Designing Smart Meters for the Smart Grid - NXP or wired network used for load control and dynamic ... Electric Car Broad-range Smart ... Designing Smart Meters for the Smart Grid ...

  • Published on
    08-Feb-2018

  • View
    218

  • Download
    4

Transcript

<ul><li><p>TM</p><p>Designing Smart Meters for the Smart GridMeera BalakrishnanGlobal Segment Marketing Smart Metering</p><p>Martin MienkinaSystem Application Engineer</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>Agenda</p><p> Intro to Freescale in Smart Grids</p><p> Energy Metering Technology and Solution Trends</p><p> An Effective Metering System on Chip Based Solutions </p><p> Enablement</p><p> Summary</p><p>Designing Smart Meters for the Smart Grid</p><p>1</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>Freescale Solutions Enable the Smart Grid </p><p> #1 Appliances</p><p> Home Automation</p><p> #1 in Automotive Building Control</p><p> Metering</p><p> Lighting</p><p> Industrial Control</p><p> Motor Drives</p><p>Communications</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>Freescale in Smart Energy</p><p>Distribution HANNAN</p><p> 802.15.4g</p><p> OFDM</p><p> WiMax</p><p> Zigbee</p><p> WiFi</p><p> M-Bus</p><p> PLM</p><p>HAN (Home Area Network): </p><p>Wireless or wired network used for load control and dynamic </p><p>response by utilities</p><p> Electric meter communicating with T-Stats, appliances, water </p><p>heaters, pool pumps, electric hybrids, etc. (Load Control)</p><p> Send pricing signals to consumers for smarter energy </p><p>consumption (Demand Response)</p><p>Metrology:</p><p>Hardware that </p><p>measures and </p><p>controls flow of </p><p>energy to/from </p><p>building</p><p>Hot</p><p>Water</p><p>HeaterThermostat</p><p>Renewable</p><p>Energy</p><p> GPRS </p><p> WiMax</p><p>Electric</p><p>Car</p><p>Broad-range Smart Energy Solutions Provider: Metrology and home gateway solutions closer to home </p><p> Data aggregators, grid routers, grid protection on grid end</p><p> Secure, easy-to-use wireless networks </p><p> Energy savings, Reduced costs</p><p> Increasing security, reliability &amp; transparency</p><p>NAN HAN</p><p>Metrology</p><p>WAN</p><p>WAN NAN</p><p>Data Concentrator</p><p>(Aggregator)Energy Gateway</p><p>HAN</p><p>Zigbee</p><p>Zigbee</p><p>Data Concentrator (Aggregator): </p><p>Sends data collected (or commands) </p><p>to and from Neighbor Area Network </p><p>(NAN) or Home Area Network (HAN) </p><p>to utility</p><p>Appliances</p><p>Grid Power Protection, </p><p>Relay/Switch Control and </p><p>Monitoring</p><p>Grid Power supervision, control </p><p>and network protection system </p><p>solutions; Protective Relays and </p><p>Switches control for Power Grid</p><p>3</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>NANUtility</p><p> 802.15.4g</p><p> OFDM</p><p> WiMax</p><p> GPRS </p><p> WiMax</p><p> Low End Metering Microcontrollers </p><p>9S08LL/LH/ACWater, Gas &amp; Heat</p><p> 9S08LL, 9S08GW</p><p> Smart 1-3ph Metering MCF51EM256 Kinetis MK30 Kinetis MK10</p><p> Data Concentrator (Aggregator) P20x0 P10xx MPC831x MPC8308 i.MX</p><p> Interfaces to NAN 802.15.4g Radio WiMax</p><p>Interfaces to Utility WiMax GPRS DLMS/COSEM library</p><p> Smart Energy Gateway MPC8308 i.MX</p><p> HAN Interfaces ZigBee WiFi GPRS M-Bus HomePlug Green PHY</p><p> Appliance Technology 8-32bit MCUs &amp; DSPs Touch Sensor</p><p> RF4CE (wireless control)</p><p>Utility / NAN Metrology Home Area Network (HAN)</p><p>WAN NAN</p><p>Data Concentrator</p><p>(Aggregator)</p><p>NAN HAN</p><p>Metrology HAN</p><p> Zigbee</p><p> WiFi</p><p> M-Bus</p><p> PLM</p><p>Water</p><p>HeaterThermostat</p><p>Renewable </p><p>EnergyElectric</p><p>Car</p><p>Energy Gateway</p><p>HAN</p><p>Zigbee</p><p>Zigbee</p><p>Smart </p><p>Appliance</p><p>s</p><p>Freescale Solutions for Smart Energy</p><p>4</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>Agenda</p><p> Intro to Freescale in Smart Grids</p><p> Energy Metering Technology and Solution Trends</p><p> An Effective Metering System on Chip Based Solutions </p><p> Enablement</p><p> Summary</p><p>Designing Smart Meters for the Smart Grid</p><p>5</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>Market Trend Trend Description Portfolio Alignment</p><p>Peripherals Integration</p><p>Focus on cost driving higher levels of integration. Cost Reduction is forcing integration - Integration of high-resolution Analog Front End (ADC) into a single processor</p><p>Kinetis MK30, ADC with PGA</p><p>MCF51EM256 with ADC integrated;</p><p>Increasing Memory Size and Security Needs</p><p>Larger Flash memory (up to 1MB) driven by Communications + Metrology for an AMR Meter</p><p>Need for Security throughout the Smart Grid</p><p>Kinetis Portfolio</p><p>CAU and support of Anti-Tampering</p><p>Wired and Wireless Protocols</p><p>Wired and Wireless communications are the key technologies used in todays AMI and AMR designs</p><p>MC1322x Zigbee SEP and HAP</p><p>Greater Accuracy with Low Power Consumption</p><p>With the shift to electrical gas and water meters, power consumption is a key decision factor due to battery life requirements and costs</p><p>9S08GW family suitable for gas, water meter applications.</p><p>Communication Within Home</p><p>Home energy gateway will be key for consumers to keep track of and control energy usage</p><p>i.MX283 and MPC8308 Energy gateway</p><p>Emerging Applications that need interface to smart grids</p><p>Intelligent appliances within the home, micro-grid generation (solar cells), Plug-in Hybrid vehicles require appropriate interface and measurement technologies</p><p>Digital Signal Controller portfolio . Working closely with industry leaders to further develop solutions in this space.</p><p>Smart Grids Infrastructure development</p><p>Protocols emerging for control and communication of various components in Smart Grids </p><p>High-end Networking products (MPC83xx, QoRIQ support IEEE 1588, Ethernet, Security</p><p>Key Technology and Solution Trends in Metering</p><p>6</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>Energy Meter Types and Measurements</p><p>Electromechanical meters</p><p> Limited accuracy</p><p> Manual reading</p><p> Contains moving parts (aluminum ring)</p><p>Electronic meters</p><p> MCUs, DSPs and ASICs based</p><p> Accurate measurement</p><p> Enhanced security</p><p> Equipped with AMR</p><p> No moving parts</p><p>Electricity Meter Types</p><p>Single phase</p><p> Common in EU residential meters</p><p> One voltage and one current measurement</p><p> Use of shunt resistors prevail due to system low-cost</p><p>Dual phase</p><p> Common in US residential meters</p><p> Two voltage and two current measurement</p><p> Use of current transformers