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EdExcel GCSE Music Revision Booklet of all Set works AOS1 – Western Classical Music AOS 2 – Music in the 20 th Century AOS 3 – Popular Music in Context AOS 4 – World Music

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  • EdExcelGCSEMusic

    RevisionBookletofallSetworks

    AOS1WesternClassicalMusicAOS2Musicinthe20thCenturyAOS3PopularMusicinContext

    AOS4WorldMusic

  • WhatDoINeedToKnow?

    Foreachsetwork,youneedtoknowthe:

    o Composero NameofPieceo Tempoo TimeSignature/Rhythmo Instruments/Timbreo Structureo Melodyo Tonalityo Harmonyo Dynamicso TypeofPieceo Textureo Dateitwascomposedo Electronicdeviceso Electronicprocesses

    Youalsoneedtobeableto:

    o Giveopinionsastowhyyoulike/dislikeeachpieceo Knowboththecenturyanddateofwhenthepiecewascomposedo Providereasonsastowhyeachsetworkreflectsthestyleitwaswrittenine.g.

    Romantico Giveexamplesofothercomposersofthatstylee.g.BachisBaroqueo Statefeaturesofthestyleofmusico Knowwhatsectionofthemusicisbeingplayedintheextracte.g.Mozartthey

    couldplayeitherthe1stor2ndsubject(somakesureyouknowthedifference)o Writebasicnotationsforsomepartsoftheextracts.Thiscouldbeforany

    extract,youneedtobeabletoheartheshapeofthemelodyforeachpieceofmusic

    o Workouttherhythmbeingplayedbyacertaininstrumentinanextract

    Wordsunderlinedarethekeyareasofeachpiecee.g.tonality,texture

    EachAOScanbeseenthroughthevaryingcolours:Red=AOS1 Orange=AOS2 Blue=AOS3 Green=AOS4

  • Glossary SATBthefourvoicesusedinachoir(soprano,alto,tenor,bass)OratorioareligiouspiecelikeanoperabutnotactedonstageImitationwhereonepartcopiesanotherPlagalCadenceasectionwhichendswiththechords4and1(subdominanttotonic)BassoContinuothecelloandorganinbaroquetimesHemiolagivingthemusicafeelofhaving2beatsratherthan3SequenceapatternmovingupordownOstinatoaconstantlyrepeatedpatternHomophonicatunewithanaccompanimentImitativewhenthemelodiescopyoneanotherSymphonyapieceforanorchestrain4movementsRubatoplayingaboutwiththespeedofapiece,eitherslowingitdownorspeedingupCantablethemelodyisplayedsothatissingsoutonthepianoandusesasmoothsoundSustuentoslowandsustainedSyncopationputtingtheemphasisonusuallyweakbeatsinapieceofmusicAcciaccaturaacrushednoteEnharmonicChangethesamenotewithadifferentnamee.g.AbtoG#SmorzandodyingawayPianissimoveryquietPeddleNotearepeatednoteSehrRaschveryfastKlangfarbenmelodiethetuneispassedaroundtheorchestra,betweeninstrumentsHexachordsachordwith6notesAtonalnokeyFragmentedbrokenupHauptstimmeprinciplemelodyMetamorphosisabasicchangeinformResultantmelodyamelodymadeupfromnotesbeingplayedindifferentinstrumentpartsMetricalDisplacementplayingthesamethingbutatadifferenttime,soundsoutofsyncPolymetreacombinationofdifferenttimesignaturesTritoneanintervalofasharpened4thSyllabiconemelodynotepersyllableOctavedisplacementmovingnotesfromthemelodyintodifferentoctavesTremoloveryquicknotes,givesashakingeffectHarmonicsveryhighnotesPizzicatopluckedstringsStridentbig,bold,confidentFrontlineInstrumentstheinstrumentsthatplaythemelodylinesRhythmicSectiontheinstrumentsthatplaythebackgroundbassandbeatsHeadthemelody,andinALLBLUESisfollowedbyariffRiffarepeatedpatternBackbeatsaccentingthebeatswhicharenotusuallyaccentedinMOBY2&4Subbassaverylowbass(thumpingrumble)

