Ethical Dilemma and Leadership Values and Ethical Reasoni

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    Ethical Dilemma AND

    Leadership Values and Ethical

    Reasoning

    SHABINA Z DESAI

    Module :-1 & 2

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    What Is Ethics?

    A group of moral principles

    or set of values that defineor direct us to the right

    choice

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    Nine theories of ethics1. Situational ethics

    Lying is Wrong , but if you lie to do avoid

    hurting someone feelings, lying is right .

    2. Consequential ethics

    Result will be positive

    3. value ethics

    Your behavior according to your value

    4. Utilitarian ethics

    If you kill one person to save many , it ok

    to do so.

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    5. Moralistic ethics

    Pacifisit may always believe war is always

    wrong ,no matter how justified it may seems.

    6. Ethical realism

    Based on real world

    7. Ethical hierarchies

    Certain ethical values are more important than

    others

    8. Principles of ethics

    Just principles or theories to guide decision s.

    9. Moral development

    Ethics can be taught that greater levels of

    ethical behavior can be achieved as one learn

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    What Is an Ethical Dilemma?

    Situation in

    which two or

    more deeply heldvalues come into

    conflict. In these

    situations, the

    correct ethicalchoice may be

    unclear.

    What should or

    ought I do?

    What is rightor wrong,

    good or bad?

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    Ethical Dilemma

    Ethical Dilemma arises in a situationwhen one is faced to choose the right

    one from several conflicting alternatives

    (e.g conflict between responsibility andvalues)

    There are situations when there is not

    simple choice between right or wrong. Dilemmas are complex when manager

    have no clear guidelines either in law or

    in religion.

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    Ethical dilemma are complex judgments onthe balance between the economic

    performance and the social performance ofan organization.An ethical dilemma exists when one is faced

    with having to make a choice among following

    alternative-Significant value conflict among differinginterest,

    -Real alternative that are equally

    justifiable-Significant Consequences onstakeholders in the situation.

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    According to Rushworth Kidder, in ethical

    dilemma, the toughest choices are Rightversus right.

    -Truth versus Loyalty

    -Individual versus Community-Short-term versus Long term

    -Justice versus mercy

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    Resolving Ethical Dilemma The following guidelines help to resolve the issues.

    -Clearly define the problem.

    -Look on the problem from the opposite end.

    -Identified the source of problem.

    -Define your intention to how to resolve theproblem.

    -Define your loyalty to individual/ organization.

    -Compare the out come of various alternative

    decision.-who will be affected by your decision.

    -What would be effected of the decision to theaffected person as a whole on long term

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    Approaches to resolving ethical

    dilemmas We have observed there are three

    classical approaches in resolving ethical

    dilemmas.a) Ends-based thinking

    b) Rule-based thinking

    c) Care-based thinking

    d) Virtue-based thinking

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    Characteristics of ethical

    dilemmas Most ethical decisions have extended

    consequences.

    Most ethical decision have multiple alternatives and

    have to be considered. Most ethical decisions have mixed outcomes.

    Most ethical decision have uncertainconsequences.

    Most ethical decisions have personal implication.

    Ethical decisions are not simple choice betweenright or wrong.

    It have complex judgments.

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    Causes of Ethical Dilemmas

    A Bottom Line Orientation

    Short Term Traps The Ego Barrier

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    There is no excuse for failure.

    Zero defects.

    Can do.

    Just do it.

    Tell them what they want to hear.

    Make the report say what theywant to see.

    Causes of Ethical Dilemmas

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    Determining the

    Right ThingBasic Approaches

    Kantian (Deontic) Approach

    Utilitarian (Consequential) Approach

    Virtue (Character) Approach

    Fairness (Justice) Approach Common-Good Approach

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    Kantian (Deontic or Rights)

    Approach Immanuel Kant

    Rules or principles determine action.

    Emphasizes the principle over the result.

    The action should not be done if everyone should

    not do it. Can my act become universal law?

    People have rights: truth, privacy, and protection.

    People are not a means to an end, but are an endin themselves.

    Bottom Line: Does the action respect the moral

    rights of everyone?

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    Utilitarian (Consequential)

    Approach John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham

    Emphasizes the results of the action.

    Ethical actions provide the best balance ofgood over evil.

    An act is right if and only if it results in as

    much good as any available alternative.

    Bottom Line: The greatest good for the

    greatest number of people.

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    Virtue (Character) Approach

    Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas

    Emphasizes character.

    Character traits or virtues enable usto reach our highest potential.

    A virtuous person is an ethicalperson.

    What kind of person should I be?

    Bottom Line: People develop virtuesthrough habit.

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    Fairness (Justice) Approach

    Aristotle

    Equals should be treated equally and

    unequals should be treated unequally.

    Favoritism and discrimination are unjust

    and wrong.

    Bottom Line: How fair is the action? Does

    it treat everyone the same way, or does itshow favoritism or discrimination?

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    Common-Good Approach

    Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, John Rawls

    Veil of Ignorance Those that makedecisions should be blind to personalgain.

    We are all members of the samecommunity.

    Bottom Line: What is good forindividuals is based on what is goodfor the community as a whole.

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    What Are Values?, cont.

    Values indicate desirable or preferred

    end-states or corrective goals or

    explicable purposes, and values arestandards in terms of which specific

    criteria may be established and choices

    made among alternatives. JamesMacGregor Burns, Leadership, p. 74

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    What Are Values?, cont.

    Value systems provide an overall frame of

    reference for goal setting; they are normative

    views held by individuals (consciously orsubconsciously) of what is good or desirable.

    Values provide standards by which people

    are influenced by their choice of action.

    French, Kast, and Rosenzwig, UnderstandingHuman Behavior in Organizations, p. 69

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    What Are Values?, cont.

    Values are the deep seated, pervasive

    standards that influence every aspect of

    our lives (our moral judgments, ourresponses to others, our commitment to

    personal and organizational goals).

    Values set the parameters for decisionmaking. Kouzes and Posner, The

    Leadership Challenge, p. 212

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    What Are Values?, cont.

    Values are the enduring beliefs that

    have worth, merit, and importance for

    the organization. Daft, LeadershipTheory and Practice, p. 192

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    Types of Values

    Individual individuals

    Group formal or informal groups

    Organizational composite of individual,group, organizational, culture

    Constituents those in direct contact with theorganization

    Cultural the entire society Understanding Human Behavior in

    Organizations, Kast and Rosenzweig, p. 150

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