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BIOLOGY INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

SUBMITTED BY:

INDEX

Sl.No

TOPIC

PAGE No.

1.

CERTIFICATE

04

2.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

05

3.

INTRODUCTION

06

4.

What is STRESS

07

5.

Types of stress

08

6.

Symptoms of stress

13

7.

Causes of stress

17

8.

Effects of stress

20

9.

Analytic data on stress

27

10.

Treatment

28

11.

Stress management

29

12.

Articles on stress

35

13.

Suggestion/conclusion

37

14.

bibliography

38

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the biology investigatory project on the topic: STRESS has been successfully completed by ---------------- of class XII under the guidance ------------------of in particular fulfillment of the curriculum of CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION [CBSE] leading to an award of annual examination of the year --------------

Teacher in charge Principal External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my parents, biology teacher -----------------------------and my friends for giving me support and guidance during the preparation of this project. Without their motivation and help, the successful completion of this project would not have been possible.

INTRODUCTION

Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives. Learning to identify when you are under stress, what is stressing you, and different ways of coping with stress can greatly improve both your mental and physical well being.

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. Stress is a type of psychological pain. Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy. Positive stress helps improve athletic performance. It also plays a factor in motivation, adaptation, and reaction to the environment. Excessive amounts of stress, however, may lead to bodily harm. Stress can increase the risk of strokes, heart attacks, ulcers, and mental illnesses such as depression.

Stress can be external and related to the environment, but may also be caused by internal perceptions that cause an individual to experience anxiety or other negative emotions surrounding a situation, such as pressure, discomfort, etc., which they then deem stressful. Humans experience stress, or perceive things as threatening, when they do not believe that their resources for coping with obstacles (stimuli, people, situations, etc.) are enough for what the circumstances demand. When people think the demands being placed on them exceed their ability to cope, they then perceive stress.

WHAT IS STRESS??

Stress is the body's reaction to any change that requires an adjustment or response. The body reacts to these changes with physical, mental, and emotional responses. Stress is a normal part of life. You can experience stress from your environment, your body, and your thoughts. Even positive life changes such as a promotion, a mortgage, or the birth of a child produce stress.

Stress is a conscious or unconscious psychological feeling or physical condition resulting from physical or mental 'positive or negative pressure' that overwhelms adaptive capacities. It is a psychological process initiated by events that threaten, harm or challenge an organism or that exceed available coping resources and it is characterized by psychological responses that are directed towards adaptation. Stress is wear and tear on the body in response to stressful agents. Hans Selye a Hungarian endocrinologist known for his studies of the effects of stress on the human body. , called such agents stressors and said they could be physical, physiological, psychological or socio-cultural. And stress is not an anxiety disorder and it is not a normative concept.

A person typically is stressed when positive or negative (e.g., threatening) experiences temporarily strain or overwhelm adaptive capacities. Stress is highly individualized and depends on variables such as the novelty, rate, intensity, duration, or personal interpretation of the input, and genetic or experiential factors. Both acute and chronic stress can intensify morbidity from anxiety disorders. One person's fun may be another person's stressor. For an example, panic attacks are more frequent when the predisposed person is exposed to stressors.

TYPES OF STRESS

In a broader perspective, Stress is classified into three different types of stress :

1) Acute stress

This type of stress is short-term and is the most common way that stress occurs. Acute stress is often caused by thinking about the pressures of events that have recently occurred, or upcoming demands in the near future. Acute stress disorder occurs in individuals without any other apparent psychiatric disorder, in response to exceptional physical or psychological stress. While severe, such reactions usually subside within hours or days. The stress may be an overwhelming traumatic experience (e.g. accident, battle, physical assault, rape) or unusually sudden change in social circumstances of the individual, such as multiple bereavement. Individual vulnerability and coping capacity play a role in the occurrence and severity of acute stress reactions, as evidenced by the fact that not all people exposed to exceptional stress develop symptoms. However, an acute stress disorder falls under the class of an anxiety disorder.

However, repeated instances of acute stress over a long period can become chronic and harmful.

2) Episodic acute stress

People, who frequently experience acute stress, or whose lives present frequent triggers of stress, have episodic acute stress.

A person with too many commitments and poor organization can find themselves displaying episodic stress symptoms. The individuals who frequently suffer acute stress often live a life of chaos and crisis. They are always in a rush or feel pressured. They take on many responsibilities, and usually cannot stay organized with so many time demands. These individuals are perpetually in the grips of acute stress overload. These include a tendency to be irritable and tense, and this irritability can affect relationships. Individuals that worry too much on a constant basis can also find themselves facing this type of stress.

This type of stress can also lead to high blood pressure and heart disease.

3) Chronic stress

Chronic stress is the most harmful type of stress. If chronic stress is left untreated over a long period of time, it can significantly and often irreversibly damage your physical health and deteriorate your mental health.

Ongoing poverty, a dysfunctional family, or an unhappy marriage can cause chronic stress. It occurs when a person never sees an escape from the cause of stress and stops seeking solutions. Sometimes, it can be caused by a traumatic experience early in life. Chronic stress can also set in when an individual feels hopeless, does not see an escape from the cause of stress, and gives up on seeking solutions.

Chronic stress can be caused by aversive experiences in childhood or traumatic experiences later in life. Chronic stress can continue unnoticed, as people can become used to it, unlike acute stress that is new and often has an immediate solution. It can become part of an individual's personality, making them constantly prone to the effects of stress regardless of the scenarios they come up against.

Chronic stress is grinding stress.  It wears people away day after day, year after year. Chronic stress destroys lives, bodies, and minds. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. It is the stress of poverty, dysfunctional families, violence,  abuse, trauma, despised job, ethnic rivalry, war.

People with chronic stress have the list of signs and symptoms previously mentioned, but the signs and symptoms are chronic and can result in a physical and mental breakdown that can lead to suicide, violent actions, homicide, psychosis, heart attacks, and strokes.

Apart from the above, over the period of time, consultants and experts have found various other types of stress, such as :

Dr Karl Albrecht, a management consultant & a pioneer in the development of stress-reduction training for business people based in California, defined four common types of stress, they are:

1. Time Stress

You experience time stress when you worry about time, or the lack thereof. You worry about the number of things that you have to do, and you fear that you'll fail to achieve something important. You might feel trapped, unhappy, or even hopeless.

Common examples of time stress include worrying about deadlines or rushing to avoid being late for a meeting.

2. Anticipatory Stress

Anticipatory stress describes stress that you experience concerning the future. Sometimes this stress can be focused on a specific event, such as an upcoming presentation that you're going to give. However, anticipatory stress can also be vague and undefined, such as an overall sense of dread about the future, or a worry that "something will go wrong."

3. Situational Stress

You experience situational stress when you're in a scary situation that you have no control over. This could be an emergency. More commonly, however, it's a situation that involves conflict, or a loss of status or acceptance in the eyes of your group. Fo

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