  • BreakdownonebarofsilencePanningspreadingthesoundintoanewstereoorspeakerEchoasoundrepeatedafterithasbeenheardEQchangesthefrequencyofasoundReverbamplifyingasound,makingitsoundlikeitwasrecordedinanechoeyspaceCrossrhythmstwodifferentrhythmsbeingplayedatthesametime,therhythmsusuallyhavedifferenttimesignaturesFlangingsweepingeffectproducedthroughslightdelaytocopiedsoundDistortionmakingthesoundrougherandharsherWordPaintingwhenthewordmirrorsthemusicaleffectbeingputonthemusicFalsettonoteshigherthanthenormalmalerangeSequencewhenamelodyisrepeatedatonehigherthanitwaspreviouslyTalaarhythmicpatterninIndianmusicRagathescaleormodeusedinanIndianragAlapthefirstsectionofaragawherethereisnofixedbeat,itisalsoimprovisedDronetherepeatednotesplayedonthetamburaorshrutiboxRasathemoodofthenotesintheragaMeendslidingbetweennotes(whensinging)GattheprecomposedinstrumentalsectionTanwhenfastscalicpatternsareusedPolyrhythmicdifferentrhythmsplayedtogetherHeterophonicatypeoftexturewhereamorecomplicatedpartisaddedontopofanotheroneUnisonsigningorplayingtogetherCall&ResponsewhenaleaderplaysandtherestofthegrouprepeatsPentatonicScalescaleusing5notesVocablesnonsensesyllablesStrophicnamefoeastructureof2versesand2insertsDiatonicusingnotesinthekey

  • HandelAndtheGloryoftheLord

    1. Thetempo(speed)isallegro2. ThekeyinAmajor(soundshappy)3. Thetimesignatureis,thereare3crotchetbeatsineverybar4. TheBassoContinuo(instrumentsorganandcello)playsthebacking

    tothemelody5. ThechoirisaSATBchoir:

    AltosenterfirstwithAndtheglory,thegloryoftheLordfollowedbyTenorsandBasss

    Whenshallberevealedisfirstsung,thetextureispolyphonic Atpointsallpartssinginharmony(thesamelinebutonadifferent

    note,eitherhigherorlower) ThefirsttimethelineAndallfleshshallseeittogetherissung,it

    issungincanonwiththedifferentvoicessingingitaftertheotherone

    Revealedismelismatic6. Themelodyisoftendoubledbythe1stand2ndViolins

    OtherKeyFactsAhemiolarhythmisusedtogivethepieceapushedfeelThereisaconstantuseofsequenceandostinatointhemelodyAspectsoftheharmonythroughoutinclude:

    Constantpeddlenotes Theorchestra(Violins,Viola,Cello,Organ)doublethechoirparts Thefinalcadenceisplagal(plagalcadenceandslowtempoattheendmaketheendingtothe

    wordshathspokenitgrandandstately)Thetextureinthepiecestartsoffashomophonicandthenchangestoimitative(itisnevermonophonicasthetuneplayedbytheorchestraisalwaysslightlydifferenttothatsungbythevoices)Therearenodynamicswrittenbutwhenthetexturebuildsup,thepiecenaturalgetslouderMajorkeyandupbeattempomakethepiecelivelyWhenthechoirsingsForthelordhathspokeninapeddlenoteisused

    TypicalFeaturesofBaroqueMusic Repetitivepatterns Imitationiscommon Textureisusuallypolyphonic TheuseofBassoContinuoOtherBaroqueComposers Vivaldi Bach Telemann

    Writtenin1742 Isachorusfromandoratorio

    WrittenduringtheBaroqueperiod PartofalargescaleworkTheMessiah

    2

    1

    3

    4

    5

    6

    *Mainlystringsused(1stand2ndViolins,Viola,Cello).Theonlynonstringedinstrumentistheorgan(partofthebassocontinuo)*

  • Mozart1stMovementfromSymphonyNo.40inGMinor

    BasicFactsaboutthePieceTempoiswrittenonthescoreasmoltoallegro(veryfast)Thetimesignatureis4/4(4crotchetbeatsinabar)Hehasaspecificchoiceofinstruments:

    FairlysmallClassicalOrchestra 2horns,stringsandwoodwind Notrumpetsordrums

    Thetextureismainlyhomophonicandimitationisused

    1stSubjectTheinstrumentsthatstartthepiecearethestrings,theviolin1splaythemelodyabove.ThewoodwindarethenintroducedThekeyofthesubjectisGMinor(Mozartssadkey)AttheendofthefirstsubjectthereisabridgewheretheharmonyusesrisingscalesandpedalnotesInthemelodybalancedphrasingisusedDynamicsinthe1stsubjectstartoffquietly,havesuddencontrastsanduselotsofcrescendoanddecrescendosThefirsttwonotesinthe1stsubjectusetheintervalofasemitone2ndSubjectThekeyofthe2ndsubjectisinBbMajorTheinstrumentsusedinthissubjectarethestringsandwoodwindThemelodyinthe2ndsubjectusessomechromaticnotes,balancedphrasingisalsousedasitwasinthe1stsubjectAttheendofthesubjecttheviolins,bassoonsandflutesplayadescendingstaccatoscale

    Writtenin1788 Isthe1stmovementfromansymphony WrittenduringtheClassicalperiod

    Writtenfortheorchestra

    TypicalFeaturesofClassicalMusic Melodiesthatareeastto

    remember Gradualchangeofdynamics

    (crescendoanddiminuendo) Moresyncopationusedinthe

    classicalperiodOtherClassicalComposers Beethoven

    Exposition

    Themesareheardforthefirsttime(1stand2ndSubjects).Hastwocontrastingthemes,itendsinadifferentkeytotheoneitstartedin.

    Development

    Themesgothroughanumberoftwistsandturns.Keepsthepieceinteresting.

    Recapitulation

    Themesarerecapped/playedagain.Pullsthepiecetogetheragain,bitsfromtheexpositionareusedagainbutchangedabit.

    SonataFormWasatypicalstructureusedintheclassicalperiodandconsistedof: Exposition Development Recapitulation

  • ChopinRaindropPrelude

    BasicFactsaboutthePieceThetimesignatureis4/4(4crotchetbeatsperbar)ThetempoissostenutoandrubatoisusedTheonlyinstrumentusedisthepiano(asitisapianoprelude)Inthispiece,thestructureisternary(ABA)form,withacodaandabasicABAstructurewithinsectionAThetextureissimilarthroughoutandismainlyhomophonic

    Thesymbol isusethroughoutandshowsthemusicianthattheyneedtoholddowntherightpeddle(sustainingpeddle)

    SectionA SectionB SectionAandCodetta ThekeyisDbMajor Themelodyisintheright

    hand ThetextureisMelody

    DominatedHomophony First3notesarefalling

    (cantabiletone)inabrokenchord

    Theharmonyusesaconstantpeddlenoteonthedominant(Ab)

    Acciaccaturaisalsousedtohelpwiththeharmony

    Asecondthemeisintroducedaddingvariety

    Chromaticnotesareusedtomaketheharmonymoreinteresting

    BytheendofsectionAtheAbiswrittenasG#knownasanenharmonicchangeusedtohelpleadintosectionB(tonality)

    ThekeygoestoC#MinorinanEnharmonicChange

    Thedynamicswrittenonthescorecontainlotsofcrescendos

    Thedynamicsbuildupwithsuddenchangesinmod

    Themelodyisplayedinthelefthand

    Theharmonyinthissectionusesaninverteddominantpeddleasthepeddlenoteisintherighthand

    Thereisanobviouschangeinmood

    Thelowerregionoftheinstrument(piano)isused

    Thetextureinchordal TheG#isusedasthepivotto

    takethepiecebacktoDbMajorinthelastsection

    SectionAisrepeatedbutismuchshorter

    TheykeyreturnstoDbMajor

    Themelodyhereusessmorzando

    Thetempoisslowandrubatoisused

    Thereisarittattheendofthepiece

    Thetextureisbothmonophonicandhomophonic

    Thecodettais8barslong(structure)

    Thepeddlenotedropsoutfor3barsandthenstartsupagain(harmony)

    Thedynamicsattheendarepianissimo

    Thepieceendsonaperfectcadence(51)

    Writtenin1839 Isapianoprelude

    WrittenduringtheRomanticperiod Writtenforthepiano

    TypicalFeaturesofRomanticMusic UseofRubato Frequentchangesoftempoand

    timesignatures Bigrangeofdynamics Songlikemelody UseofpeddlenotesOtherRomanticComposers Tchaikovsky Wagner

  • SchoenbergPeripete

    KeyFactsaboutthePieceThestructureofthepieceisafreerondo(ABACA)Schoenberghasdecidedtousemanyinstrumentsasheusesabigorchestra,hisinstrumentsinclude:

    Massivewoodwindsection Largebrasssection Percussion

    Therhythmofthepieceiscomplex,withnoclearbeatsKlangfarbenmelodiethroughoutwhenthemelodyispassedaroundinstruments.ThemelodyisangularandfragmentedThepieceishardtolistenasitisinnokey(atonal)makingitsoundclashinganddissonantGroupsof6notesareusedinonechord(hexachords)Wideextremesofdynamics(pp[veryquiet]tofff[veryloud]),withsuddenchangesNocleartexturewithquickchangesAtdifferentpointsinthepiece:

    Melodiclinesaredifferent Stringsplaymoreforcefullyatpoints

    Theprincipalmelody(hauptstimme)ismainlyplayedbythe:

    Horns Clarinets Cellos

    ReasonstoDislikethisPiece:

    Nokey Clashingmelodies ExtremeDynamics

    Noclearbeat Largerangofinstrumentsused

    Writtenin1909 Iswrittenfortheorchestra

    WrittenduringtheExpressionistperiod

    TypicalFeaturesofExpressionistMusic Lotsofdissonance Contrastingdynamics Changingtextures Angularanddistortedmelodies

    withwideleaps

    OtherExpressionistComposers Berg Webern

  • ReichElectricCounterpoint

    BasicFactsaboutthePieceThetempoisfastThemovementsstructurebuildsupin3layers:

    1. Syncopatedquavermotiffromliveguitar2. Anothersyncopatedquavermotifisintroducedbutonthebassguitars3. Asustainedmotifplayedbytheliveguitar

    Thetimesignatureis3/2andlotsofsyncopationisusedConstantuseofostinatiinthemelodyThekeyismostlyGmajorbutisinEbmajortowardstheend:

    ElectricGuitars

    ConstantdynamicsThetextureismainlypolyphonicLoopingandmultitrackingisusedPartsdropoutbyfadingawaygraduallyNeartheendofthepiecethetexturestartstothinout

    TypicalFeaturesofMinimalistMusic Layersofostinati Constantlyrepeatedpatternsthat

    aregraduallychanged Layeredtextures Diatonicharmonies

    OtherMinimalistComposers Riley Glass

    Writtenin1987 Iswrittenfortheguitars

    WrittenduringtheMinimalistperiod

    Writtenfor: 7electric

    guitars 2bass

    guitars 1acoustic

    guitar(liveandamplified)

    Layers2and3fadeoutattheendonlyleavinglayer1formingthecoda

    LAYEREDTEXTURETYPICALOFMINAMILISM

    LivesologuitarpartwaswrittenforPat

    Metheny

    SteveReichwasan

    Americancomposer

  • BernsteinSomethingsComing

    KeyFactsaboutthePieceThetempothroughoutisfastwhichimitatesTonysfeelingsThemetre(timesignature)changesfromto2/4Featuresoftherhythmincludesyncopationandcrossrhythms

    *Thefasttempo,changingtimesignatureandsyncopationandcrossrhythms(3bulletpointsabove),createafeelingofexcitementandanticipation*

    Theinstrumentationofthepieceusesasmallvariationoftheorchestra: Woodwind(emphasisonclarinets) Brass Percussion Stringsusetremoloandharmonicstoillustratethelinetheairishumming

    Voicealsocountsasaninstrument.Tomakesuretheorchestradoesnotoverpowerthevoice,theaccompanimentuses:

    Quietdynamics Softtimbres(mutedtrumpets,pizzicatostrings) Homophonictexture

    Thestructureisnottypicalverseandchorus.Repeatsarevariedeachtimeitisplayed.Thestructureis: Opening=quietandsyncopated Bar21=loud,strident,in2/4 Bar73=lyricalandslowmoving

    Themelodyhadlongsustainednotesandissyllabic.ItalsousesaccentednotesandshortphrasesThekeyisDmajorIntheharmonytritoneisusedDynamicsvarybutstartsppThetextureismainlyhomophonic

    Writtenin1957 Iswrittenforamusical(West

    SideStory) Isanexampleofacharacter

    song

    TypicalFeaturesofMusicalMusic Usuallystartswithanoverture,and

    mixtureofallthesongswoventogether

    Conveysthecharactersemotion Repeatedmelodiesthroughout

    differentsongsinthemusical

    OtherMusicalComposers AndrewLloydWebber

    Onthelastwordtonightanintervalofa5thisused(perfect5th)betweenthetwonotes

    Theintervalisthenrepeated3timesbytheOboeandFlute(imitation)