and Rogowski coils prevail</p><p>Three phase</p><p> Used in industrial and commercial meters</p><p> Three voltage and three current measurement</p><p> Use of current transformers and Rogowski coils prevail</p><p>Measurement Types</p><p> Active, Reactive, Apparent Energy</p><p> Active, Reactive, Apparent Power</p><p> RMS, Peak Values (voltage/current) </p><p> Line frequency</p><p> Power Factor</p><p> Temperature</p><p>Measured Quantities</p><p>7</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>Agenda</p><p> Intro to Freescale in Smart Grids</p><p> Energy Metering Technology and Solution Trends</p><p> An Effective Metering System on Chip Based Solutions </p><p> Enablement</p><p> Summary</p><p>Designing Smart Meters for the Smart Grid</p><p>8</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>3-P</p><p>hase</p><p>Flo</p><p>w1-P</p><p>hase</p><p>99</p><p>Connectivity</p><p>1Q11 1Q111Q11</p><p>1-Phase Meter</p><p>MCF51EM256</p><p>Integrated AFE</p><p>Low Cost Meter</p><p>9RS08KA8/LA8</p><p>Simulation </p><p>DEMOEM</p><p>MCF51EM256</p><p>Low Cost Meter</p><p>9S08LL/LG32Low Cost Meter</p><p>9S08LH64</p><p>Integrated AFE</p><p>Water Meter</p><p>9S08LL16/ </p><p>9S08GW64</p><p>Gas Meter</p><p>9S08LL16/ </p><p>9S08GW64</p><p>Heat Meter</p><p>9S08LL16/ </p><p>9S08GW64</p><p>1-Phase Meter</p><p>9S08GW64</p><p>Ga</p><p>tew</p><p>ay/</p><p>Concentr</p><p>ato</p><p>r</p><p>802.15.4/Zigbee</p><p>MC1322x</p><p>1-Phase Meter</p><p>MZ60</p><p>3-Phase Meter </p><p>MCF51EM256</p><p>1-Phase Meter</p><p>MK30X256</p><p>see next </p><p>slides</p><p>Smart Grid &amp; Metering </p><p>Reference Designs</p><p>Data concentrator</p><p>MPC8308</p><p>Data Concentrator</p><p>MC5441xEnergy Gateway</p><p>MPC8308</p><p>Energy Gateway </p><p>i.MX28</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>10</p><p>3-Phase MCF51EM256 Electricity Meter Features</p><p> Configurable to operate in: Three phase, 4 wire (3-4W)</p><p> One phase, 1 wire (1-2W)</p><p> One phase, 1 wire (1 -3W)</p><p> Measurement &amp; LCD display: US and European voltage: 120V+/- 20%, 230V +/- 10%</p><p> US and European current: 100A US, 60A Europe </p><p> Phase RMS Voltage (Accuracy 1% of full Scale)</p><p> Phase RMS Currents (Accuracy 1% of full scale)</p><p> Active Power (Accuracy 1% of full Scale)</p><p> Reactive Power (Accuracy 1% of full Scale)</p><p> Apparent Power (Accuracy 1% of full Scale)</p><p> Power Factor (Accuracy 0.1PF or better)</p><p> Line Frequency (Accuracy 0.5Hz or better)</p><p> Tamper Count</p><p> Active Energy - Class 0.5 or better </p><p> Reactive energy - Class 2 or better</p><p> Apparent Energy - Class 2 or better</p><p> Operating frequency range 50Hz 3Hz or 60Hz 3Hz</p><p> Tamper Detection</p><p> Optical Port Interface (IEC62056-21, ANSI C12.18)</p><p> Serial port for calibration and diagnostics</p><p> Navigation using 3 keys (UP, DOWN &amp; ACK/RESET)</p><p> Expansion port for AMR via SCI and SPI</p><p>Find the poly-phase reference design at www.freescale.com/metering</p><p>RS-232</p><p>Diagnostic/Debug </p><p>Port</p><p>Optical</p><p>Port</p><p>Te</p><p>rmin</p><p>al B</p><p>lock</p><p>(Vo</p><p>ltag</p><p>e &amp;</p><p>Cu</p><p>rre</p><p>nt In</p><p>pu</p><p>ts)</p><p>CTs</p><p>Potential</p><p>Divider</p><p>Battery</p><p>(RTC)</p><p>Door Open </p><p>Tamper Detect</p><p>Input</p><p>Power </p><p>ON</p><p>LED</p><p> Tamper </p><p>Detect</p><p>LED Level </p><p>Shifter</p><p>kWh</p><p>LED</p><p>kVARh</p><p>LED</p><p>3.3V</p><p>Key PadEnter/</p><p>Save</p><p>Up</p><p>IV</p><p>Down</p><p>IV</p><p>Power Fail </p><p>Interrupt</p><p>3.3V</p><p>LCD</p><p>OSC 1</p><p>32.768 </p><p>kHz</p><p>RS-232</p><p>Transceiver</p><p>Opto Isolator</p><p>Iso1_3.3V</p><p>OSC 2</p><p>1- 16 MHz</p><p>REF</p><p>REF</p><p>Voltage Signal </p><p>Conditioning Circuit</p><p>(ADC Inputs)</p><p>3.3V</p><p>Optical Drive </p><p>Circuit</p><p>3.3V</p><p>MCU</p><p>(100 Pin)</p><p>KBILCD ModuleIRTC</p><p>AD</p><p>C</p><p>ICS</p><p>GP</p><p>IO</p><p>SC</p><p>I2S</p><p>CI1</p><p>SC</p><p>I3 &amp;</p><p>SP</p><p>I3</p><p>SPI1 GPIO TPMCH1</p><p>GP</p><p>IO</p><p>3.3V</p><p>BD M</p><p>BDM </p><p>Port</p><p>Op</p><p>to Iso</p><p>lato</p><p>r</p><p>ZCD</p><p>3.3V</p><p>Op</p><p>to </p><p>Isola</p><p>tor</p><p>Iso1_3.3V</p><p>Iso1_3.3V</p><p>Reference </p><p>Generator</p><p>3.3V</p><p>LEGENDPGNDDGND</p><p>Battery</p><p>LEDs</p><p>Iso2_3.3VIso1_3.3V</p><p>3.3V</p><p>Power Supply</p><p>AC-DC Converter</p><p>Iso1_3.3V Iso2_3.3V</p><p>Gain Control</p><p>3.3V</p><p>Iso2_3.3V</p><p>Current Signal </p><p>Conditioning Circuit</p><p>(ADC Inputs)</p><p>3.3V</p><p>OFDM Power Line </p><p>MODEM &amp; 802.15.4 </p><p>RF Interface </p><p>With AMR Interface </p><p>Connector</p><p>Iso2_3.3V</p><p>MRAM/</p><p>EEPROM</p><p>(Serial)</p><p>3.3V</p><p>Level </p><p>Shifter</p><p>3.3V</p><p>3.3V</p><p>http://www.freescale.com/metering</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>11</p><p>Processing Steps: Phase voltages and currents are sampled 128 </p><p>times per cycle.</p><p> First buffer used for storing samples and the second for samples post processing. </p><p> At any given point of time, one buffer is collecting measured samples while data from the second buffer are processed by the Metering Algorithms.</p><p> Wherever 128 samples are measured and stored in the buffer the Metering Algorithms are initiated.</p><p> Routines of the Metering Algorithms:</p><p> Sum of squares of phase voltage samples</p><p> Sum of squares of phase current samples</p><p> Dot Product of phase voltage and current samples</p><p> Dot Product of quarter cycle shifted phase voltage and current samples. </p><p> Finally accumulated quantities are used for calculation Line to neutral phase voltages, Phase currents, Active and Reactive powers, Apparent power, Power Factor, Active and Reactive energies.</p><p>3-Phase MCF51EM256 Electricity Meter Metrology</p><p>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7</p><p>u(0) u(1) . u(127)</p><p>Voltage cycle</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>MCF51EM256/128 Overview ColdFire V1 32-bit Core with Multiply Accumulate unit</p><p> Up to 50.33 MHz system clock</p><p> 32-bit MAC (16x16 signed/unsigned)</p><p> Provides enough throughput for application and connectivity</p><p> Independent Real Time Clock (RTC)</p><p> Operates from an independent power supply, even during power outages when other MCU systems are not powered</p><p> Consumes very little power, down to &lt; 1.5A</p><p> Robust Firmware Update</p><p> Meter continues to operate from one Flash block, while other is updated and verified with new firmware</p><p> Flash block swap reliably completes firmware update</p><p> Tamper Detection</p><p> Detects and records tamper