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FUNDAMENTOS DE ECOLOGIA Aula nº 1 Luís Chí lchichar/ECOLOGIA%202009/Aula%201%20... · PDF file4 ECOLOGIA – história Aristotle was the first taxonomist dividing organisms into

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    FUNDAMENTOS DE ECOLOGIAAula n 1

    Lus Chcharo

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    -Andrewartha (1961) : estudo cientfico da distribuio e abundncia dos organismos

    -Odum (1963) : estudo da estrutura e funo da natureza

    - Krebs (1975) : estudo das interrelaes que determinam a distribuio e abundncia dos organismos

    -Haeckel (1886) : estudo das interaes dentro de um ambiente bitico e entre este e o ambiente abitico

    ECOLOGIA definio

    ECOLOGIA TERMO PROPOSTO POR HAECKEL (1886) QUE RESULTA DA JUNO ENTRE AS PALAVRAS GREGAS OIKOS (CASA) E LOGOS (CINCIA)

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    A segundo a natureza do meio:

    - ecologia marinha - ecologia terrestre - ecologia das guas continentais

    B - segundo o mbito do estudo:

    - ecologia humana - ecologia econmica - ecologia social, etc

    C - segundo o nvel de organizao:

    - autoecologia- demoecologia- sinecologia

    Divises da ecologia

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    ECOLOGIA histria

    Aristotle was the first taxonomist dividingorganisms into land, sea, & air dwellers hewrote Historia Animalia

    Aristoteles - (c.384-322 AC)

    1 - Classificao e agrupamento dos organismos

    He noticed, that classification of nature was possible and that a continuoustransition from inanimate to living animals existed.

    praga de ratos de campo elevada taxa de reproduo vs. predadores naturais

    Noo de equilbrio dinmico

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    ECOLOGIA histria

    Theophrastus(c.372-287 AC)

    In his two treatises, Historia Plantarum(Research on plants) and De CausisPlantarum (On the causes of plants), he analyzed the constitutive parts and the reproduction of plants and proposed a system of classification in four categories: trees, shrubs, undershrubs, herbs.

    He is often considered the father of botany.. Theophrastus

    1 - Classificao e agrupamento dos organismos

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    ECOLOGIA histria

    Linneus, Carl von - (1707-1778)

    Systema Naturae

    Desenvolveu o sistema binomial: gnero + espcie (ex. Homo sapiens). frequentemente considerado como o Pai da Taxonomia.1735 Publicou a primeira edio da sua classificao dos seres vivos: Systema Naturae.

    1 - Classificao e agrupamento dos organismos

    In: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/linnaeus.html

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    ECOLOGIA histria

    2 - Evoluo dos organismos

    He published his views in 1801; he much enlarged them in 1809 in his "Philosophie Zoologique,' and subsequently, in 1815, in theIntroduction to his "Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Vertbres.'

    In these works he upholds the doctrine that species, includingman, are descended from other species.

    Today, the name of Lamarck is associated merely with a discredited theory of heredity, the "inheritance of acquired traits."

    However, Charles Darwin, Lyell, Haeckel, and other earlyevolutionists acknowledged him as a great zoologist and as a forerunner of evolution.

    http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/lamarck.html

    Lamarck, Jean Baptiste(1744-1829)

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    ECOLOGIA histria

    2 - Evoluo dos organismos

    Until recently the great majority of naturalists believedthat species were immutable productions, and hadbeen separately created. This view has been ably maintained by many authors. Some few naturalists, on the other hand, havebelieved that species undergo modification, and thatthe existing forms of life are the descendants by truegeneration of pre-existing forms.

    Prefacio da 1 edio da Origem das espcies:

    Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

    I have called this principle, by whicheach slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection

    Infuncia do ambiente

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    ECOLOGIA histria

    Malthus, Thomas(1766-1834)

    3 Dinmica das populaesMalthus was a political economist who was concerned about, whathe saw as, the decline of living conditions in nineteenth centuryEngland. He blamed this decline on three elements: Theoverproduction of young; the inability of resources to keep up withthe rising human population; and the irresponsibility of the lowerclasses. To combat this, Malthus suggested the family size of thelower class ought to be regulated such that poor families do notproduce more children than they can support.

    Publicou em 1798, An Essay on the Principle ofPopulation, as it Affects the Future Improvement ofSociety with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin,

    Gesto sustentada dos recursosPrincpio da Precauo

    Parmetro de Malthus

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    4 sc. IX e XX relaes dinmicas entre populaes

    ECOLOGIA histria

    Lotka, Alfred James (1880 - 1949)

    Volterra, Vito (1860 - 1940)

    Verhulst, Pierre Franois (1804 - 1849)

    Modelo Predador (P) e presa (H)

    Logistic population growth, populations run out of resourcesat high density

    Pearl, Raymond (1879 - 1940)

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    Thienemann, August (1864-1956)

    5 Sc. XX nveis hierrquicos de organizao conceitode ecossistema

    ECOLOGIA histria

    He organized biota into hierarchical systems, and hispublished discussions in 1914 of the interactions between thedifferent communities and conditions in the water environmentinto a "super-organismic unity" anticipated the ecosystemconcept

    He developed and published in 1926, the basic conceptual foundations of cycling of nutrients in water and food cycle relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers

    Hiptese de Gaia(Lovelock 1979)

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    5 Sc. XX nveis hierrquicos de organizao conceitode ecossistema

    ECOLOGIA histria

    Noo nicho ecolgico Pirmides dos nmeros

    Elton, Charles (1900-1991)

    Tansley, Arthur (1871-1955)

    Noo de ecossistema(ecological system) (1935)

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    "Na Terra os ciclos biogeoqumicos so conduzidos biologicamente e, em

    qualquer planeta em que exista vida, as condies para a sua manuteno so

    asseguradas pelos prprios organismos"

    Hiptese de Gaia (Lovelock, 1979) Planeta Vivo

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    ECOLOGIAmbito

    Complexidade

    Interrelaes

    BIOLOGIAMOLECULAR

    CITOLOGIA

    FISIOLOGIA

    A Ecologia utiliza os mtodos, conceitos e resultados de outras cincias biolgicas

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    1930 (aprox.) - nascimento da Ecologia moderna - com 50 anos de atraso relativamente a cincias de laboratrio como a Embriologia e a Gentica, devido a:

    1. necessidade de generalizao - descoberta de leis aplicveis a todos os seres vivos

    2. anlise independente dos fenmenos (procedente do positivismo de Augusto Comte)

    3. falta de objectivos numa cincia aparentemente sem aplicaes prticas.

    Apesar de enormes erros ecolgicos:

    - monocultivo de algodo provocou a exausto do solo na Florida

    - tratamentos com DDT que provocaram a exploso de outras espcies prejudiciais porque o equilbrio natural foi alterado.

    ECOLOGIA reconhecimento como cinciaLimitaes ao desenvolvimento da Ecologia

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    The Aral Sea was once the fourth biggestinland sea in the world. With abundant fish resources, and a busyshipping trade between its northern port of Aralsk and the river ports of the Amu-Darja, some as far distant as Tajikistan, the Seaprovided a healthy livelihood for severalhundred thousand people. The Aral Sea surface was 66,100 squarekilometers with an average depth of 16,1 meters and a maximum depth of 68 meters. Salt content was 1%.

    Desastre ecolgico Mar Aral

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    Desastre ecolgico Mar Aral

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    Desflorestao e desertificao na China

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    Desflorestao: consequncis na China

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    Desflorestao: impacto ambiental e socials

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    1 fase antropocntrica : a manuteno dos bens naturais e da qualidade ambiental importante para o bem estar do Homem.

    O ambiente no dotado de um valor intrnseco, apenas o que envolve o ser humano e portanto a periferia e no o centro. - Ambiente como recurso

    2 fase utilitarista : preciso, no apenas aumentar tanto quanto possvel a quantidade de bem estar humano (antropocentrismo), como tambm reduzir ao mnimo o sofrimento no mundo. Ex. movimentos de libertao animal

    3 fase ecocntrica ou biocntrica : universo como sujeito de direito

    A biosfera revestida de um valor intrnseco bem superior ao da espcie humana, que razoavelmente prejudicial.

    Evoluo do pensamento ecolgico

    dever da nossa espcie para com o nosso meio eliminar 90% dos nossos efectivos( William Aiken)

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    Evoluo do pensamento ecolgico

    Prof. Wangari Maathai

    She introduced the idea of planting trees with the People in 1976 and continued to develop it into broad-based, grassroots organization whose main focus is the planting of trees with women groups in order to conserve the environment and improve their quality of life.

    Through the Green belt Movement she has assisted women in planting more than 20 million trees on their farms and on schools and church compounds.

    Nobel Paz 2004

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    Ecologia e ideologia

    Extremos espectro poltico Constituies Nazis (1933 e 1935)

    Ecologia e religio

    Criao do Mundo por Deus

    Tradio Judaico-crist

    Ecologia e racismo

    Ecoterrorismo

    Ecofeminismo

    Evoluo do pensamento ecolgico

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    Consciencializao ecolgica mecanismo de retroaco do super-organismo?

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    SUSTENTABILIDADE DOS RECURSOS ou DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTVEL

    Meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising theability of future generations to meet their own needs.

    World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission) 1987.

    Preservao do ambiente, biodiversidade e recursos

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    TRAGDIA DOS COMUNS