    InfluencedbyJazz

    WrittenforTonythemaleleadinWestSideStoryinSomethingsComing

    Itishisfirstsolointhemusicalandshowshisfeelingandoptimisticcharacter

    *Tonyisatenorvoice*

    Rhythmiclines

  • MilesDavisAllBlues

    KeyFactsaboutthePieceThetimesignatureofthepieceis6/4(jazzwaltz)FeaturesoftherhythmincludeswungquaversandsyncopationInthepiecetheinstrumentsusedare:

    FrontlineInstruments RhythmicSectionInstrument Howitis

    playedMelodyinthe

    solosInstrument Howitisplayed Melodyinthe

    solosTrumpet(MilesDavis)

    Muted Shortandsyncopated

    Piano Tremolo Calm,simplemelody

    AltoSax Widerangeofnotesandquick

    DoubleBass Pizzicato

    TenorSax Fastscales Drums WireBrushesareused

    Basedonthe12barblueschordpattern(playsfor12barsthenrepeats).Oneloop(1setof12bars)iscalledachorusThestructureofthepieceisknownasaheadarrangement(whitegaps=riffs):

    ThetonalityisseenasbeinginGmajorwithaflattened7thThetexturecanbeseenasbeinghomophonic(althoughitisnotspecified)

    Writtenin1959 Isinthestyleofmodaljazz Waswrittenduringthejazz

    period

    TypicalFeaturesofJazzMusic Useslotsofimprovisation Polyrhythmsareusedconstantly

    throughout Syncopationandswungnotesare

    common

    OtherJazzComposers BennyGoodman LouisArmstrong

    Improvisationisusedinthesolosectionsofthepiece,andwasrecordedwithnorehearsalToensureallmusiciansknewwhattheyweredoingtheyweregiventhefollowinginformation:

    Overallstructure Basicchordsequence Mainmelodicidea Themode/scaletoimproviseon

    ScaleofGmajorwithaflattened7th

  • MobyWhyDoesMyHeartFeelSoBad?

    KeyFactsaboutthePieceThestructureisversechorusstructure:

    AIntroBVerse (malesample)CChorus (femalesample)BVerse (malesample)BreakdownCChorus (femalesample)BVerse (malesample)

    A OnlypianoplaysB Theverseusesthefirstsample(male)

    Percussioninstrumentsused:MaracasClaves

    Inthe1stverse:Pianoplaysheldchords,whichaccompanythevoiceDrumsenteraftervoice,followedbythebassPianothenplayssyncopatedchords

    Thesecondhalfofthe1stversehasadifferenttuneandtheshapeofthemelodyrisesandfallsThekeyintheverseis:

    AmEmGD(Only4chordsareusedinthe1st verse) [AmazingEmilyGoesDancing]C Thechorususesthesecondsample(female)

    Thekeyinthechorusis:CMajor

    Thechordsalternatebetween:CAmCAmandFCFC

    Thetimesignatureis4/4withasteadytempoof98beatsperminute(BPM)FeaturesoftherhythmincludesyncopationandaccentedbackbeatsThetextureishomophonic,andthinsoutafterthebreakdownThesnaredrumisheardonbeats2and4(shownonthestavetotheright)

    Writtenin1999 Isinthestyleof

    electronica/dance

    TypicalFeaturesofElectronicaMusic Useslotsofelectronicinstruments

    e.g.synthesisers Electroniceffectsareusedontopof

    theelectronicinstruments Breakbeatsarecommonlyused

    OtherElctronicaComposers JohnWall

    Instrumentsused: Samples

    Takenfromagospelchoir,withthebackgroundnoiseleftinEcho,EQandReverbhavebeenusedonthesamples

    Synthesisers DrumMachine(programmed

    soundselectric) Sequencer

  • JeffBuckleyGrace

    KeyFactsaboutthePieceThetimesignatureis12/8InthekeyofEminor(althoughitisambiguous)

    Bars13havenoclearkeyBars47areinDmajor

    ThetempoisfairlyfastTheinstrumentsusedare:

    Guitars(BESPECIFICWITHTYPE) (strumaggressivelyenhancingtorturedmood)ElectricGuitars (slidingbetweennotesenhancesthetorturedmood) Inbars13theyareplucked Inbars47theyarestrummedBasGuitars SynthesisersStringsDrumKit

    Inthevocalperformancetoshowthetorturedmoodofthelyricsornamentation(melisma),falsettoandfallingpatternsareused