attempt even during power off</p><p> Detects and records attempts to disconnect backup battery</p><p> Four 16-bit high speed SAR ADCs</p><p> Support simultaneous sampling of four analogue inputs</p><p> 1 differential and 4 to 7 single ended inputs per ADC</p><p> Include phase shift compensation needed with reactive load</p><p> LCD Controller</p><p> Supports a wide range of displays, up to 288 segments</p><p> Up to 8 backplanes reduces number of pins and system cost</p><p>MCF51EM256 documentation: www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/prod_summary.jsp?code=MCF51EM</p><p>12</p><p>http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/prod_summary.jsp?code=MCF51EM</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>ADC1</p><p>ADC2</p><p>ADC3</p><p>ADC4</p><p>Ch</p><p>1C</p><p>h2</p><p>Ch</p><p>3C</p><p>h4</p><p>PreTriggerA</p><p>PreTriggerB</p><p>COCOA</p><p>COCOB</p><p>DADP1DADP1DADM1DADM1 Reg. A: Live 1 CTResult A</p><p>Result B</p><p>Result AResult B</p><p>Result AResult B</p><p>Result AResult B</p><p>AD3AD3</p><p>AD4AD4</p><p>Reg. B: Live 1 Voltage</p><p>Reg. C: auxiliary 1.</p><p>DADP2DADP2DADM2DADM2 Reg. A: Live 2 CT</p><p>AD5AD5 Reg. B: Live 2 Voltage</p><p>DADP0DADP0DADM0DADM0 Reg. A: Live 3 CT</p><p>AD6AD6 Reg. B: Live 3 Voltage</p><p>DADP3DADP3DADM3DADM3 Reg. A: Neutral CT</p><p>AD7AD7 Reg. B: auxiliary 2.</p><p>VREF0VREFHVREFLBandgapTemp Sensor</p><p>Trigger</p><p>PDB</p><p>TriggerA</p><p>TriggerB</p><p>PreTriggerA</p><p>PreTriggerB</p><p>COCOA</p><p>COCOB</p><p>TriggerA</p><p>TriggerB</p><p>PreTriggerA</p><p>PreTriggerB</p><p>COCOA</p><p>COCOB</p><p>TriggerA</p><p>TriggerB</p><p>PreTriggerA</p><p>PreTriggerB</p><p>COCOA</p><p>COCOB</p><p>TriggerA</p><p>TriggerB</p><p>Programmable Delay Block Usage in Application</p><p>PDB - ADC Integration</p><p>Duration of the first ADC conversion (Reg. A)Start possible for second ADC (Reg. B)</p><p>13</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>14</p><p>Secure Flash Update New Firmware Update</p><p>Application</p><p>0</p><p>Power calculation</p><p>Comms Routine</p><p>Interrupt Vectors</p><p>128K</p><p>Update</p><p>Application</p><p>space</p><p>Power calculation - copy</p><p>Comms Routine - copy</p><p>Interrupt Vectors - copy</p><p>256K</p><p>Flash Selector = 0</p><p>Old</p><p>Application </p><p>Power calculation</p><p>Comms Routine</p><p>Interrupt Vectors</p><p>256K</p><p>Updated</p><p>Application </p><p>Power calculation - copy</p><p>Comms Routine - copy</p><p>Interrupt Vectors - copy</p><p>128K</p><p>Flash Selector = 1</p><p>0</p><p>Notes</p><p> After MCU POR &amp; RTC POR, flash selector = 0</p><p> Flash selector is powered by RTC power supply</p><p> MCU reset does NOT change state</p><p> Power is maintained through MCU power cycles</p><p> Only upper flash block is erased / written</p><p> Software controlled switch between blocks, instantaneous (~40nS)</p><p> Flash can be used as a single code space</p><p>Blo</p><p>ck 1</p><p>Blo</p><p>ck 0</p><p>Blo</p><p>ck 0</p><p>Blo</p><p>ck 1</p><p>Non volatile Non volatile</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>MCF51EM256 - Features for E-metering</p><p>Needs MCF51EM256 Solution</p><p>Computational </p><p>Power</p><p>ColdFire V1 core with MAC unit.