired, including children. Rear-wheel steamer Reading line locomotive Lawrence Textiles, Inc. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution J. Social Impact in Europe Industrialization dramatically changed the social structure of Europe in the 1800s. Economic power shifted away from the nobility, who had traditionally managed the finances of European nations, to the upper-middle class, who owned the new factories and controlled a major stake in nations financial futures. In addition, two entirely new social classes were created by the 1850s: The industrial middle class, and the industrial working class. These groups were distinct from the middle class and urban poor whom they competed with. Industrial middle class Industrial working class </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution K. Growth of Population and Cities From 1750 to 1850, the population of Europe nearly doubled, from 140 million to 266 million. This drastic increase was caused by declining death rates, fewer wars, and less disease. The increase was so abrupt that economist Thomas Malthus predicted that the world would run out of food within a century. The exception to the trend was the potato famine of the 1840s. When a fungal infection destroyed the potato crop, nearly 1 million Irish people died, and another million migrated to America. Steam power allowed factories to relocate into major cities. Railroads allowed rural workers to move into urban areas to find work. By 1850, over 50% of the British population lived in London or one of the other 18 cities with a population over 50,000. This led to appalling urban conditions. There were no sanitation laws. Buildings were not subject to codes. Deaths due to disease and fire were common. Calls for reform led to dramatic changes in the second half of the century. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution Preview The Industrial Middle Class The Industrial Working Class Early Socialism Pgs. 368 - 370 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution L. The Industrial Middle Class In the nineteenth century, the economic environment of Europe was defined as industrial capitalism, a system based on manufacturing. This new system created a new element within the urban middle class the industrial middle class. The bourgeoisie of the 1700s had included merchants, lawyers, bankers and government officials. In the 1800s, that group was expanded to include entrepreneurs, factory owners and stock market traders. The industrial middle class came to be defined by their ambition, initiative, and greed. Above all else, profit was their prime motivator. Elias Howe Stock prices, 1750 - 1900 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution M. The Industrial Working Class Industrialization also changed the lives of the urban poor. Unskilled or semi-skilled laborers became part of the industrial working class. Conditions for workers were terrible. They worked as much as sixteen hours a day, six days a week, in dangerous and unhealthy facilities. There was no minimum wage, no safety laws and no unemployment insurance. The worst conditions were in coal mines. In tunnels four feet high and poorly lit, men dug tons of coal with hand tools. Women and children hauled the coal. Cave-ins, explosions and gas leaks were constant threats. Coal dust and dampness caused permanent back and lung injuries. Hauling Sorting Cave-in </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution M. The Industrial Working Class Cotton mills were also dangerous work environments. Fast-moving machines had no safety guards. The buildings were hot, dusty and unhealthy. Cotton mills employed a high number of women and children. In 1833, Britain passed the Factory Act, which limited the age and work hours for children. Women earned less than half the wages of men. Laws limited the number of hours women could work. Limits on women and child labor hurt family income, and men were expected to make up the difference by working even longer hours. Gradually, women left the workforce in favor of caring for the home and family. Overhead drive belts Mill girls Facial injury </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> I. The Industrial Revolution N. Early Socialism The appalling living and working conditions created by the Industrial Revolution prompted the rise of socialism. Socialism is a political and economic system in which the government owns factories and runs them for the benefit of the employees. Early socialists believed in the equality of all people and the power of cooperation. The cotton manufacturer Robert Owen created two ideal factory towns in New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana. The American experiment was a failure. Later socialists, after Karl Marx, were more cynical and labeled the previous generation as utopian socialists. Robert Owen New Lanark Mill Karl Marx </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> II. Reaction and Revolution Preview The Congress of Vienna The Conservative Order Forces of Change Pgs. 371 - 373 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> II. Reaction and Revolution A. The Congress of Vienna Once Napoleon was defeated and exiled, the great powers of Europe (Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia) moved to restore the old order. Representatives met at the Congress of Vienna in 1814, a meeting organized by Prince Klemens von Metternich. The guiding principle behind Metternichs plan was supposed to be legitimacy that royal families be returned to their thrones. This was done in France, but overlooked elsewhere. Instead, the great powers shuffled territories amongst themselves to create a new balance of power. The idea was to keep the four most powerful nations about equal, so no one could dominate the others. Prince Metternich The new map of Europe </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> II. Reaction and Revolution B. The Conservative Order The Congress of Vienna was a victory for conservatism a political view that values tradition and stability. Conservatives resisted social change, believed in obedience to authority, and supported established religion. They feared revolutions and disallowed individual rights. In order to maintain the balance of power, the great powers agree...</li></ul>