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Area of Study 1: Structure in Western Classical music 1600–1899 This first Area of Study takes in just under three hundred years of music history during which time musical styles and conventions changed radically. In the course of this period, the invention and evolution of instruments took place along with the formation of standard musical ensembles such as the orchestra, string quartet and so on. Large scale musical structures became standard too, such as the orchestral symphony, the solo sonata, concerto for soloist and orchestra, as well as several large scale vocal forms of opera, oratorio and cantata all became standard. Set-works The three set works you will explore in this Area of Study are in different musical forms, each one drawn from one of the three principal musical periods: The Baroque Era (c.1600-1730) Set work 1: Chorus ‘And the Glory of the Lord’ from the oratorio ‘Messiah’ by G .F .Handel (1685-1750) The Classical Era (c.1750-1830) Set work- ‘Symphony no. 40 in G minor (1st movement)’ by W. A. Mozart (1756-1791) The Romantic Era (c.1800-1900) Set work- ‘Piano prelude ‘Raindrop’ Prelude in Db’ major by F. Chopin (1810-1849)

Edexcel GCSE Music Sample Pages from Student Book

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Text of Edexcel GCSE Music Sample Pages from Student Book

  • Area of Study 1:

    Structure in Western Classical

    music 16001899This first Area of Study takes in just under three hundred years of

    music history during which time musical styles and conventions

    changed radically.

    In the course of this period, the invention and evolution of instruments

    took place along with the formation of standard musical ensembles

    such as the orchestra, string quartet and so on. Large scale musical

    structures became standard too, such as the orchestral symphony, the

    solo sonata, concerto for soloist and orchestra, as well as several large

    scale vocal forms of opera, oratorio and cantata all became standard.

    Set-worksThe three set works you will explore in this Area of Study are in

    different musical forms, each one drawn from one of the three

    principal musical periods:

    The Baroque Era (c.1600-1730)

    Set work 1: Chorus And the Glory of the Lord from the oratorio

    Messiah by G .F .Handel (1685-1750)

    The Classical Era (c.1750-1830)

    Set work- Symphony no. 40 in G minor (1st movement) by

    W. A. Mozart (1756-1791)

    The Romantic Era (c.1800-1900)

    Set work- Piano prelude Raindrop Prelude in Db major by

    F. Chopin (1810-1849)

  • 2 3

    The Baroque eraThe Baroque era (c.1600-1730) witnessed a new exploration of ideas and innovations in the arts, literature and philosophy. Italy was at the hub of new culture and led the way when it came to exploring new ideas and fashions.

    The word baroque comes from the Portuguese for pearl and was used in reference to the ornate architecture and elaborate gilded paintings, frescoes and designs that covered the interior walls and ceilings of German and Italian churches of the period. One particular aspect of this style that made its way into the music was the emphasis on an ornamented or decorative melody line.

    The most well-known composers of the baroque period were Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), George Frederic Handel (1685-1759), Henry Purcell (c.1659-1695) and Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741). There were many others too, but the set work that you will be tested on in the exam focuses on a work by George Frideric Handel.

    Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600-1899

    In the study of this set work you will learn about:

    the Baroque period and the main hallmarks of the style

    some background to the life and works of G.F. Handel

    how the chorus And the Glory of the Lord from Messiah.is constructed through an analysis of the music.

    Chorus: And the Glory of the Lord from the oratorio Messiah (1742)

    Handel was born in Germany in 1685 and from the age of 18 devoted his life to music. In 1707 Handels first serious opera Rodrigo - was performed. Success followed and in 1710 he returned to Hanover to be appointed Kapellmeister to the Elector. As part of this role, he was given permission to take up a years leave in London, England. He spent the rest of his life in this country and it was during this time that he wrote some of his finest instrumental works, especially the overtures and concerti grossi. When his employer, the Elector of Hanover, succeeded the childless Queen Anne and became George I of England, Handel became his Royal Composer. He wrote the Water Music (1717) to accompany the Kings triumphant procession up the River Thames. Towards the end of his life his sight failed him and he died in 1759 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

    Features of the Baroque styleBefore focusing on the set work, it is important to familiarise yourself with some of the basic hallmarks or features of music composed during the Baroque period. Some general features include:

    ornamented melodic parts establishment of major/ minor key system replacing the old system of

    modes diatonic (i.e. in the key) chords of I, IV V, and II and VI basso continuo or figured bass literally a continuous bass part. The

    adoption of the ever constant keyboard instrument (harpsichord or organ) playing a chordal support with the bass line, usually played by the cello

    different musical textures, such as monophonic, homophonic and polyphonic

    Baroque orchestra based on the newly invented members of the violin family with the ever present harpsichord supplying the harmonies. Trumpets and horns and timpani drums were used. However, the use of woodwind instruments at this time was not standard and varied from piece to piece.

    One affection or mood usually prevailing. dynamics being contrasted on two levels loud and soft.

    What is an oratorio?This fourth movement scored for a four part SATB choir plus orchestral accompaniment is taken from a type of work known as an oratorio.

    This form developed at roughly the same time as opera. It took its name from St. Philip Neris oratory or hall of prayer situated in Rome, where the first oratorios were performed. These works were essentially made of operatic forms such as the recitative, aria and chorus and acted out with scenery and in full costume dress. The key difference between the opera and oratorio was that the oratorio used only texts for the story taken from the bible. By the time of Handel however, the acting element to the oratorio had ceased.

    Messiah is probably the most well known and loved of all oratorios. The libretto is in three main parts telling the story of the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

    Part 1 consists of prophecies foretelling the annunciation (or coming of the Messiah) with texts taken from the Old Testament as well as the story of His birth from the New Testament.

    Part 2 is the passion music of the suffering and crucifixion of Jesus, set mainly to words from the Old Testament.

    The final part of the work, Part 3, tells of His resurrection from the dead.

    George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)

    George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)

    diatonic notes belonging to or literally of the key

    homophonic a musical texture comprising a melody part and some form of accompaniment

    monophonic a musical texture of a single melodic line with no accompaniment

    polyphonic a musical texture featuring two or more parts, each having a melody line and sounding together

    Glossary

    Set work 1: And the Glory of the Lord

  • 2 3

    The Baroque eraThe Baroque era (c.1600-1730) witnessed a new exploration of ideas and innovations in the arts, literature and philosophy. Italy was at the hub of new culture and led the way when it came to exploring new ideas and fashions.

    The word baroque comes from the Portuguese for pearl and was used in reference to the ornate architecture and elaborate gilded paintings, frescoes and designs that covered the interior walls and ceilings of German and Italian churches of the period. One particular aspect of this style that made its way into the music was the emphasis on an ornamented or decorative melody line.

    The most well-known composers of the baroque period were Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), George Frederic Handel (1685-1759), Henry Purcell (c.1659-1695) and Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741). There were many others too, but the set work that you will be tested on in the exam focuses on a work by George Frideric Handel.

    Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600-1899

    In the study of this set work you will learn about:

    the Baroque period and the main hallmarks of the style

    some background to the life and works of G.F. Handel

    how the chorus And the Glory of the Lord from Messiah.is constructed through an analysis of the music.

    Chorus: And the Glory of the Lord from the oratorio Messiah (1742)

    Handel was born in Germany in 1685 and from the age of 18 devoted his life to music. In 1707 Handels first serious opera Rodrigo - was performed. Success followed and in 1710 he returned to Hanover to be appointed Kapellmeister to the Elector. As part of this role, he was given permission to take up a years leave in London, England. He spent the rest of his life in this country and it was during this time that he wrote some of his finest instrumental works, especially the overtures and concerti grossi. When his employer, the Elector of Hanover, succeeded the childless Queen Anne and became George I of England, Handel became his Royal Composer. He wrote the Water Music (1717) to accompany the Kings triumphant procession up the River Thames. Towards the end of his life his sight failed him and he died in 1759 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

    Features of the Baroque styleBefore focusing on the set work, it is important to familiarise yourself with some of the basic hallmarks or features of music composed during the Baroque period. Some general features include:

    ornamented melodic parts establishment of major/ minor key system replacing the old system of

    modes diatonic (i.e. in the key) chords of I, IV V, and II and VI basso continuo or figured bass literally a continuous bass part. The

    adoption of the ever constant keyboard instrument (harpsichord or organ) playing a chordal support with the bass line, usually played by the cello

    different musical textures, such as monophonic, homophonic and polyphonic

    Baroque orchestra based on the newly invented members of the violin family with the ever present harpsichord supplying the harmonies. Trumpets and horns and timpani drums were used. However, the use of woodwind instruments at this time was not standard and varied from piece to piece.

    One affection or mood usually prevailing. dynamics being contrasted on two levels loud and soft.

    What is an oratorio?This fourth movement scored for a four part SATB choir plus orchestral accompaniment is taken from a type of work known as an oratorio.

    This form developed at roughly the same time as opera. It took its name from St. Philip Neris oratory or hall of prayer situated in Rome, where the first oratorios were performed. These works were essentially made of operatic forms such as the recitative, aria and chorus and acted out with scenery and in full costume dress. The key difference between the opera and oratorio was that the oratorio used only texts for the story taken from the bible. By the time of Handel however, the acting element to the oratorio had ceased.

    Messiah is probably the most well known and loved of all oratorios. The libretto is in three main parts telling the story of the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

    Part 1 consists of prophecies foretelling the annunciation (or coming of the Messiah) with texts taken from the Old Testament as well as the story of His birth from the New Testament.

    Part 2 is the passion music of the suffering and crucifixion of Jesus, set mainly to words from the Old Testament.

    The final part of the work, Part 3, tells of His resurrection from the dead.

    George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)

    George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)

    diatonic notes belonging to or literally of the key

    homophonic a musical texture comprising a melody part and some form of accompaniment

    monophonic a musical texture of a single melodic line with no accompaniment

    polyphonic a musical texture featuring two or more parts, each having a melody line and sounding together

    Glossary

    Set work 1: And the Glory of the Lord

  • Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600-1899

    Structure of the oratorio in MessiahIn the structure, the oratorio closely follows the patterns of Italian opera, through the use of recitatives, arias and choruses. Handel gave great importance to the chorus to comment on the action of the drama, more so than in opera where an aria would have served the purpose. The choruses in Messiah are powerful and contribute to the drama of the story. They are a bit like the choruses of Greek drama with the emphasis on the group or crowd commenting in a communal fashion. Handel had been influenced by his early experience of German Lutheran choral music and subsequently during his time in England he had been impressed with the choral tradition of this country and ensured that the chorus featured prominently in his oratorios.

    And the Glory of the Lord is the fourth movement of the whole work and is the first chorus. It follows the opening instrumental overture, then two solo movements for tenor voice. In these opening movements we have an example of each of the three main musical forms used in the oratorio, which are taken from the Italian Opera.

    RecitativeIn the recitative, the fundamental idea is to concentrate on getting the words of the narration over with a minimal use of music. In the case of Messiah , the scene is set and we are told of the coming of the lord in the words prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.

    AriaThe aria is essentially a solo song which often reflects on a mood or emotion. The music is much more elaborate to display the vocal qualities and expertise of the singer to the full. In Messiah the mood of the aria is uplifting and joyful: Evry valley shall be exalted.

    ChorusThe aria leads directly into the first main chorus, and the Glory of the Lord. Generally, the chorus has the function of summing up the action of the story at that particular point in the drama. In Messiah, not much has happened yet in the unfolding of this great story, so the chorus simply consolidates the positivity of the mood in the preceding two movements and the looking forward to the coming of the Lord. The text of the chorus sums up this mood: And the Glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it.

    This chorus, like most of the other choruses in Messiah, is built up on a series of musical ideas each relating to a separate line of the text. Handels practice was to state each idea as a single line then to develop the idea in various ways. In this chorus, we can identify four ideas.

    1 Listen to the music and follow the four ideas as follows.

    1 And the glory of the Lord

    This short theme has two characteristic features, namely the first three notes outline a triad (A major) and the second feature is a stepwise scale ending. The setting of the words is syllabic (one note per syllable).

    2 Shall be revealed

    This is built up using two one bar descending sequences and is a melismatic (several notes to a syllable) setting of the word revealed.

    3 And all flesh shall see it together

    This is a repetitive idea consisting of three statements of the descending fourth idea. Because it is repeated like this, it gives the impression of a firm statement!