    OnthewordsafraidawaydiethenotesarefallingOnthewordcriesthenotesfalla5thOnthewordslowthenoteislongtoreflectthereferencetoslowinthelyricsOnthephraseitremindsmeofraintheEQeffectisremoved

    Thestructureofthepieceisversechorus:IntroVerse1Chorus1IntroVerse2Chorus2BridgeIntroVerse3(usesEQ)Coda

    ThetextureismainlyhomophonicInthemelody,thereisfrequentuseofornamentationandfallingpatterns

    Writtenin1994

    Isinthestyleoffolkfusion

    (rockandfolk)

    TypicalFeaturesofFolkFusionMusic Variationsintempoandrhythm Longsectiondividedintoshort

    phrases Shortphrasescanhavetheirown

    dynamics,styleandtempo

    Keyphrasetoknowthenotationof

    Theharmonyisunconventionalofarocksong

  • Alap

    Jhar/Jhalla

    Gat

    Bandish(forvoice)

    IndianRagaRagDesh

    Sitar Playsthemelody(pluckedlikeaguitar)Tabla Playsthebeat(typeofdrum)

    Sarangi Playsthemelody(bowedlikeaviolin)Sarod Playsthemelody(pluckedlikeaguitar)butsmallerandlower

    inpitchPakhawaj Playsthebeat(doubleheadeddrum)Cymbals Playsthebeat(percussion)Bansuri Playsthemelody(woodenflute)

    Esraj Playsthemelody(bowedlikeaviolinandfrettedlikeaguitar)Tambura PlaysthedroneShrutiBox Playsthedrone

    AnoushkaShankar

    Instruments Structure Rhythm OtherSitar(soloinstrumentinthealap)Tabla

    Alap(tanused)Gat(hasafastclearpulse)Jhalla(fastendingsection)

    Jhaptal10beats(Gat1)Tintal16beats(Gat2)Talisplayedbythe

    tabla

    IntheGatimprovisationisused(notcommonofagat)Sitarstringsarestrummedattheend

    MaharaHanamMaran

    PerformedbyChiranjiLalTanwar

    Instruments Structure Rhythm OtherSarodSaranjiPakhawajTablaSmallCymbalsVoice

    AlapBandish(sungversionofagat)

    Keherwa8beats MusicbecomesfasterandmoreexcitingneartheendItisabhajan(Hindudevotionalsong)Voiceusesmeend

    SteveGornandBenjuWertheimer

    Instruments Structure Rhythm OtherBansuriEsrajShrutiBoxSwarmandel(pluckedstringinstrument)Tabla

    AlapGat1(fast)Gat2(slow)

    Rupak7beats(Gat1)Ektal12beats(Gat2)

    IntheGatimprovisationisused(notcommonofagat)Sitarstringsarestrummedattheend

    TypicalFeaturesofIndianRaga Usesatal/rhythmpattern Focusedonthemelodyandrhythm Usesadrone Meendisoftenusedinsungrags Alapisalwaysthefirstsectionofa

    rag

    Thereare3versionsofragdesh

    RagDeshisassociatedwithmonsoonseasonor

    night

    TypicalIndianInstruments:

    TypicalIndianStructure:

    Indianscalepattern(rag/scale): Beatcyclesforthetalsinthetableabove:Jhaptal (2+3+2+3)Tintal (4+4+4+4)Keherwa (2+2+2+2)Rupak (3+2+2)Ektal (2+2+2+2+2+2)

    LearntthroughOralTradition

  • KokoYiri

    KeyFactsaboutthePieceThetexture:StartsoffmonophonicwithonlythebalaphonesplayingWhenthe2ndbalaphoneentersthetexturebecomesheterophonicItisalsopolyphonicattimesFeaturesoftherhythmincludecrossrhythms,polyrhythmsandsyncopationThepieceismodalandusesapentatonicscale(5notes)Gb,Ab,B,Db,Eb(AlloftheblacknotesapartfromBb)ThesingersfollowasolovoicecallandresponseaswellassinginginunisonOstinatoonthedrums,whichcontinuetoplayarhythmicostinatithroughoutThemetre/timesignatureatthestartofthepieceisfree/unmetered

    Thetimesignatureis4/4Whenthetwobalaphonesplayatthebeginningtheintervalbetweenthetwoisanoctave

    Thedrumostinatihasarhythmofaquaverandthentwosemiquavers.Therethetwosemiquaversandquavercomeingroupsof3(fromthemusicabove3ofthesamenoteareplayed).Withoutthenotestherhythmlookslikethis:

    TypicalFeaturesofAfricanMusic: Callandresponse Repetition Ostinati Useofcrossrhythmsand

    syncopation Polyrhythms

    TheresongisfromBurkinoFaso

    ItisbyKokoandiscalledYiri

    LearntthroughOralTradition

    Thequaverplaysonthemainbeatsofthebar1,2,3and4

  • CapercaillieSkyeWaulkingSong

    KeyFactsaboutthePieceItusesapentatonicscaleItisstronglyinthekeyofGmajorandisdiatonicThetimesignatureis12/8Featuresoftherhythmincludecrossrhythms,polyrhythmsandsyncopationThetextureishetraphonicIsanexampleofawaulkingsong(whenwomenpulledthecloth).Featuresofthemusicwhichmakeitsuitableforthistypeofsonginclude:

    Steadybeat Useofvocables Repetitive

    Thesonghas2sectionsSection1 Section2

    HasatraditionalfeelEminorchords,butchangesbetweenEminorandGmajorIsquietandcalmMainfocusisonthesinger

    Fullrhythmsection isplayedInGmajorItislouderPipesoloisheterophonicBackingvocals areadded totheharmony

    Thevocallineissyllabic

    Theinstrumentsusedare:

    Fiddle UilleannPipes(like

    bagpipes)

    Accordion Bouzouki TinWhistle

    DrumKit Synthesisers BassGuitar

    Bars 1 2 3 4 Cmajor Gmajor Eminor/Cmajor GmajorBars 5 6 7 8

    Cmajor Gmajor Eminor/Cmajor Gmajor

    TypicalFeaturesofFolkMusic: Useofmainlyacousticinstruments,

    withlittleuseofelectricinstruments

    TypicalFeaturesofPopMusic: Useofelectronicinstrumentation

    Theresongisanexampleoffolkfusion(folkandpop)

    Itisreleasedin2000fromthealbumNadurra

    SunginScotsGaelicbutuses

    vocables

    LearntthroughOralTradition

    Onlyuseofmelismainthechorus

  • ExamPracticeQuestions

    AreaofStudy1WesternClassicalMusicHandel

    Whatarethe4voices?Whattypeofcadencedoesitfinishwith?Whatisthekeyofthepiece?Name2texturesusedNamearhythmicfeatureusedNameamelodicfeatureusedWhichperiodofmusicalhistorywasthepiececomposedin?Whatyearwasthispiecewrittenin?Whatisthetempoofthispiece?

    Give2musicalfeaturesthatmakeitjoyfulWhatisapedalandwhereisoneused?GivefourfeaturesaboutBaroquemusicNamethreeotherbaroquecomposersWhatinstrumentsdoesHandeluse?WhatdoesAdagiomean?Whatisabassocontinuoandwhatinstrumentsplayit?Whichtwofeaturesinthelastbarsmakeitsoundfinished?

    Mozart

    Whatkeyisthepiecein?WhatistheItaliantempomarkingandwhatdoesitmean?Nametwoinstrumentsnotusedintheorchestra?Whatstructuredoesthepieceuse?Howmanysubjectsareusedintheexposition?Givetwowaystherecapitulationisdifferenttotheexposition?

    Whatdoesthesymbolsfmean?Whatisacoda?Whattextureisthefinalfewbarsofthecoda?Whenwasthiswritten?Whatisasequence?Fromwhichperiodisthismusic?Givefourfeaturesfromthatperiod?Whatisthekeyofthefirstsubject?Whatsthekeyofthesecondsubject?

    Chopin

    Whatkeyisthepiecein?Whateraisitfromandwhatarefourfeaturesfromtheera?Whatistheformorstructureofthework?Whatisthemaintexture?Whatdiesmorzandomean?

    NamethreeotherromanticcomposersWhatdoesrubatomean?Whatdoescantabilemean?HowdothedynamicschangefromAtoB?WhatkeyisAinandwhatkeyinBin?

    AreaofStudy2Musicinthe20thCentury

    Schoenberg

    Whenwasthepiececomposed?Namethecomposerandtitle?Isthemusictonaloratonal?Whatisthebasicformofthepiece?Whatisahexachord?Whatdoessehrraschmean?Describeonefeatureofthedynamics?Describeafeatureofthetexture?

