ETHICAL ISSUES IN ACCOUNTING: Professional practices Role of Accountants and Auditors
IMPORTANCE OF ETHICAL VALUES Ethical values provides the foundation for a civilized society. For any firm to increase its wealth requires publics trust that depends on ethical values. Ethics is of utmost importance to accounting professionals and those who rely on their services. Ethical codes calls to maintain a level of selfdiscipline that goes beyond the requirement of laws and regulations.
ACCOUNTING??? The process by which any business keeps track of its financial activities by recording its debits and credits and balance in its accounts.
INSTITUTIONS LAYING THE ETHICAL CODESAICPA IMA IIA
OBJECTIVES OF ETHICAL AUDIT To determine the long-term ownership value and to achieve distributive justice To help in providing a critical assessment by systematically evaluating its business practices To help in scrutinizing the basis and information on which the accounts are drawn Helps business undergoing major alterations like restructuring Helps in determining the type of training
CONT To help in establishing code of conduct of business To enhance, measure and promote the quality that increases the business performance to help the stakeholders to evaluate the performance of the directors and vice versa.
STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCTS Competence Confidentiality Integrity Objectivity
TYPES AND ROLE OF ACCONTANTS Accountants employed by an organization management accountant financial accountants Accountants in professional practice the auditor Accountants in related services
REASONS FOR FRAUD IN ORGANISATION Unduly aggressive financial targets Domination by person or group without controls Major performance related compensation Pressure to reduce tax liabilities Aggressive accounting practices to keep stock prices high. Inadequate monitoring of significant controls Week corporate ethics Non financial personnel involved in accounting matters. High degree of innovation and progress such as in the technology industry
FRAUD IN FINANCIAL STATEMENT Fictitious revenues Fraudulent timing differences Concealed liabilities and expenses Improper or fraudulent disclosers or omissions Fraudulent asset valuations Bribery Inside trading
Burning examples:SATYAM COMPUTERS ENRON WorldCom
ConclusionWhen accountants (including auditors) fail to provide investors with reliable information that is relevant to their capital allocation decisions, investors and all citizens with stakes in the success of the economic system suffer.
Four enduring reasons for ethics1. Accountancy is a profession, which lacks the history, tradition, and self-understanding of the traditional profession. 2. Accountants must state the truth in a way adequate to particular circumstancesthey need an inner orientation to the truth. 3. Accountants must serve as watchdogs and thus be especially able to resist greed and greediness. 4. Accountants (Auditors) are not paid by those whose interests they are supposed to represent, and regulation cannot solve this.