</p><p>(core speeds up to 50.33 MHz 3.6 V to 2.5 V and 20 MHz at </p><p>2.5 V to 1.8 V)</p><p>Low Power Less than 1.09mA/MHz Run Current (all modules off)Typical 1.5 A power consumption in battery mode</p><p>Data Storage From 128KB to 256KB of Flash (Dual Flash Bank)From 8KB to 16KB of RAM </p><p>Flash Update Flash Swap, Security and Protection.</p><p>User Interface Embedded 4x40 LCD display driver (3V or 5V glass).</p><p>Communication Up to 3 UARTS, 3 SPIs and 1 IIC.</p><p>Time Keeping Independent RTC with separate time base, power domain, 32 bytes of RAM and crystal compensation (correction </p><p>range ~ .12ppm .. ~ 3900ppm)</p><p>Analog </p><p>Modules</p><p>Integrated four 16-bit analog-to-digital converters (14.5 </p><p>ENOB @ differential mode). </p><p>Two HSCMP. </p><p>Built-in 1.2 V reference 33 ppm/C with dedicated output pin.</p><p>Other HW CRC module supporting fast cyclic redundancy checks.</p><p>Programmable Delay Block supporting current sensor </p><p>phase shift compensation.</p><p>Built-in temperature sensor.</p><p>Built-in clock check test mechanism.</p><p>Watchdog clocked from independent internal clock (1kHz).</p><p>15</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>3-P</p><p>hase</p><p>Flo</p><p>w1-P</p><p>hase</p><p>1-Phase Meter</p><p>MK30X256</p><p>1616</p><p>Connectivity</p><p>1Q11 1Q111Q11</p><p>1-Phase Meter</p><p>MCF51EM256</p><p>Integrated AFE</p><p>Low Cost Meter</p><p>9RS08KA8/LA8</p><p>Simulation </p><p>DEMOEM</p><p>MCF51EM256</p><p>Low Cost Meter</p><p>9S08LL/LG32Low Cost Meter</p><p>9S08LH64</p><p>Integrated AFE</p><p>Water Meter</p><p>9S08LL16/ </p><p>9S08GW64</p><p>Gas Meter</p><p>9S08LL16/ </p><p>9S08GW64</p><p>Heat Meter</p><p>9S08LL16/ </p><p>9S08GW64</p><p>1-Phase Meter</p><p>9S08GW64</p><p>Ga</p><p>tew</p><p>ay/</p><p>Concentr</p><p>ato</p><p>r</p><p>802.15.4/Zigbee</p><p>MC1322x</p><p>1-Phase Meter</p><p>MZ60</p><p>3-Phase Meter </p><p>MCF51EM256</p><p>see next </p><p>slides</p><p>Smart Grid &amp; Metering </p><p>Reference Designs</p><p>Data concentrator</p><p>MPC8308</p><p>Data Concentrator</p><p>MC5441xEnergy Gateway</p><p>MPC8308</p><p>Energy Gateway </p><p>i.MX28</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p> Precision (accuracy): IEC50470-3 class B, 1%</p><p> Voltage range 85264 VRMS Current Range 0120 ARMS Frequency range 4763 Hz</p><p> Functionality V, A, kW, kVAR, kVA, kWh, kVARh, Hz, cos, real-time clock</p><p> Voltage sensor Voltage divider</p><p> Current sensor (according to ordering code) Shunt 120 </p><p> Energy output pulse interface two red LEDs (active and reactive)</p><p> Opto-isolated pulse output (optional) opto-coupler (active energy)</p><p> User interface (HMI) LCD, 3 buttons (tamper, 2 users), 1 user LED (yellow)</p><p> Infrared interface (optional) for metering data reading (IEC1107)</p><p> RS232 serial interface Opto-isolated, 19200 Bd, 8 data bit, 1 stop bit, no parity</p><p> ZigBee interface (optional) 2.4GHz RF 1322x-SRB internal module. Other protocols supported too.</p><p> Internal battery 3V, CR2032 type</p><p>In preparation available from www.freescale.com/metering in Q1/2011</p><p>1-Phase MK30X256 Based Electricity Meter - Features</p><p>by courtesy ofZhongshan Weiqi Electronic</p><p>17</p><p>http://www.freescale.com/metering</p></li><li><p>TM</p><p>1-Phase MK30X256 Based Electricity Meter Metrology 1 of 2.</p><p> Using FFT algorithm for power computing. F...</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >