Giving Effective Presentations SLIDES - Effective Presentations ... Give initial introduction of topic / content / ... the point / the question / query:

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  • Giving Effective PresentationsLearner Development Unit

  • Aims

    R i f h t tit t Raiseawarenessofwhatconstitutesaneffectivepresentationp

    Discusshowtopreparegoodvisualaids Discusshowtodealwithquestions Discuss using your voice effectively Discussusingyourvoiceeffectively [Give opportunity to practise presenting][Giveopportunitytopractisepresenting] AOB

  • ImportantCharacteristicsf P t tiofPresentations

    Clear speakeraudience roles Clearspeakeraudience rolesAudiencecantclarifymeanings

    Preplannedspeaking[cf.usualspeaking]speaking]

    Needsstructure;aims;engagement Extendedlengthofspeakingturn

    Needs language to help audience followNeedslanguagetohelpaudiencefollowRequirescarefulplanning

    d k lf l d lDemandsskilfuldelivery

  • TypicalSpeakingPresenting

    Typical Speaking Typical Speaking Listenerisactivelyinvolved s/hecaneasilyclarifyspeakersmeanings,ideas,linksbetweenideasLi t i ti l i l d k t tl Listenerisactivelyinvolved speakercanconstantlynotice/monitortheircomprehension/understanding

    Contextisexplicitlyshared linksbetweenpoints,ideasp y p ,etcareobvious&apparent[ifnot,seeabove!]

    SpeakinginaPresentation i i l di l i l d /h Listenerislessdirectlyinvolved s/hecannotinterrupttoclarifypresentersmeanings,ideasetc

    Listener is distant presenter has less ways ofListeneris distant presenterhaslesswaysofmonitoringlistenersinterpretationoftext

    Contextisnotshared linksbetweenspeakerspoints,ideas etc may not be as obvious & apparent as theideasetcmaynotbeasobvious&apparentas thepresenterthinks[andifnot,seeabove!]

  • Plus

    Language is a very slippery phenomenonLanguageisaveryslippery phenomenon Thinkofallthosecommunicationproblemsyouvehad with loved oneshadwithlovedones

    Thinkofallthosetimeswhenyoucantbelievethatsomeonecantgetyourpoint istheworldmad?Orisyourpointmaybeinfactperhapsnotquiteasclear

    h h k h kasyou,thethinker,thinkitis?

    Thinkhowpeoplesometimesevendeliberatelyp p ytwistyourmeaningsitsveryeasy todo

    Think of politicians lawyers etc Thinkofpoliticians,lawyersetc

  • Implications

    Youneedtobeveryvery VERY direct&explicitaboutyourmeanings,directions,linksetc

    Powerful&decisiveintroductions Cleartransitions[pauses+explicitlanguage] Clearsignalling[attheends&beginningsof differentsections]

    Alwaysbewisetohowpeople*might*beabletointerpretyourpointssomepotentialinterpretationsmaynotmatchyourintendedinterpretations

    A streetwise approach is essentialAstreet wiseapproachisessential

  • Thingstoavoid1) Helping Audience1)HelpingAudience

    l l d NoexplicitlystatedAIMS Nointroductionofcontent NointroductionofstructureN tli i f [ t b d] Nooutliningofscope[areastobecovered]

    Disorganisedcontentg Noclearsignallingoftopicchanges Abrupt finish & no offers to take questions Abruptfinish&noofferstotakequestions

  • Thingstoavoid2) Delivery2)Delivery

    Readingaloud Mumblingg Monotonousdelivery Speaking very quicklySpeakingveryquickly Noeyecontactwithaudience No gestures Nogestures Givingdense/difficultinformationwithoutany

    l tiexplanation Handsinpocket

  • Thingstoavoid3) M3)Manners

    nogreetings novisualaids/unclearvisualaids useoflanguagewhichaudiencewillnotunderstand inadequatepreparation verydenseinformation turningyourbacktotheaudience nottalkingaboutthetopic notstickingtotime abruptfinish noofferstotakequestions

  • Thingstodowhenpresenting 1)presenting1)...

    Outline AIMS in intro (i e your thesis) OutlineAIMS inintro(i.e.yourthesis) Outlinemainpoints/topicalareasinintrop / p Highlightscope&perspective&focusinintro

    b h l f h h b Rememberthelimitationsofthehumanbrain Outline sections before + after saying themOutlinesectionsbefore+aftersayingthem Summarisefrequentlytohelpaudiencesee

    & h i fi hyourargument&howitfitstogether Make sure to return to your main thesis atMakesuretoreturntoyourmainthesisattheend&finishconclusively

  • Thingstodowhen presenting 2)whenpresenting2)...

    Pl f ll b t d t d l d Plancarefullybutdontreadaloud Speakclearly&articulately&withvervep y y Rememberyouraudiencearethere lookat them!atthem!

    Useyourhands/armstohelpgetyourideasacross[andofcourseyourvoice!]

    Explain things which need explainingExplainthingswhichneedexplaining Keephandsoutofpockets?

  • SpeakingtoPersuade

    Preparation OrganisationPreparation Identifyyourpurpose

    Organisation ?Catchyopening?

    Beclearwhatyourtalkis / not about

    Clearstatementofaims Overview of whole talkis/notabout

    Analyseaudienceexpectations etc

    Overviewofwholetalk [Thetalkitself]

    fexpectationsetc Gatherinformation

    Summaryofmainpoints Memorableconclusion

    Devisestructure&logical steps / premiseslogicalsteps/premises

    Preparevisualaids

  • HelpingLanguageto

    i G t di & i t d t ( )i. Greetaudience&introducepresenter(s)ii. Giveinitialintroductionoftopic/content/

    / i f istructure/aimsofpresentationiii. Dealwithquestionsiv. Finishapoint/areaduringyourpresentation

    [beforeyoumoveontothenextpoint/area][ y p / ]v. Moveontoanewpoint/areaduringyour

    presentationpvi. Refertoavisualaidvii Give overall summary of / ending tovii. Giveoverallsummaryof/endingto

    presentation

  • SomeLanguagef P ti 1)forPresenting1)...