    4 For the mouth of the Lord has spoken it

    The fourth idea is characterised by long (dotted minims) repeated notes. They have a theatrical feel, hammering home the conviction that the Lord has spoken it. To achieve the strength of the statement, Handel doubles the part with tenors and basses!

    All four of these short ideas are contrasted, so that when Handel combines them together, each melody with its own character and shape can be clearly heard.

    2 Now follow the close analysis of this piece on pages 5-9 of the student book before tackling the listening and appraising questions that follow on page 10.

    Set work 1: And the Glory of the Lord

    Listening: four ideas in And the Glory of the Lord

    4 5

    1

  • Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600-1899

    Structure of the oratorio in MessiahIn the structure, the oratorio closely follows the patterns of Italian opera, through the use of recitatives, arias and choruses. Handel gave great importance to the chorus to comment on the action of the drama, more so than in opera where an aria would have served the purpose. The choruses in Messiah are powerful and contribute to the drama of the story. They are a bit like the choruses of Greek drama with the emphasis on the group or crowd commenting in a communal fashion. Handel had been influenced by his early experience of German Lutheran choral music and subsequently during his time in England he had been impressed with the choral tradition of this country and ensured that the chorus featured prominently in his oratorios.

    And the Glory of the Lord is the fourth movement of the whole work and is the first chorus. It follows the opening instrumental overture, then two solo movements for tenor voice. In these opening movements we have an example of each of the three main musical forms used in the oratorio, which are taken from the Italian Opera.

    RecitativeIn the recitative, the fundamental idea is to concentrate on getting the words of the narration over with a minimal use of music. In the case of Messiah , the scene is set and we are told of the coming of the lord in the words prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.

    AriaThe aria is essentially a solo song which often reflects on a mood or emotion. The music is much more elaborate to display the vocal qualities and expertise of the singer to the full. In Messiah the mood of the aria is uplifting and joyful: Evry valley shall be exalted.

    ChorusThe aria leads directly into the first main chorus, and the Glory of the Lord. Generally, the chorus has the function of summing up the action of the story at that particular point in the drama. In Messiah, not much has happened yet in the unfolding of this great story, so the chorus simply consolidates the positivity of the mood in the preceding two movements and the looking forward to the coming of the Lord. The text of the chorus sums up this mood: And the Glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it.

    This chorus, like most of the other choruses in Messiah, is built up on a series of musical ideas each relating to a separate line of the text. Handels practice was to state each idea as a single line then to develop the idea in various ways. In this chorus, we can identify four ideas.

    1 Listen to the music and follow the four ideas as follows.

    1 And the glory of the Lord

    This short theme has two characteristic features, namely the first three notes outline a triad (A major) and the second feature is a stepwise scale ending. The setting of the words is syllabic (one note per syllable).

    2 Shall be revealed

    This is built up using two one bar descending sequences and is a melismatic (several notes to a syllable) setting of the word revealed.

    3 And all flesh shall see it together

    This is a repetitive idea consisting of three statements of the descending fourth idea. Because it is repeated like this, it gives the impression of a firm statement!

    4 For the mouth of the Lord has spoken it

    The fourth idea is characterised by long (dotted minims) repeated notes. They have a theatrical feel, hammering home the conviction that the Lord has spoken it. To achieve the strength of the statement, Handel doubles the part with tenors and basses!

    All four of these short ideas are contrasted, so that when Handel combines them together, each melody with its own character and shape can be clearly heard.

    2 Now follow the close analysis of this piece on pages 5-9 of the student book before tackling the listening and appraising questions that follow on page 10.

    Set work 1: And the Glory of the Lord

    Listening: four ideas in And the Glory of the Lord

    4 5

    1

  • Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600-1899

    Bar numbers

    Musical features Keys used

    1-11 Orchestral introduction in which the first two melodic ideas are stated. The lively triple time dance tempo gives the feeling of one-in a bar. Several features to note in the introduction:

    The introduction ends with a perfect cadence in the tonic key of A

    Note that, in terms of the role and function of the orchestral accompaniment throughout the whole extract, the instruments double the voice parts. The music throughout the extract too is driven on

    A major

    in the bass part.

    A major

    two, one bar descending sequences on the word revealed.

    A major modulating at

    using chords

    -33

    At this point the first idea and the glory is combined with the second

    interest and is a feature of the whole movement.

    Several perfect cadences in the dominant key in this

    1 Listen to the recording on the audio CD and use your Anthology to follow the analysis below bar-by-bar. Then answer the questions that follow on page 10.

    Analysing the set work: And the Glory of the Lord Listening and appraising questions: And the Glory of the Lord

    Now that you have listened to And the Glory of the Lord and studied the analysis on pages 5-9, answer the listening and appraising questions that follow.

    1 How is the joyful mood or affection of this chorus achieved by Handel?

    2 Name three different types of musical texture that feature in this chorus.

    3 Name the four voice parts that perform this chorus.

    4 What instruments accompany the singers?

    5 How many different melodies are used by Handel in the chorus?

    6 Identify two ways in which the last three bars of the extracts (hath spoken it) is given a dramatic setting.

    7 Give bar numbers where you can hear: a One voice part b Two voice parts c Three voice parts d All four voice parts together.

    8 How are the words set to the music in the main?

    9 How is the word revealed treated throughout the piece?

    1

    6 7

    Set work 1: And the Glory of the Lord

    PART 1: Call and response!

    PART 2: Follow me!

    3 one bar after player two, then player four, one bar after player 3. This should produce some simple imitation!

    PART 3: Building up the texture!

    keeps playing this over and over until the last player has finished playing.

    PART 4: The Grand Finale!

    later by players three and four.

    Build up the dynamics through this final section ending fortissimo!

    Try the following task in groups of four

  • Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600-1899

    Bar numbers

    Musical features Keys used

    1-11 Orchestral introduction in which the first two melodic ideas are stated. The lively triple time dance tempo gives the feeling of one-in a bar. Several features to note in the introduction:

    The introduction ends with a perfect cadence in the tonic key of A

    Note that, in terms of the role and function of the orchestral accompaniment throughout the whole extract, the instruments double the voice parts. The music throughout the extract too is driven on

    A major

    in the bass part.

    A major

    two, one bar descending sequences on the word revealed.

    A major modulating at

    using chords

    -33

    At this point the first idea and the glory is combined with the second

    interest and is a feature of the whole movement.

    Several perfect cadences in the dominant key in this

    1 Listen to the recording on the audio CD and use your Anthology to follow the analysis below bar-by-bar. Then answer the questions that follow on page 10.

    Analysing the set work: And the Glory of the Lord Listening and appraising questions: And the Glory of the Lord

    Now that you have listened to And the Glory of the Lord and studied the analysis on pages 5-9, answer the listening and appraising questions that follow.

    1 How is the joyful mood or affection of this chorus achieved by Handel?

    2 Name three different types of musical texture that feature in this chorus.

    3 Name the four voice parts that perform this chorus.

    4 What instruments accompany the singers?

    5 How many different melodies are used by Handel in the chorus?

    6 Identify two ways in which the last three bars of the extracts (hath spoken it) is given a dramatic setting.

    7 Give bar numbers where you can hear: a One voice part b Two voice parts c Three voice parts d All four voice parts together.

    8 How are the words set to the music in the main?

    9 How is the word revealed treated throughout the piece?

    1

    6 7

    Set work 1: And the Glory of the Lord

    PART 1: Call and response!

    PART 2: Follow me!

    3 one bar after player two, then player four, one bar after player 3. This should produce some simple imitation!

    PART 3: Building up the texture!

    keeps playing this over and over until the last player has finished playing.

    PART 4: The Grand Finale!

    later by players three and four.

    Build up the dynamics through this final section ending fortissimo!

    Try the following task in groups of four

  • Further listening

    Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600-1899

    Watch out!

    When listening and appraising pieces of music, it is important to give enough detail in your response.

    Typically, weak answers lack in real musical detail. For example:

    Question: Describe the texture of music.Answer: It is thin then becomes thicker.

    This just tells us that the texture changes. A better answer would be:

    At the start of the extract there is only a solo flute playing pianissimo. (creating a monophonic texture). A few bars later the texture and dynamics increase as the strings enter providing an accompaniment to the flute creating a fuller homophonic texture.

    Question: Describe the use of rhythm in this expressionistic piece.(3 marks)

    If a question has three or four marks assigned to it, then you are expected to make three or four different points.

