Roll: 0520 No. : 20017
Netaji Vidyapith Rly H.S Schol
I thank the staff of the Computer Science department and laboratories for the help and guidance provided to me during this investigatory project. I also thank the school Principal for permitting the use of the lab and other resources of the school required for completing the project.
Name of the Candidate: B.Gireesam
Roll Number: 0520- 200217
Registration No. : 128259
Netaji Vidyapith Rly H.S School
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
NETAJI VIDYAPITH RLY. H.S SCHOOL
This is to certify that the Computer Science & Application investigatory project had been submitted by the candidate ____B.Gireesam____ with roll number __0520-20017_ for the class XII practical examination of the Assam Higher Secondary Education Council in the year 2014.
It is further certified that this project is the individual work of the candidate.
1) Introduction to Internet
a) Networking Concept
b) OSI Layering Model
2) Introduction to Program methodology
b) Two examples of flowchart
3) Introduction to C language
4) Introduction to C++ language
a) Concept of class object
b) Member Function
5) Two C++ Programs
1. INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET
By the turn of the century, information, including access to the Internet, will be the basis for personal, economic, and political advancement. The popular name for the Internet is the information superhighway. Whether you want to find the latest financial news, browse through library catalogs, exchange information with colleagues, or join in a lively political debate, the Internet is the tool that will take you beyond telephones, faxes, and isolated computers to a burgeoning networked information frontier.
The Internet supplements the traditional tools you use to gather information, Data Graphics, News and correspond with other people. Used skillfully, the Internet shrinks the world and brings information, expertise, and knowledge on nearly every subject imaginable straight to your computer.
What is the Internet?
The Internet links are computer networks all over the world so that users can share resources and communicate with each other. Some computers, have direct access to all the facilities on the Internet such as the universities. And other computers, eg privately-owned ones, have indirect links through a commercial service provider, who offers some or all of the Internet facilities. In order to be connected to Internet, you must go through service suppliers. Many options are offered with monthly rates. Depending on the option chosen, access time may vary.
The Internet is what we call a metanetwork, that is, a network of networks that spans the globe. It's impossible to give an exact count of the number of networks or users that comprise the Internet, but it is easily in the thousands and millions respectively. The Internet employs a set of standardized protocols which allow for the sharing of resources among different kinds of computers that communicate with each other on the network. These standards, sometimes referred to as the Internet Protocol Suite, are the rules that developers adhere to when creating new functions for the Internet.
The Internet is also what we call a distributed system; there is no central archives. Technically, no one runs the Internet. Rather, the Internet is made up of thousands of smaller networks. The Internet thrives and develops as its many users find new ways to create, display and retrieve the information that constitutes the Internet.
History & Development of the Internet:
In its infancy, the Internet was originally conceived by the Department of Defense as a way to protect government communications systems in the event of a military strike. The original network, dubbed ARPANet (for the Advanced Research Projects Agency that developed it) evolved into a communications channel among contractors, military personnel, and university researchers who were contributing to ARPA projects.
The network employed a set of standard protocols to create an effective way for these people to communicate and share data with each other.
ARPAnet's popularity continued to spread among researchers, and in the 1980's the National Science Foundation, whose NSFNet, linked several high speed computers, took charge of the what had come to be known as the Internet.
By the late 1980's, thousands of cooperating networks were participating in the Internet.
In 1991, the U.S. High Performance Computing Act established the NREN (National Research & Education Network). NREN's goal was to develop and maintain high-speed networks for research and education, and to investigate commercial uses for the Internet.
The rest, as they say, is history in the making. The Internet has been improved through the developments of such services as Gopher and the World Wide Web.
Even though the Internet is predominantly thought of as a research oriented network, it continues to grow as an informational, creative, and commercial resource every day and all over the world.
· NETWORKING CONCEPT
What Is a Computer Network?
In the broadest sense, a network is any interconnected group of people or things capable of sharing meaningful information with one another. In a technology context, network is usually short for "computer network" or "data network" and implies that computers are the things sharing the meaningful information. At a conceptual level, all data networks consist of nodes, which refers to any computer or digital device using the network and links, the physical connections (either wired or wireless) that carry messages between nodes.
Data networks are important to all contemporary organizations because they provide faster, easier access to any message or data that can be represented and stored in digital format. For example, when your colleagues and predecessors research an issue relevant to your organization and share their data and conclusions with you in a data format your computer recognizes, you can copy key information from their report into your own, saving yourself significant amounts of time (of course, you're always sure to give credit where it's due). If the colleague whose work you're relying on works in the same cubicle as you and they remember where they've stored the relevant report, a network may not offer significant advantages since you can turn to him or he and ask for the file on a CD or USB flash drive. However, in many organizations, large distances separate co-workers, and data sharing becomes a significant logistical problem in the absence of a network.
In addition to data sharing, computer networks also enable resource sharing, an important consideration in all budget-conscious charities and organizations. Rather than buying one printer for every employee and replacing them when they wear out, an organization with a network can buy a single printer, connect it to the network, and configure it in such a way that every computer user in the organization can print to it. The initial cost of a networked printer is usually more than the cost of a single desktop printer, but when considering costs on a per-user basis, the average cost of the networked printer is often much less than the cost of buying a printer for every employee. While some networked devices such as printers, scanners, and fax machines have predetermined, specialized functions, you can also network and share generic, unspecialized computing power in the form of servers. Servers are large, powerful computers that can handle resource-intensive tasks more efficiently than desktop computers. As with the networked printer, the initial outlay for a server is more than that for a desktop computer, but across the organization, it's often cheaper to run the server-based version of a program since individual users won't need expensive, high-performance desktop and laptop computers. Servers can also deploy software to other networked machines at a lower cost.
Roles and Responsibilities:
Networks also vary considerably in terms of the roles and responsibilities of the computers on that network and the relationships that tie those machines together. A computer totally disconnected from other devices is typically referred to as a standalone machine.
When several computers are interconnected, but no computer occupies a privileged position, the network is usually referred to as a peer-to-peer network. In this type of network, every computer can communicate with all the other machines on the network, but in general each one stores its own files and runs its own applications.
With a client-server network, one or more servers will perform critical functions on behalf of the other machines (the clients) on the network. These functions might include user authentication, data storage, and the running of large, shared, resource-intensive applications such as databases and client relationship management (CRM) software. Typically, both peer-to-peer and client-server networks rely on a shared Internet connection for access to external resources of these basic network structures.
Another type of network that's been rapidly gaining in popularity over the past decade is the cloud-based network. In this model, an organization pays a third-p