British Government Great Britain Ireland Scotland Wales England

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  • British Government

  • Great BritainIrelandScotlandWalesEngland

  • Constitutional Monarchy

  • Constitutional MonarchyBegan 1688 Glorious Rev.Most ProgressiveRuler limited by lawMonarch needed Parliaments consentParliament needed monarchs consent

  • Previous Limits1215 Magna CartaKing John limits kings powerEnglish Bill of RightsSecured Constitutional Monarchy

  • The English Cabinet

  • The CabinetExecutive CommitteeOriginally temporaryActed in rulers nameOnly represented majority partyWhy: Stalemate possible b/w Parliament and Monarch

  • The CabinetBegan: Wm. and MaryMost influential ministersAppointed and dismissed at willEnd of rule: for support chose majority party members (Whigs)Assured king majority vote*Cabinet now link b/w king and Parliament

  • Rise of the Prime Minister

  • Background1 minister dominated cabinet during Hanoverian DynastyGerman dynastyLast Stuart Anne died 1714George I & II- little English, no interest in British affairsLack of knowledge- leads to reliance on ministers

  • Prime Minster EmergesSir Robert Walpole1721 George I appts. him first Lord of the Treasury1721-1741 unofficial ruler of BritainFirst Prime Minister Set pattern for modern British politics

  • The SystemCabinet center of power and policy makingLeader of majority party in Parliament led cabinet as prime minister

  • A SummaryWorks best if only 2 partiesAdvantagesExecutive, majority party will get legislation passedDisadvantagesMinority has little sayPossibility of frequent elections (party not support PM, party balance)

  • George IIITried to take back powerUS issue- No taxation w/out representationAverage GB citizens did not have these rightsUlterior motive- break away from mercantilism

  • British Reform Legislation

  • Reform Bill 1832Why: pressure from merchants & factory ownersPurpose: set up new districts for electing members of ParliamentOld districts- medieval villages now empty (owner had vote)New cities (Manchester, Sheffield) no elected reps (grew after districts formed)

  • Reform Bill 1832SignificanceEnd to injustice- new cities got voteMore men gained suffrage (men who paid certain amount in rent gained vote, not just landowners)Most all middle class voted now 20% voting (2xs more)

  • Reform Act of 1867Why: Growing prosperity & social responsibility of working classSome politicians convinced to extend suffrageReform League (John Bright)- pushed Parliamentary action

  • Reform Act of 18671866 Lord Russell introduces idea- defeated by Conservatives & antidemocratic LiberalsConservative Disraeli (led House of Commons) gets bill passedAccepted liberal amendmentsVoting 1,43 mil to 2.47 mil (working class)

  • Reform Act of 1867Disraeli wanted Conservatives to get support of new votersSaw change inevitable- let Conservatives get credit (responsive to social change)Believed growing mid class would be Conservative

  • Disraeli v. Gladstone

  • GladstoneLiberal PM 1868-1874Began as a ConservativeWanted old institutions opened1870 Exams for Civil Service 1871 Abolished purchase of officers commission1872 Secret BallotAnglican requirement dropped for universities

  • GladstoneEducation Act of 1870Govt. est. and run elementary schools (instead of church)Church had been given little money= inadequate schoolsNO education in areas no churchWhy? Democracy does NOT work with society of illiterates

  • GladstoneGoals: Remove old abuses without destroying existing institutionsCitizens compete on abilityRecognizes trade unionsStress individualism, free trade, competition (solve social probs)Significance- state-building brings loyalty

  • DisraeliConservative PM 1874-1880Favored paternalistic legislationAction: few specific programsRichard Cross- Home Sec.Responsible for social legislation

  • Disraeli1875 Public Health Act- state interfere on private property in matters of health, well-being1875 Artisans Dwelling Act-State provide housing to working class1875 Conservatives offer protections to trade unions Allowed to strike

  • Loss of Power by House of Lords

  • David Lloyd GeorgeLiberalMinister of Finance1909- Prime MinisterSocial Welfare

  • Social Welfare ProgramOld-age pensionsAccident/illness insurance for workersUnemployment benefitsFUNDING: income taxes (wealthy)Peoples Budget

  • Peoples BudgetOnly House of Commons passed**Issue- place of House of Lords in British govt.Liberals want to limit powerLiberals win next 2 elections but lords refuse reformsKing threatened to appt. new liberal- minded lords (pass reform)Lords vote to limit own power

  • Peoples BudgetResolved- House of Lords only delay bills passed by House of Commons After 2 yrs. bills become law**One step closer to fully democratic govt.

  • FridayPapers BackNotebooks BackGet out Greek DBQ documentsPOV

  • Irish Question

  • The BasicsIreland controlled by British for nearly 300 years1801- directly from London1870s Irish nationalists seek home ruleIrish Home Rule Party- seek independence Liberals support home ruleGladstones bills defeated

  • IssuesPrices of farm products drop1000s cant pay rent2000 families pushed out of homes Angry farmers, nationalists become violent1870-1880s- Protestants and Catholics work together for home rule

  • A Change1900s Irish Protestants turn against home ruleLived in N. Ireland (Ulster)Fear being a minority1914 Home Rule bill passedWWI broke put month before bill to take effect

  • Social IssuesAnglo Saxons (British)- EnglishCelts (Irish)- GaelicEnglish see Irish as inferior, lazy people (treat poorly)English- ProtestantIrish- Catholic (no representation, no vote)

  • Political IssuesProtestants (minority) and Catholics (majority)Who control govt?Home Rule?1936 Ireland gained independence (N. Ireland independent for Protestants)

  • Economic IssuesGladstoneTenant Laws- land back to IrishHenry & Elizabeth- bought out Irish land & est. British farmsCromwell finished conquestIrish wanted British landlords out

  • British Empire

  • EmpireColonies key to prosperity- benefit BritainMercantilism1700s- focus is on gaining & controlling colonies1763 British strongest colonial and navel power in Europe

  • Empire SizeExtending on Indian subcontinentN. America- east of MississippiIslands in Caribbean- SUGARCanada- largest part of EmpireNavigation Laws 1660 & 1663- tight control of colonies