    Basic answers

    Include the basic ideas:

    changing

    Excellent answers

    Develops the basic ideas above, adding more detail and using more precise musical vocabulary to fully describe the use of rhythm.

    - they are fragmented and erratic with no regular feeling of a beat.

    patterns feature including sextuplets, dotted, reverse dotted and double dotted rhythms, triplets are heard against duplets, constant syncopation etc.

    rhythmic ideas in the music, creating a sense of unrest and lack of order or chaos.

    Build Better Answers

    In addition to this set work, try to listen to other examples of a chorus movement found in Messiah by G.F. Handel, for example:

    And he shall purifyFor unto us a Child is bornGlory to GodSurely he hath borne our griefsHe trusted in GodHallelujah ChorusWorthy is the LambIt would also be good to listen to other Baroque Choruses, such as those found in the music of J.S. Bach (the chorus movements from St. John Passion, St. Matthew Passion) as well as many examples in other sacred Oratorios by Handel.

    Setting words to music

    In the vocal set work, we saw how Handel uses four different short melodies for each line of text and then combines them in different ways.

    1. Try setting the following poem by Cara Lockhart Smith in any style you wish (rock, pop, folk, classical) using a different melody for each line as shown.

    Zebediah Zidcup tune 1Puzzles in his head tune 2Round and round and round they go tune 3When he lies in bed tune 4

    Zebediah Zidcup tune 1Looking at the moon tune 2Round and round and round it goes tune 3Likewise does the sun tune 4

    Likewise do the elephants tune 4Likewise do the sheep tune 4Round and round and round they go tune 3Till they fall asleep tune 4

    Write for a solo voice, duet, trio or quartet and try to show some of the techniques that Handel uses:

    (polyphonic)

    8 9

    Set work 1: And the Glory of the Lord

  • Further listening

    Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600-1899

    Watch out!

    When listening and appraising pieces of music, it is important to give enough detail in your response.

    Typically, weak answers lack in real musical detail. For example:

    Question: Describe the texture of music.Answer: It is thin then becomes thicker.

    This just tells us that the texture changes. A better answer would be:

    At the start of the extract there is only a solo flute playing pianissimo. (creating a monophonic texture). A few bars later the texture and dynamics increase as the strings enter providing an accompaniment to the flute creating a fuller homophonic texture.

    Question: Describe the use of rhythm in this expressionistic piece.(3 marks)

    If a question has three or four marks assigned to it, then you are expected to make three or four different points.

    Basic answers

    Include the basic ideas:

    changing

    Excellent answers

    Develops the basic ideas above, adding more detail and using more precise musical vocabulary to fully describe the use of rhythm.

    - they are fragmented and erratic with no regular feeling of a beat.

    patterns feature including sextuplets, dotted, reverse dotted and double dotted rhythms, triplets are heard against duplets, constant syncopation etc.

    rhythmic ideas in the music, creating a sense of unrest and lack of order or chaos.

    Build Better Answers

    In addition to this set work, try to listen to other examples of a chorus movement found in Messiah by G.F. Handel, for example:

    And he shall purifyFor unto us a Child is bornGlory to GodSurely he hath borne our griefsHe trusted in GodHallelujah ChorusWorthy is the LambIt would also be good to listen to other Baroque Choruses, such as those found in the music of J.S. Bach (the chorus movements from St. John Passion, St. Matthew Passion) as well as many examples in other sacred Oratorios by Handel.

    Setting words to music

    In the vocal set work, we saw how Handel uses four different short melodies for each line of text and then combines them in different ways.

    1. Try setting the following poem by Cara Lockhart Smith in any style you wish (rock, pop, folk, classical) using a different melody for each line as shown.

    Zebediah Zidcup tune 1Puzzles in his head tune 2Round and round and round they go tune 3When he lies in bed tune 4

    Zebediah Zidcup tune 1Looking at the moon tune 2Round and round and round it goes tune 3Likewise does the sun tune 4

    Likewise do the elephants tune 4Likewise do the sheep tune 4Round and round and round they go tune 3Till they fall asleep tune 4

    Write for a solo voice, duet, trio or quartet and try to show some of the techniques that Handel uses:

    (polyphonic)

    8 9

    Set work 1: And the Glory of the Lord