England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales Year 8 History Homework Bookletv3
1. Why is our flag so complicated?If you look at our flag (the Union Flag or Union Jack) and compare it to other countries flags it seems very complicated. Why is this so? Its a story that goes back a long wayIt is really 3 flags put together. These flags are the flags of the patron saints of England, Ireland and Scotland. Find out the names of the patron saints whose flags make up the Union Flag and colour in the flags.In order to see how these flags fit together, follow the instructions on the A3 sheet tucked into this booklet.EXTENSION: Wales is not represented on the flag of the United Kingdom. Design a new flag that includes something to represent Wales and staple it into this booklet.I was probably a Roman soldier from Palestine. People say I killed a dragon! I became Englands patron saint during the reign of Edward III he liked soldiers.St. ____________ Patron Saint of EnglandSt. ____________ Patron Saint of ScotlandI was one of the followers of Jesus. It is said that in the 10th century (900s) some of my bones magically appeared in Scotland. My flag is a saltire or diagonal cross.St. ____________ Patron Saint of IrelandI was Roman-British priest it was my job to persuade people to be Christians. Legend has it that I got rid of all the snakes in Ireland.
2. Why is the Queens coat of arms so complicated?Throughout history, many people have had coats of arms. They were first used in the medieval period to help people identify who was who. This was particularly important on a battlefield!
Every coat of arms is different and there are very strict rules about what they should look like and how they are described. These rules are called heraldry.
Identify the different parts of the coat of arms of the current Queen, Elizabeth II. Write the correct letter next to each of the statements.acdefbgEXTENSION II: The Queen uses a slightly different coat of arms when she is in Scotland. Find out what the differences are and explain why you think it is different.EXTENSION I: In heraldry, many of the terms come from medieval French. In this box are the names of tinctures (colours) used in heraldry. Colour each word appropriately.Or, Argent, Azure, Gules, Sable, Vert, Purpure
This is medieval French for Shame on Him Who Thinks Badly of it. It was first used by Edward III who was from the French Plantagenet family.
These are from the coat of arms of Richard the Lionheart. Although he was king of England he only spent 9 months in the country.
This comes from the coat of arms of William I of Scotland. One of his nicknames was William the Lion.
This is the traditional heraldic symbol of Scotland. It is chained up because these animals were thought to be so dangerous.
This is the traditional heraldic symbol of England.
This is French for God and My Right. It was first used by Henry V who spoke French.
This is the traditional symbol of Ireland.
3. When did this kingdom become united?Athelstan 924-929I was a Saxon king that no-one remembers! This is weird because I was the first person to be the king of all of England in 924.Edward I 1272-1307I was a medieval king of England and I conquered Wales. I also won many battles against the Scots but I died before I could take over completely.James I 1603-1613 (James IV of Scotland)I was king of Scotland when Queen Elizabeth died. Because she had no children I was asked to be king of England and Prince of Wales as well.William III 1689-1702 I was a Dutch prince who was asked to become king of England (and Wales) and Scotland. After the Battle of the Boyne (1690) Ireland came under my control. Well, in name at least.Hatch the map above using different strokes to show who ruled what.Athelstans landEdward Is landJames Is landWilliam IIIs landHow many years was it between Athelstan taking control of all of England and William III taking control of all of the British Isles?________________
4. How did Mel Gibson make William Wallace look like a very Scottish hero?William Wallace was a Scottish knight who led a rebellion against Edward I of Englands attempt to take over Scotland. Despite winning the battle of Stirling Bridge (1297) he was eventually caught by the English and was killed by being hanged, drawn and quartered. In 1999, an Australian filmmaker called Mel Gibson made a film about him called Braveheart. It made Wallace look like a Scottish hero. How did he do it? See if you can link the way Gibson shows us Wallace to how this makes him look, not just like a hero, but a Scottish hero.A. There are lots of people behind himB.Hes holding a weaponF. He is walking with his head held high.E. There are lots of English soldiersC. He is wearing blue war paintD. He is in the middle of the pictureEXTENSION: How do you think an English filmmaker, who wanted to show King Edward I (Wallaces enemy) as a hero, would show Wallace? Draw a picture of what you think Wallace might look like if this film were ever made? Label the features of your picture, explaining why you have drawn what you have and staple it into your booklet.1297 - 1305AD
EThis suggests that it takes many Englishmen to control him.This suggests that he is a good soldier.This makes him look like a Scot as Scottish sports teams wear blue.Although the English are going to kill him, he looks proud and unafraid.This makes him look like a good leader.This suggests that he is important.
5. Why did the Welsh revolt against English rule?1400 - 1415 ADLook at this castle. It is Carreg Cennan in South Wales. It was attacked and beseiged by Welsh soldiers. They were rebelling against English rule. They were led by Owain Glyndr (pronounced Glen-dow-er). In 1399 Glyndr declared himself to be Prince of Wales.He was supported by a powerful English baron, the Earl of Northumberland, French forces and lots of people in Wales.See if you can work out why each person or group is rebelling?Owain GlyndrFrench soldiersThe Welsh peoplePercy, Earl of Northumberland. (Nickname = Harry Hotspur)Eventually, the rebellion was defeated by English forces who came from Ireland. Wales remained under English rule.EXTENSION: Today, a famous football club in London has its ground on land that was once owned by the Percy family. Which one is it? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________We are supporting the rebellion because the English who are in charge of our towns are making laws that take away our money and our rights.I am rebelling because I think that I should be the Prince of Wales. The son of an English king should not be the Prince!.I am rebelling because I think that I should be King of England not King Henry IV.I have got more royal blood than him!We are fighting because we have been fighting the English for many, many years. We will give help to anyone that wants to fight the English!
6a. Why do people in Ireland still care about the Battle of the Boyne?Irish history is complicated. Irish history is often not history it is still a matter of arguments today.So much of it is tied up with the histories of Rome, England, Scotland, France, Holland and the USA.So much of it is tied up with arguments about religion.It would be brilliant if we had the time to explore the ins-and-outs of the last 1,000 years of Irish history in class.The men in the picture above are part of the Orange Order. They are going on a march to remember a battle that happened in Ireland over 300 years ago. The boys on the right are throwing stones at men on a similar march.The event they are remembering (or protesting about remembering) is the Battle of the Boyne which was fought between two men who thought that they should be king of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.These two men were James II (James Stuart) and William III (William of Orange).Research the Battle of the Boyne and colour-code the statements below. James IIWilliam IIII was king until 1688 when there was a revolution against me.Parliament asked me to become king in 1688. It is now called the Glorious Revolution.I was a Protestant.I came from Holland where I was the Prince of Orange.My supporters were called Jacobites. (Jacobus is Latin for James).My supporters were called Williamites.I won the Battle of the Boyne.I lost the Battle of the Boyne.1690 AD
Now you know a little about the Battle of the Boyne. However, we havent answered the question about why so many people, particularly in Ireland, still care so much about this old battle.The building on the right is in Shankhill in Belfast. It celebrates the victory of William of Orange at the Battle.Below, are two statements about the importance of the Battle of the Boyne. Use two colours to highlight a) religious reasons and b) political reasons why the Battle of the Boyne is seen as important.I am a Nationalist. This means that I think that all of Ireland should be part of the Republic of Ireland. At the moment, Northern Ireland is part of Great Britain and I dont think it should be. James II was popular in Ireland. If the English did not want him as their king, that was their problem, they shouldnt be able to tell the Irish who their king was. The Battle of the Boyne is another example of British people telling the Irish what to do.Also, like many Irish people, I am Catholic. I think that it is a shame that James II was defeated because it meant that Catholics were often treated like second-class citizens. Even today, Protestants like the Orange Order have marches to celebrate the Battle of the Boyne and try and put us down.Look again at the building in the photograph at the top of the page.Do you think that this building is owned by a