We will examine Irish, Scottish, and Welsh history and culture from 500 BC to the present.
- 1. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Pre-Christian religious belief Priestly class = druids From Indo-European words for oak (drus) and know (wid) Sacred places = nemed Belief in the afterlife Transmigration of the soul (in works by Pythagorus) Tir inna mbeo Land of the living Tir tairn giri Land of promise Tir inna mban Land of women Mag Mell Plain of sports Caer Feddiwid Court of intoxication Preiddeu Annwn, The Spoils of Annwn Annwn = unworld or deep place Polytheism
2. Newgrange, Ireland 3. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Britain/Wales Influence of Rome Death of Jesus, 33 AD Death of Saints Peter and Paul, 60-66 AD Establishment of Catholic orthodoxy, circa 200 AD Constantine the Greats Edict of Milan, 313 AD Pelagius, fl. 400 AD Withdrawal of Roman legions, 409/410 AD Visit from Bishop Germanus of Auxerre, c. 429, to combat Pelagianism Gildas, fl. 540 AD De Excidio Britanniae (On the Ruin of Britain) Nennius, fl. 900 CE Historia Brittonum (History of Britain), mentions King Arthur bearing a symbol of the Virgin Mary into battle (usually translated as a shield) 4. Glastonbury Tor, England (associated with Joseph of Arimathea and the Holy Grail) 5. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland The challenge to Christianity in Britain Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians Irish and PictsThe mission to the Angles and Saxons The monastery of Iona Pope Gregory the Great, r. 590604 and mission of St. Augustine of Canterbury The Synod of Whitby, 664 Bede the Venerable, d. 735 History of the English Church and People The Celtic Church 6. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland St. David (Dewi Sant), fl. 600-650 AD Llan- place names = religious centers Llanbadarn = church of Padarn Llanfair = church of Mary Llandewi = church of David St. Samson of Dol, fl. 550-600 7. Documented religious centers in early Wales 8. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland The influence of Rome in Ireland Loughshinny Emain Macha Ogam/ogham 9. Ogam script 10. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Missionaries to Ireland Palladius of Auxerre, mid-5th century? Killashee (from Cell Auxili, Cell of Auxilius) Dun Shaughlin (from Dun Sechlainn, fort of Secundinus) Earliest Easter table in Ireland was based on the 4th century teachings in Gaul and northern Italy St. Patrick, late 5th century? Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus Confessions Muirchius Life of Patrick, 7th century Tirechans Life of Patrick, 7th century Armagh 11. St. Patrick, from Tara, Ireland 12. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Irish saints St. Columba, d. 597 Iona St. Brigit, fl. 6th century Kildare 13. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Structure of the Irish church Monasteries and cities Kil- prefix indicates a church settlement Kilkenny, Killarney, Kildare Liber Angeli (Book of the Angel), 7th century Asceticism Skellig Islands Peregrinatio St. Columbanus, d. 615 14. Skellig Michael 15. Skellig Michael stairway 16. Skellig Michael monastery 17. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Continuity of religious sites Emain Macha (twins of Macha) and Armagh (Ard Macha, heights of Macha) Glendalough Clonfert Molua (from Mo Lug) 18. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Image of Cross of Brigit Continuity of religious beliefs St. Brigit Brigantia Imbolc, February 1st Brigits sacred fired St. Declan Cain Adomnan, Law of Adomnan, 7th -9th centuries 19. How the Irish Saved Civilization Thomas Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization, 1995 20. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland The mission to the Picts Picts, from Latin Picti, painted people Irish Cruthni, British Pretani, people of designs (Pretani Britain) St. Columba, d. 597 AD Oswald of Northumbria, r. 633-642 Lindisfarne Monastery Oswiu of Northumbria, r. 642-670 Peada of Mercia, r. 653-656 Mission of St. Augustine, 597 Synod of Whitby, 664 Fusion of Irish, Anglo-Saxon, and Christian artistic motifs Lindisfarne Gospel, late 7th to early 8th century Book of Kells, mid-8th to 9th century 21. Kintore Stone. Class 1 Pictish stone. V and crest with dolphin or other sea animal. 22. Other side of Kintore Stone. Salmon and rod with double discs. 23. Aberlemno 1. Class 1 stone. Serpent, double disc, and z rod, with mirror. 24. Brandsbutt stone, Class 1. Ogham, serpent, v and crest. 25. Aberlemno 2. Battle of Nechtansmere, 685. Class 2. Mixed Christian and Pictish symbols. Class 2 also reliefs, not inscriptions. 26. Meigle 4 Stone. Class 2 or 3. Pictish riders, dolphin, wolf, v and crest. Other side a cross. 27. Meigle 2. Class 2 or 3. Pictish riders and Daniel in the Lions Den. Other side is a cross. 28. Aberlemno cross. 29. Lindisfarne Gospel. Front page, Book of Matthew. Dated to 7th century. Produced in northern England, but with Irish influences. 30. Lindisfarne Gospel. Carpet Page. 31. Book of Kells. Initial page. Dated to mid 8th or early 9th century. Irish, Celtic, and Germanic influences. Script characteristic of Northumbrian monasteries. 32. Image from Gospel of Luke, Book of Kells. 33. Christianity in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Reforming Celtic Christianity Scotland Malcolm III r. 1058-1093 Margaret and St. Andrew Ireland Synod of Kells, 1152 Established Archbishop of Armagh as primate of Ireland Pope Adrian IV, r. 1154-1159 Papal bull Laudabiliter Wales and Ireland Gerald of Wales, d. 1223 History and Topography of Ireland Journey Through Wales/Description of Wales