    Whatisthenamefortheensemblethatperformsit?Whatisatremoloandwhichfamilyplayit?Listfourfeatureinthepiecewhichreflectthe20thcenturymusicWhatstyleofmusicisthis?DefineKlangfarbenmelodie?Nametwocomtepories(composersduringthetime)ofSchoenbergs

  • Bernstein

    Whattypeofvoiceisused?Whatstyleisitfrom?Whenwasitcomposed?Whoisthecomposer?CommentontheorchestrainwestsidestoryWhattypesofmusicareinmusicals?

    WhatisthekeyofthesongNameothermusicalsandtheircomposers?Whatdoesdiatonicmean?WhatisTonysingingabout?Whatistheeffectofthepianissimoatthebeginning?Whatkeyisitin?Whatisatritone?

    Reich

    Whatisthestyleofthismusic?GivefourfactsaboutthemusicGivefourtechniquesusedinthismusicHowmanyguitarsdoesthepieceuseintotal?Whocomposedthepiece?Whatisthestartingtimesignature?

    Whatislooping?Whowasitwrittenfor?Howmanymovementsdoesithaveandwhicharewestudying?Whatisthemelodymadeupof?Whatsthetexture?TheKeychangesbetweenWhatarecanons?

    AreaofStudy3PopularMusicinContext

    MilesDavis

    Whatinstrumentsplaythefrontline?Whatistherhythmsection?Whateraisthispiecefromandhowdoesthestyleofthemusicreflectthatoftheera?Whoplaysthetrumpetinthispiece?Nametheeffectsusedontheinstruments

    Whenwasthepiececomposed?Whichsectionsofthepieceareimprovised?Isthepiecetonaloratonal?Whatchordsequenceisthepiecebasedaroundandwhatarethechords?Thepieceisdescribedasa..waltz

    JeffBuckley

    Whatismakestheharmonyunconventionalofarocksong?WhatisthestructureofGrace?HowdoesJeffBuckleyconveyemotioninthepiece?Whatelectroniceffectsdoesheuse?

    Whatinstrumentsareusedinthepiece?Isthepiecetonaloratonal?Whatkeyisthepiecein?Whatvocaleffectsdoesheuse?Thetimesignatureofthepieceis

    Moby

    Whattypeofmusicisthepiece?Whatelectronicdevicesdoesheuse?Whatelectroniceffectsdoesheuse?Give3factsaboutthevocalsectionsinthepieceWhat2chordpatternsareused?

    Thereisabarofsilenceinthepiece,whatisthenamegiventothat?Whatisthetimesignatureofthepiece?Whatistheoveralltextureofthepiece?Give2featuresoftherhythminthepiece

  • AreaofStudy4WorldMusicRagDesh

    Whatdoall3versionsoftheragstartwith?Whatisthemostcommonlyusedstringinstrument?Name4stringinstrumentsWhatisthenamegiventotheIndianflute?Whoplaysthesitarinthefirstextract?WhatisthenamegiventoaHindudevotionalsong?

    Inthe2ndversionoftherag,whatisafeatureofthevocalperformance?Whatisthecommonstructureofragdesh?Ragdeshisassociatedtowhat2features?Name8IndianinstrumentsWhatisatal?DoestheGathaveafixedbeat?WhichsectionofanIndianragisimprovised?

    Yiri

    Give3featuresoftherhythminthispieceName3typesofAfricandrumWhatistheinstrumentsimilartoaxylophone?Isthispiecehexatonicorpentatonic?Intheopeningofthispiecewhatisthetexture?Howisapiecelikethislearnt?

    Whatisthenamegiventopeoplerespondingtosomethingplayedbytheleaderofthepiece?ThedrumsplayathroughtthepieceWhatisthetonalityofthispiece?Wheredidthispiececomefrom?

    Capercaille

    Whatisthenamegiventononsensesyllables?Thispieceisanexampleofa..songWhatisthelanguagebeingsunginthispiece?Howmanysectionsarethereinthispiece?Whattypicalfolkinstrumentsareused?

    Whatelectricinstrumentsareused?Whenwasthispiecereleased?Whatisthestructureofthispiece?Whatisthetonalityofthispiece?

    EssayQuestionsCommentonChopin,RaindropPreludeorRagDeshusingthefollowingcriteria:

    DynamicsInstrumentationTonality/HarmonyMelodyContext

    CommentonSchoenbergPeripetieorKokoYiriusingthefollowingcriteria:

    TonalityInstrumentationContextDynamicsTempo