    Idliketotalkaboutthreethingstoday TodayImgoingtotalkaboutthreethings ImgoingtotalkaboutX,YandZ,whilemycolleague,[NAME],isgoingtotalkaboutA,BandC

    TodayIm/weregoingtoshowyou Goodmorningladiesandgentlemen Ivedividedmytalkintothreemainpoints Letsbeginwithaquestion Ok,sothisiswhatImgoingtobetalkingabouttoday So,thefirstpoint/tobeginwith,

    / So,tostart/beginwith,letsconsider

  • SomeLanguagef P ti 2)forPresenting2)...

    Couldyouleaveanyquestions/interruptionsuntiltheendpleaseIf h ti l l th til th d Ifyouhaveanyquestions,pleaseleavethemuntiltheend

    IvegotahandouthereforyouwhichIllgiveyounow/atthe endtheend

    Thankyouverymuchforlistening Ok so thats pretty much all Ive got to say really but Id be Ok,sothat sprettymuchallI vegottosayreally,butI dbedelightedto(tryto)answeranyquestionsyoumayhave

    Ok, so weve looked at X, Y and Z, and seen that now, hasOk,sowe velookedatX,YandZ,andseenthatnow,hasanyonegotanyquestions?

  • SomeLanguagef P ti 3)forPresenting3)...

    Ok,sothatsallIvegottosayonthethirdpoint Now.This(ofcourse)raisesthequestionof.SonowIllmoveon

    dand Ok,sowevelookedatNowwhataboutthisfourthpoint?Ok,well

    Now,thethirdthingwhichIdliketotalkabouttodayis Ok,sothatsthesecondpoint Now,whataboutthisthirdpoint?Ok,well NowIvedividedthisthirdpointintothefollowingideas Ok so the third thing were going to look at is Ok,sothethirdthingwe regoingtolookatis Ok,nowIdliketoturntothethirdpoint,whichis Nowletsmoveontohavealookat NowImgoingtotalkaboutthethirdpoint,whichis

  • SomeLanguagef P ti 4)forPresenting4)...

    Asyoucanseehere/onthismap/inthisdiagram/inthispicturepicture,

    Ok,thisisadiagram/map/picturewhichshows

    Ok so what do I / we mean by [WORD / CONCEPT / IDEA]? Ok,sowhatdoI/wemeanby[WORD/CONCEPT/IDEA]?Well,

    Now what I mean by [WORD / CONCEPT / IDEA] isNowwhatImeanby[WORD/CONCEPT/IDEA]is

  • SomeLanguagef P ti 5)forPresenting5)...

    Ok Ok, So,, Well, Now,

  • BiggerPicture

    Active listening in communication Activelisteningincommunication Bodylanguageincommunication Spokendiscoursemarkers(well;so;now;okay) [managing message / audience]okay)[managingmessage/audience]

    Theconceptoffaceincommunication FacethreateningActs[FTAs]morewords + minimisers (e g just; quite;words+minimisers(e.g.just;quite;slightly;apologies)

    Useofthevoiceformeaning[stress]

  • BodyLanguage1

    In oral communication some research* Inoralcommunication,someresearch*suggestsweconveyourmessageasfollows:

    Wh t 7%Whatwesay 7%

    Howwesayit(pace,vol,emph)38%y (p , , p )

    Ourbodylanguage55%

    *Mehrabian,A.&Wiener,M.(1967).Decodingofinconsistentcommunications.Journalofpersonalityandsocialpsychology 6(1):109114.

    Mehrabian,A.&Ferris,S.(1967).Inferenceofattitudesfromnonverbalcommunicationintwochannels.Journalofconsultingpsychology31(3):248252.

  • BodyLanguage2

    I Facial expressionI. FacialexpressionII. Gaze notmaintainingeyecontactisasignof

    di h f li ?dishonestyorofpoliteness?III. Posture thiscanspeakvolumespIV. GestureV Pro imitV. ProximityVI. Touch canbeformal(ahandshakeonfirst

    meeting),orinformal(huggingafriend)VII. Personal appearance style of dress,VII. Personalappearance styleofdress,

    cleanliness,grooming important?

  • UsingYourVoice

    B l i d ith ( d & ) Byplayingaroundwithpace (speed&pauses),emphasis (whichwordsarestressed),pitch(how high or deep the voice is) and volume give(howhighordeepthevoiceis)andvolume,givethesesentencessomeofthedifferentmeaningsthey might havetheymighthave

    Doyouknowwhatthetimei ?is?

    Therubbishbinisfull.fWhatareyoudoing? Its cold in here Itscoldinhere.

  • DealingwithQuestions

    Checkyou/theaudiencehaveunderstoodthe point / the question / query:thepoint/thequestion/query:

    SorrybutIdidntquite getwhatyouy q g ysaid

    Couldyoujust repeatthat

    Sorry But I dont quite get what you Sorry.ButIdon tquite getwhatyoumean.Areyousaying ?

    [just&(not)quitereducesFTA]

  • NegotiationofMeaning / Message:Meaning/Message:

    k ? Okay.Soyoumean...? Okay.Soyouresaying...? But.What.Youmean...??

    ButwhatexactlydoyoumeanbyX?

    ButIunderstanditdifferently But my takes slightly different / not really the same.Butmytake sslightlydifferent/notreallythesame.

    Well Thats not exact